Africa (Sub-Sahara) Oil was discovered at the Ekales-1 wildcat well located in northern Kenya. The well has a potential net oil pay in the Auwerwer and Upper Lokone sandstone reservoirs of between 197 ft and 322 ft. Tullow (50%) is the operator in partnership with Africa Oil (50%). Drillstem tests on the Pweza-3 well offshore Tanzania flowed at a maximum rate of 67 MMscf/D of gas. The tests confirmed the excellent properties of the Tertiary-section reservoir. BG Group (60%) is the operator in partnership with Ophir Energy (40%). Asia Pacific China National Offshore Oil Corporation issued a tender to invite foreign firms to bid for oil and gas blocks in the east and south China Sea. Twenty-five offshore blocks will be offered, including 17 in the South China Sea, three in the East China Sea, and five in the Yellow and Bohai seas.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Oil was discovered at the Ekales-1 wildcat well located in Block 13T in northern Kenya. The well has a potential net pay of between 197 and 322 ft in the Auwerwer and Upper Lokone sandstone formations. Tullow (50%) operates 13T with partner Africa Oil (50%). The Mzia-3 appraisal well in Block 1 off Tanzania encountered a combined total of 183 ft of net pay in the Lower and Middle sands and confirmed reservoir quality in line with that seen in the Mzia-1 and Mzia-2 wells. Asia Pacific The Luba-1 offshore well on Brunei Block L was spudded. The well will evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the Triple Junction structure. Serinus has a 90% interest in Block L, through indirect wholly owned subsidiaries Kulczyk Oil Brunei (40%) and AED SEA (operator, 50%).
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Gas was discovered at two separate levels in the Mronge-1 well in Block 2 offshore Tanzania. The discovery is estimated at between 2 and 3 Tcf of natural gas in place, bringing Block 2's estimated total in-place volumes up to 17 to 20 Tcf. Statoil (65%) operates the Block 2 license on behalf of Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation, and partners with ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Tanzania (35%). Oil was discovered at the Agete-1 exploration well on Block 13T in northern Kenya. The well, drilled to a total depth of 1929 m, encountered 330 ft of net oil pay in good-quality sandstone reservoirs. Tullow Oil (50%) is the operator with partner Africa Oil (50%). Asia Pacific Indonesia announced plans to offer 27 oil and gas blocks in 2014 in regular tenders and direct offers.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) A drillstem test was performed on the Zafarani-2 well--located about 80 km offshore southern Tanzania. Two separate intervals were tested, and the well flowed at a maximum of 66 MMscf/D of gas. Statoil (65%) is the operator, on behalf of Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation, with partner ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Tanzania (35%). The FA-1 well--located in 600 m of water in the Foum Assaka license area offshore Morocco--was spudded. The well targets Eagle prospect Lower Cretaceous resources. Target depth is 4000 m. Kosmos Energy (29.9%) is the operator, with partners BP (26.4%),
Africa (Sub-Sahara) BG Group discovered gas in the Taachui-1 well and sidetrack in Block 1, offshore Tanzania. The drillship Deepsea Metro Idrilled Taachui-1 close to the western boundary of Block 1, then sidetracked the well and drilled to a total depth of 4215 m. The well encountered gas in a single gross column of 289 m within the targeted Cretaceous reservoir interval. Net pay totaled 155 m. Estimates of the mean recoverable gas resources are around 1 Tcf. Statoil (65%) and co-venturer ExxonMobil (35%) made a sixth discovery--the Piri-1 well--in Block 2 offshore Tanzania. Piri-1 was drilled by drillship Discoverer Americas, at a water depth of 2360 m.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Oil samples have been recovered in the FAN-1 exploration well, being drilled offshore Senegal. Elevated gas and fluorescence were encountered in a shallow secondary target, and the presence of oil was confirmed by an intermediate logging program. Oil samples from thin sand were collected by a wireline formation tester for further analysis. The well will be deepened to a planned total depth of approximately 5000 m. Cairn is the operator (40%), with partners ConocoPhillips (35%), FAR (15%), and Senegalese national oil company Petrosen (10%). A drillstem test of BG Group's Mzia-3 well--located in Block 1, offshore southern Tanzania, at a water depth of around 1800 m--reached a maximum sustained flow rate of 101 MMscf/D of natural gas. The Mzia prospect is a multilayered field of Upper Cretaceous age with a gross gas column estimated at more than 300 m.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Shell has initiated a two-well drilling program in blocks 1 and 4 of the Mafia Deep basin offshore Tanzania. Drilling is taking place in water depths of up to 7,545 ft, with the company and its joint-venture partners Pavilion Energy and Ophir Energy investing almost USD 80 million in the program. The two wells will meet the remaining requirements in the exploration licenses issued by the Tanzanian Ministry of Energy and Minerals. Asia Pacific Petronas has begun gas production from the world's first floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) facility, the PFLNG SATU, at the Kanowit field offshore Malaysia's Sarawak state. The first-gas milestone marked the onset of commissioning and startup for the FLNG facility, preceding commercial production and initial cargo shipment. The facility is fitted with an external turret for operating in water depths of 229 ft to 656 ft. It will extract gas through a flexible subsea pipeline for the liquefaction, production, storage, and offloading of LNG at the field.
