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The SPE Brunei Section presented prizes on September 11 for the student paper contest organized by the Young Professionals (YPs) Chapter in collaboration with the Science, Technology, and Environment Partnership (STEP) Center, Ministry of Education, at the Empire Hotel and Country Club in Brunei. The theme of the contest, which was held 27 July at Brunei's Oil and Gas Discovery Center, was "The Oil and Gas Industry in Brunei Darussalam." The contest objectives were to develop students' writing skills and to promote interest among Brunei's young people in energy issues. Thirty-five students from 10 secondary schools in the Belait district took part in the competition. Competitors were given 90 minutes to write a paper on any one of three topics: (1) How do we conserve energy in order to reduce gas emissions to our environment?
Shell's Parque das Conchas project, an ultradeepwater heavy-oil development in the northern Campos basin offshore Brazil, has won the IPTC Excellence in Project Integration Award. The award recognizes a project team that has made significant and unique achievements in managing and directing an integrated oil or gas project from discovery to delivery. The winner was announced at the International Petroleum Technology Conference in Kuala Lumpur in February. The project was a major advance in the production of Brazil's abundant heavy-oil reserves and became the world's first full-field development based on subsea oil and gas separation and subsea pumping. The Parque das Conchas fields are located 120 km off the coast of Brazil, where ultradeep water and a constant swell make for difficult operating conditions.
Large, complex and faulted structures often pose substantial challenges in maximizing hydrocarbon recovery. This is largely due to limited understanding of field wide connectivity of reservoir sands, across fault communication, and uncertainty in reservoir fluid contacts due to a fewer well penetrations in early life of the field. In addition, secondary recovery through water injection support brings further complexities in such fields, particularly in stacked reservoirs with multiple sands completed across individual production zones.
The work presented in this paper has utilized ‘pattern reviews’ technique in a brown field containing over 500 well penetrations in South East Asia. Pattern reviews have made use of reservoir pressure data, fault maps, sand/shale correlations, salinity variations between formation and Sea water, and injection and production data by carving out specific sections of the field containing injector-producer pairs. The integrated data and analyses have helped establishing connections, or otherwise, between injector-producer pairs across various parts of the field. Time lapse Production Logging (PLT) campaigns were executed to provide additional supporting evidence on flushing of certain reservoir sands in producer wells and preferential injection zones in injector wells.
Systematic selection of patterns containing injector-producer pairs across the field has provided a substantial support in our static and dynamic modelling work to establish reservoir/fault connectivity within fault blocks and across the field. This has subsequently helped in history matching production data as well as identifying infill opportunities for bypassed oil. The present work has also helped in optimizing water flood and choosing certain injectors/zones to open/close for pressure support.
An understanding on the connectivity between injector-producer pairs has also helped in identifying areas with low recovery and poor sweep. This has paved the way in initiating a pilot project for Polymer injection in this field to help understand incremental recovery in addition to water flood. A successful outcome would initiate field wide polymer injection with a potential of 10's of mmboe incremental recovery from the field.
For the first time in field history, pattern reviews have been extensively used as a tool to understand reservoir connectivity and dynamic fluid movements across the field. An additional attempt has been made to use ant track maps to help identify potential baffles and sub-seismic faults. An integrated effort between the various data and disciplines have provided fresh insights into the reservoirs and which would have otherwise been difficult in heterolythic nature stacked reservoirs.
Summary Review of published geological data shows that permafrost regions in China's Mohe Basin, Qilian Mountain, and Qinghai‐Tibet Plateau hold promise for gas‐hydrate accumulation according to identifiable source rock, migration path, and reservoir seal, among others. In addition, they show some common characteristics: source rock consisting mostly of shale, relatively poor reservoir quality, and gas migration through fractures. However, formation lithology, source‐rock type, origin of organic matter, and total organic carbon (TOC) exhibit significant differences.
Mohe Basin Qilian Mountain Permafrost Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Cored gas-hydrate samples None Gas hydrate found in 13 wells None (Li et al. 2017) Origin of gas hydrate Thermogenic and biogenic Mainly thermogenic Coal derived (Liu et al. 2015) (Wang et al. 2015)(Li et al. 2017)
Tertiary shoreface-deltaic sediments in Brunei fields show different boomerang motifs on neutron-density and gamma ray-resistivity crossplots. A boomerang workflow named after the motifs is tested by calibrating to core data to quantify net/gross ratio and porosities under variable shale and hydrocarbon effects. The inflection between the two boomerang limbs marks the boundary between shoreface sandstones and offshore shale-type lithologies. Compared with subjective Vsh cutoffs, boomerang inflections are more objectively defendable signatures defining net and non-net rocks. Thin beds and heterolithic sandstones in lower shoreface and tidal environments are mixed in the sandstone limb near boomerang inflection. By including the thin beds and heterolithic reservoirs that are cut off by the Vsh approach, the static hydrocarbon in place in the studied fields increases by 10 to 40% based on the well data.
The shale matrix effect on porosity estimation in shaly heterolithic sandstones is resolved by interactively derived shale-line slopes without involving the uncertain clay volumes or clay parameters. Particularly, effective porosity, ϕEF, is estimated by inputting a wet-shale-line slope, ksh,, based on the shale limb on the neutron-density crossplot in each boomerang interval; it changes with depth as result of different compactions. Total porosity, ϕTOT, is estimated by a dry-shale-line slope; it is constant for most of the reservoirs based on core calibrations in the studied fields due to identical sediment provenance.
