Radial drilling (RD) technique utilizes hydraulic energy to create several lateral holes in different directions and levels with several lengths. These lateral holes are made by milling the casing with small bit then extending these holes laterally using high pressure hydraulic jetting. Successful case histories of radial drilling technique in some part of the world were discussed. The candidate recognition for proper well selection which is the key for successful application of this technology was carefully examined. Some Niger Delta reservoir geological and mechanical parameters were collected and thoroughly screened to identify the possibility of increasing the well potentials of mature/brown fields using radial drilling technique. In this paper emphasis has been given to study the process of radial drilling technology, its advantages, overcoming its limitation, its usage in the recovery of left out crude oil from existing reservoirs especially those from brown fields.
Belayim Land Field, located in the Gulf of Suez Egypt, is a giant brown oil field, characterized by medium viscous oil, currently developed by means of peripheral seawater injection. Several chemical EOR processes were investigated to increase oil production and maximize ultimate recovery. Among them, polymer flooding application was selected to improve the mobility ratio, leading to an increased oil recovery. An intensive work has been done starting from laboratory studies for proper polymer selection and characterization, tertiary core-floods with polymer solution, to a sector model. Later on a pilot test was designed to evaluate the EOR potential at the reservoir-scale before a polymer flooding full field project is implemented to address uncertainties and risks. Pilot project for polymer flooding has been established in Belayim Land Field, polymer injection has been started effectively in Feb-16 with an injection rate of 1,000 BPD and a polymer concentration of 1,500 ppm, therefore, a detailed surveillance and monitoring program has been prepared and implemented. This program was guided by way forward road maps that target injection, flooding performance, and production assessment.
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the work done from the design phase till pilot project implementation and start up, to present the lessons learned and best practices for operation’s continual improvement of such processes and to highlight also that quality-control is an essential element for the successful implementation of a polymer-water-flooding project. The monitoring program should include, but not limited, the routine verification of polymer concentration, routine determination of the viscosity, and periodical check of the thermal and chemical stability of the polymer.
Typically, about 70% of most proven oil reserves in the world remain untapped after primary drive mechanisms. Even after applying extensive waterflooding (secondary recovery) project, there remains a significant amount of the oil resource unrecovered as a result of reservoir heterogeneity and complex geology.
The applications of both inorganic and organic acids are to dissolve scales and increase the permeability of carbonate and sandstone formations, during processes like de-scaling, completion and stimulation. The use of a novel non-corrosive de-scaling agent, instead of hydrochloric acid, was evaluated to remove calcium carbonate and iron scale depositions found downhole near wellbore area, besides scaling issues, high H2S concentration, were detected in this well. The well produced from sidri formation, which account for 23 % of the total Belayim land Field OOIP and currently contributes 27% to the total production. Extensive lab studies were conducted to determine the chemical’s dissolution effectiveness for the collected downhole samples, effect of non-corrosive de-scaling agent on sandstone minerals and corrosion properties on carbon steel tubulars in the presence of hydrogen sulphide gas. The results proved that the chemical was able to dissolve more than 80% of calcite and iron scales without any effect on sandstone minerals and completion after twelve hours soaking at reservoir temperature and pressure. The treatment application did not require additional additives such as corrosion inhibitors, intensifiers, iron control agents, etc. The success of this treatment was realized by additional gain of 300 BOPD and increasing the run life of the well. The field application data, along with the lab data, confirms that the non-corrosive, de-scaling agent solution is an effective descaling and stimulation fluid for calcium carbonate that is inert on sandstone minerals and gentle to various types of well completions, safe to handle, and cost effective to use. This paper highlights the successful use of the non-corrosive de-scaling agent in contributing to the much improved well productivity focusing on the lab studies, operational considerations and production performances of the well. Furthermore, the proposed treatments were conducted and placed using coiled tubing (CT).
Belayim Asset is a mature giant oil field located in Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) producing since the late 50’s both from off and on-shore reservoir. Actually more than 350 wells are on-line, the land oil is delivered to 5 intermediate flow-stations (Tank Battery) before being sent to the central process facilities (Petreco). In the last years Tank Battery 6.2 faced intermittent back pressure from the two trunk lines directed to the central processing unit. This Tank Battery is producing from 23 ESP oil wells with high WC, high viscosity and in presence of tight emulsions; the well flowlines are not insulated and only demulsifier chemical treatment is applied. As a result of the production separator pressure increase, back pressure is faced on the manifold forcing us to operate both screw booster pumps to reduce production down-performance. Viscosity is one of the most significant concerns that affect the oil production sustainability. Various defects as asphaltanes precipitation, scale deposition, emulsions, sand production and back pressure are keeping the operation unstable. Starting from this problem and in order to optimize the process and reduce separator pressure a multidisciplinary integrated team composed by chemical, process and maintenance engineers has been defined. This paper will outline the application of Lean Six Sigma statistical methodologies to Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Controls (DMIAC) the root causes of production down performance in Tank Battery 6.2.
The case study presented in this paper is divided into four sections: (1) Effective data collection methodologies applied, (2) screening for the best chemical solution, (3) findings the root causes of screw booster pumps failures, (4) finally, based on the finding, solutions and quality control procedures recommended, Some of these solutions and procedures shall been implemented in the middle of the year 2017, where the Six-Sigma project will be moving in the control phase which can be also called the Continuous improvement process (CI).
