Africa (Sub-Sahara) Sonangol's deepwater Orca-1 well encountered oil in the presalt layer of Block 20/11 in the Cuanza basin offshore Angola. The well reached a measured depth of 12,703 ft. Initial well tests saw flow rates of 16.3 MMcm/D of gas and 3,700 BOPD. Cobalt International Energy (40%) is the operator, with partners Sonangol Research and Production (30%) and BP Exploration Angola (30%). Asia Pacific Premier Oil's Kuda Laut-1 well in Indonesia's Tuna production sharing contract has encountered 183 net ft of oil-bearing reservoir and 327 net ft of gas-bearing reservoir. Following evaluation operations, the well will be sidetracked to drill the Singa Laut prospect in an adjacent fault block. Premier is the operator (65%), with partner Mitsui Oil Exploration Company (35%).
The northern Western Desert Basins of Egypt experienced a complex evolutionary history and several transformation of tectonic stress field properties. An integrated analysis of geological and geophysical data reveals that structural inversion, reactivation and extensional detachment develop in the area, and have a significant effect on formation and preservation of hydrocarbon accumulations. Such an analysis is paramount for prospect evaluation, risk mitigation, and therefore improving the exploration success rate.
The rifting in Jurassic and early Cretaceous formed several faulted-depression basins with boundary normal faults in the area. A few boundary normal faults were reactivated in late Cretaceous to Eocene period as reverse faults with dextral compressive features, giving birth to a series of inverted anticlines over them. Compressive wrenching movement on the boundary faults greatly weakened their lateral sealing capacity and accordingly enhanced the vertical conduit capacity of hydrocarbon migration from the Jurassic source kitchen to Cretaceous inverted anticlines along the boundary faults. This is why Cretaceous inverted anticlines show a high concentration of hydrocarbon accumulations whereas there are few oil discoveries in the lower Alam El Bueib (AEB) formation and Jurassic along the boundary faults.
Reactivation of basin boundary normal faults in late Tertiary to present abounds in the area. Most of them are surface penetrating, which are vital to the existing hydrocarbon accumulations because the reactivation could not only make poor the preservation of the existing hydrocarbon accumulations and cause the redistribution of hydrocarbons, but also it would destroy the existing hydrocarbon accumulations. Some unsuccessful wells can be attributed to the reactivation of basin boundary normal faults in late Tertiary to present. Some prospects associated with the reactivation of basin boundary normal faults have the same or similar hydrocarbon preservation risks as the unsuccessful wells.
By integrating seismic interpretation and lithologic assemblage and thickness variation of the AEB formation, an extensional detachment fault was recognized in Alamein Basin. The detachment, located in the mudstone-dominated AEB 5-6 intervals, makes hydrocarbon migration difficult from Jurassic source kitchen to Cretaceous traps because the vertical migration pathways have been cut off by it, and are unfavorable for the formation of hydrocarbon accumulation above it.
Abouzaid, Ahmed (Baker Hughes) | Thern, Holger (Baker Hughes) | Said, Mohamed (Baker Hughes) | ElSaqqa, Mohammad (Khalda Petroleum Company) | Elbastawesy, Mohamed (Khalda Petroleum Company) | Ghozlan, Sherin (Khalda Petroleum Company)
The evaluation of logging data in shaly sand reservoirs can be a challenging task, particularly in the presence of accessory minerals such as glauconite. Accessory minerals affect the measurements of conventional logging tools, thus, introducing large uncertainties for estimated petrophysical properties and reservoir characterization. The application of traditional Gamma Ray and Density-Neutron crossover methods can become unreliable even for the simple objective of differentiating reservoir from non-reservoir zones.
This was the situation for many years in the glauconite-rich Upper Bahariya formation, Western Desert, Egypt. Formation evaluation was challenging and the results often questionable. Adding Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Logging While Drilling (LWD) data in three wells changed the situation radically. The NMR data unambiguously indicate pay zones and simplify the interpretation for accurate porosity and fluid saturation dramatically. Key to success is NMR total porosity being unaffected by the presence of accessory minerals. NMR moveable fluid directly points to the pay zones in the reservoir, while clay-bound and capillary-bound water volumes reflect variations in rock quality and lithology.
Although the NMR total porosity is lithology independent, the presence of glauconite affects the NMR T2 distribution by shifting the water T2 response to shorter T2 times. This requires an adjustment of the T2 cutoff position for separating bound water from movable hydrocarbons. A varying T2 cutoff was computed by comparing NMR bound water to resistivity-based water saturation. The calibrated T2 cutoff exhibits an increase with depth indicating a decreasing amount of glauconite with depth throughout the Upper Bahariya formation. Based on these volumetrics, an improved NMR permeability log was calculated, now accurately delineating variations in rock quality throughout the different pay zones. In addition, viscosity was estimated from the oil NMR signal. The estimated values match the expected values very well and illustrate the potential of NMR to indicate viscosity variations.
Many of these results are available today already in real-time by transmitting NMR T2 distributions to surface while drilling. Besides the application for formation evaluation, the data can be used to initiate optimized side-tracking and completion decisions directly after finishing the drilling operations.