Hydrocarbon effect is independent of shale matrix effect, although they are mixed in the log responses. Hydrocarbon effect is qualitatively analyzed based on the angular rotation of the hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone limbs towards different fluid points. It is also quantitatively evaluated by the apparent fluid neutron-density parameters (φfl, ρfl) interactively determined by coherent ϕEF and ϕTOT estimations in a dual-porosity and dual-fluid model. For example, the calculated ϕTOT is significantly less than ϕEF if water parameters are used for gas-charged sandstones. By decreasing the (φfl, ρfl) from water (1, 1) until (ϕTOT – ϕEF) ≥ 0, we find the resultant ϕTOT matches with core porosity (except in unresolved thin beds); this is tested in more than 1,000 meters of cores in several fields covering a large range of lithology and hydrocarbon types. If invasion is insignificant, the resultant fluid density, ρfl, also matches with produced hydrocarbons. Therefore, the workflow not only provides coherent ϕEF and ϕTOT estimation in the rocks with variable shale and hydrocarbon effects but also the apparent fluid density profiles for hydrocarbon typing.
Bahrami, Esmaeil (Mehran Engineering and Well Services Co.) | Seyednia, Mahbod (Mehran Engineering and Well Services Co.) | Mosallaie Barzoki, Ali Akbar (Mehran Engineering and Well Services Co.) | Zangenehvar, Alireza (Mehran Engineering and Well Services Co.) | Rabbani, Seyedebrahim (Mehran Engineering and Well Services Co.)
Abstract Ship collision with offshore platform is one of the rare events in oil and gas industry and generally associates with huge physical and financial damage. An oil tanker collided with a jacket in the South Pars gas field and caused tough conditions for the operator to restore the jacket and wells to their original state. The crucial stages after the accident were killing a perforated well, wreck removal and cutting the wells below the section they had been bent or distorted and finally the wells abandonment by cementing coiled tubing operation on a dynamic positioning barge. This paper focus on engineering design of a platform for coiled tubing injector head and pressure control equipment on the barge as well as finding a way that coiled tubing string pass through the gap between the platform and the underwater cut point of wells. For this purpose, a deck was proposed to build on the barge having a heavy duty flexible steel pipe extended from the deck to inside the wells cut point. Various measures should be implemented to design this structure in order to have an operational safe method. The structure had to have sufficient strength to resist the forces applied on it especially during the operation in the predominant weather condition of Persian Gulf in the monsoon season. Therefore, a comprehensive study was conducted to determine stresses applied on the structure subjected to different types of wave velocities using finite element method. The engineering design and simulation led to construct the proposed deck extending over the port side of the barge and elevating between the main deck and mezzanine deck with a long 4" flexible steel pipe at its bottom. In order to verify the engineering design and simulation before the operation, the structure load tested up to 40 metric tons. This paper will peer over the challengeable engineering design of the deck for coiled tubing well abandonment under the condition of insufficient offshore facility.
Abstract The United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS) is a very mature hydrocarbon basin, and it is currently beginning to experience the full complexity associated with decommissioning. The UKCS region is also subjected to what most would acknowledge is the most developed set of regional arrangements in the shape of Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR). Notwithstanding the degree of regional agreement in relation to decommissioning, an emergent insight from the current study in the UKCS is that there are significant issues that remain unresolved, which can be categorized into four main categories: Uncertainties of Regulatory Responsibilities Issues Related to Cross Boundary Operations Issues Regarding Long Term Liability Commercial Issues Across Boundaries This finding has implications for other parts of the world that will have to face the challenges of decommissioning in the coming years, especially where they have not yet developed regional arrangements. Perhaps most challenging in this last regard will be the South China Sea given its history of contested island and maritime claims among several sovereign states within the region (Buszynski 2012). In comparison with the North Sea, the geographical make-up of the South China Sea is much more complicated and there are many more countries sharing maritime borders in the region, making these potential offshore decommissioning issues more likely to occur. It is thus important for a regional offshore decommissioning agreement to be in placed in the South China Sea region to act both as a guideline and a dispute resolution mechanism in an event that disputes were to occur during offshore decommissioning operations. This paper will highlight the 4 emerging areas of concern (as mentioned above) in offshore decommissioning in the UKCS to suggests that the countries in the South China Sea region could usefully have these in mind as they move to develop regional decommissioning arrangements. Primary qualitative data obtained from the semi-structured interviews will be used in this paper to highlight the concerns on offshore decommissioning in the UKCS while secondary data and literature will be used to link the 2 regions together to demonstrate the need for a consideration of a development of a regional decommissioning agreement in the South China Sea region.
Abstract Electrical Submersible pumps (ESPs) have been installed on a large scale for the first time in offshore Brunei. Despite having produced in Brunei for 80 years the company previously only had a single ESP running, and that was in an onshore field. The primary lift method in Brunei has been gas-lift, and regionally ESPs have not been widely adopted. As ESPs were relatively novel to offshore operations a steep learning curve was expected. Poor operation practices are a threat to run life, and failures are costly (especially offshore). This paper outlines the challenges faced by the project team, and the approach taken to execute this project successfully and operate ESPs smoothly from day one. The application for these ESPs was relatively simple, with benign environments in low temperatures and shallow setting depths. The primary challenge with introducing ESPs to offshore Brunei was developing people, and building capability and hands on experience. The main approaches for this included: Building a new ESP operations team. Learning from other assets in the company portfolio (including in the Middle East and Western Siberia) via official visits, and sending staff for short term assignments. Developing long term vendor relationship including field operations support onshore and offshore. Rolling out an ESP competency plan with a clear outline on the required competency level for all personnel and how it could be achieved. Hosting more engagement sessions closer to first oil between the operations team and project team. This paper shares: The challenges faced by the project. Details on building a competent team to successfully startup and operate ESP wells. Early results and performance of the operations team. Lessons learnt and next steps.