In April 2015 a Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (CHEOR) pilot unit located at the Belayim field (Abu Rudeis, Egypt) has been handed over to Petrobel. The Site Acceptance Test was successfully performed and it sanctioned the technology transfer from Eni headquarter to the End User. Chemical EOR technology aims at increasing water viscosity and improving sweep efficiency by using a polymer (polyacrylamide) in solution. The pilot unit has been designed to mix seawater and polymer, to properly prepare and mature the solution, and to inject it at high pressure into the well, thus enabling an increased oil recovery in mature field, where water cut tends to increase dramatically. The CHEOR project has been funded and managed by Eni and Petrobel in the frame of an R&D CHEOR Project (Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery): major driver was an efficient and fast development of the technology, which had been already implemented in another Eni asset in Egypt. The whole project has taken 14 months to be completed, proving extremely successful in terms of schedule: such a result has been achieved through the integration into the project management team of different Eni disciplines such as EOR reservoir experts, headquarters laboratories, as well as Petrobel integrated team (Project, Reservoir and Operations). Project target was achieved thanks to Lesson Learned captured from the previous project in Egypt: team integration, early involvement of Belayim Field in the project, dedicated engineering focal point in Eni, technology single point of responsibility and early purchasing of bulk material have been the main key factors of project execution. Considering the experience matured in the previous project, basic and detailed engineering has been assigned to EniProgetti Egypt who confirm their capability of effectively supporting the engineering in all phases.
Belayim field is a mature oil field located eastern side of Gulf of Suez onshore and off shore communicated through saddle in Kareem Rudies layers only. This field is being considered to be a giant. start producing since 1955 from Belayim land and from Belayim Marine (first off-shore discovery in Egypt in 1961) since 1962. Main Production is from Miocene sandstone reservoirs in a complexly faulted two anticlines. The large extension of the field accompanied with the presence of fault barriers and the lateral facies variation of sandy shale intercalation have confirmed the non-uniform depletion throughout the field implying slight compartmentalization behavior. The initial reservoir pressure was 4200 psi and has been declining in different manners.
Belayim fields Water injection strategy was to start injection in periphery wells as the pressure depleted. In Belayim marine field modifying the periphery wells locations towards the producing wells through second and third rows and due to injection lines leakage and high cost to replace the lines with new, innovative solutions has to be implemented such as (dump flooding, injection portable units flexible lines ,…… etc ).
In Belayim land field after good understanding of the reservoir and due to the heterogeneity of the reservoir a new strategy was developed by using separated injection pattern in different isolated blocks. Then to improve the sweep efficiency of waterfront the injection of polymer started. Also starting using water disposal wells to support pressure in Belayim land field.
This paper highlights the different ways of solving the problems of water injection in Belayim fields How to optimize water injection and aiming to maintain the production plateau and consequently improve recovery (with optimum cost).
Belayim Marine is one of the largest oil fields in the central Gulf of Suez and the first off-shore discovery in the middle east, in the early sixties. The field is operated by Petrobel, a joint venture between EGPC and IEOC, the cumulative production @ Dec., 2016 was 1596.753 MMSTB.
The field contains several sandstone reservoirs, ranging from Palaeozoic to Miocene age.
The total OOIP is 4150.585 MMSTB, 80% of which is contained in the Kareem Rudeis reservoir, which is being supported by a peripheral water flooding started in the eighties.
El Gogary, Ahmed. F. (Belayim Petroleum Company (Petrobel)) | El-Masry, Hossam. H. (Belayim Petroleum Company (Petrobel)) | Kortam, Mostafa. M. (Petrobel) | El-Rayek, Hany. R. (Belayim Petroleum Company (Petrobel))
Horizontal and highly deviated wells are increasingly being used in oilfield developments worldwide. Large-bore horizontal wells can deliver significantly higher oil production rates than conventional completions, reducing field development costs by allowing reserves to be targeted with fewer wells
Rudies formation in Belayim Land field is a bottom water-drive reservoir with a strong supporting aquifer. it is characterized by its great isotropy and heterogeneity where based on the analysis of SCAL data, it was found that the vertical permeability is nearly equal to horizontal permeability raising the problem of water coning(cresting), earlier water breakthrough situation and masking the oil production by water due to the great difference in mobility
Based on calculation of the critical coning production rates and water control plots it was concluded that the horizontal wells drilled in Rudies formation which are produced with high production rates suffered from extreme water coning problems that raised the necessity for water shutoff procedure to be considered
Field cases presented on this paper explain applications of internal casing packer and blank tubing as a tail pipe in accompanied with downgrading the production rates from horizontal wells for the purpose of zonal water control in the uppermost section of open hole and slotted liner completed horizontal wells in Petrobel
Included in this paper are two different field cases for uncemented water shutoff in horizontal wells that succeeded in decreasing the water cut in the wells from the range of (90-95 %) to the range of (10-30%) implementing a huge increase in the gained net oil towards achieving the maximum recovery. Technical data including well configuration, production performance and casing string are included in the paper. Field operations and lesson learned from each application are also presentedinthispaper