Significant gas discoveries have been made in deep waters off the coast of Tanzania this decade. Operator Equinor (previously Statoil) with co-venturer ExxonMobil have drilled 15 exploration and appraisal wells in Block 2 about 100 km from the shore in the southern part of the country. The objective is to develop gas resources for a large LNG project. This paper focuses on the various discoveries made and the subsurface understanding gained over the last years.
The reservoirs are all deposited as turbiditic sandstones in different geologic periods (Cretaceous to Miocene), and have a long and complicated geological history. Heavy tectonic activity including development of pop-up structures along a major strike-slip system, has impacted the depositional environment. Since some of the reservoirs have significant internal faulting, methods to analyze fault transmissibility have been key. The seismic quality is generally good, and in certain reservoirs even good enough to directly use seismic inversion dataset to map the structure more accurately. The exploration and subsurface teams worked together in improving the development concept and minimizing risk.
The youngest reservoir (Miocene) has excellent reservoir properties but special challenges with shallow overburden with top reservoir 400-500 m below the seafloor. Several studies have been completed to ensure that production wells can be safely drilled and produced during reservoir depletion, and that the reservoir seal has full integrity.
In deep water oil and gas developments it is important to demonstrate large, continuous flow units with good flow properties before investment decisions. For the Block 2 gas reservoirs understanding the aquifer strength is important for designing wells so that water production can be avoided. Detailed aquifer modeling has been made for all the main reservoirs. Modelling showed risk of water production for one of the reservoirs; however, it is expected that this risk can be mitigated by placing the planned producers high on the structure.
Deep seabed canyons are present in the area and these give important constraints on drilling locations and subsea layout including the major gas pipeline to shore. The field development is planned as a subsea-to-shore development without any fixed installations offshore. To predict the dynamic performance of such a huge and complex production system, extensive flow assurance studies have been completed.
The subsea gas development in Block 2 offshore Tanzania described in this paper is characterized by water depths of up to 2600 meters and tie-back distance to shore of around 100 km. The seabed outside East Africa consists of deep, large scale canyons and steep inclinations towards shore. The reservoir fluids contain very little condensate and the pipeline flow is typically low liquid loading conditions at high water fractions. The key focus of the work presented at the previous BHR conference in 2015 was related to liquid accumulation. However, this work also revealed that
The key focus of these presentations is hence related to frictional pressure drop in low liquid loading at high water fractions.
To support model development and model verification experiments were conducted in a 4-inch ID 50m-high riser at the Tiller test facility in Norway. The data revealed interesting and unexpected phenomena with respect to frictional pressure drop for high water fractions.
Also, as part of value improvement process the Tanzania project has evaluated replacement of the subsea Wet Gas Meters with a Virtual Metering System only. A study was conducted to evaluate the expected accuracy and uncertainties of a model based Virtual Flow Metering system (VFM) for Tanzania specific operating conditions. Reliable prediction of pressure drop is crucial for such a system.
This paper gives an overview of the Tanzania deep water gas development with focus on the flow assurance challenges relating to a potential subsea to beach concept and the background, motivation and high level results from the conducted work, while the “three-phase vertical flow experiments (SINTEF)”, the model development and verification (Schlumberger) and the Virtual Metering study (FMC) are presented in detail in separate papers.
AbstractThe Tanzania Gas Project aims to exploit reserves located offshore from Tanzania in East Africa. The project faces challenges in the management of liquid content due to deep waters, rough seabed terrain, long transport lines to shore, relatively steep inclinations, and very dry reservoir fluids. The narrow operational envelope associated with the water depth underlines the importance of accurate flow simulations for design and production. In addition, the low liquid loading conditions are expected to result in substantial liquid accumulation in the upwardly inclined sections of the pipeline for low production rates. A large-scale experimental campaign was launched to reduce the uncertainty in the field development. A novel experimental "screening technique", allowed for the sampling of an unprecedented number of flow rate combinations corresponding to the onset of liquid accumulation. Diameter scaling was addressed by conducting similar experiments in 8- and 12-in. pipes. Froude number similarity was utilized for scale-up and to assess model predictions for field conditions. The data confirmed That the flow model captures the correct physics, and allowed for fine tuning. The updated model was applied in an uncertainty analysis for the Tanzania field, based on a large number of combinations of key input and flow model parameters, sampled from estimated uncertainty distributions. Simulation results for gas production rate, minimum turndown point, etc. were determined as probability distributions. The effort to quantify and reduce uncertainty has been very successful. Engagement of the operating company with experimental researchers, model developers, and software suppliers greatly increased the understanding of the physics and diameter scaling of low liquid loading flows, significantly reducing the uncertainty for gas condensate field developments.