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Copyright 2020, International Petroleum Technology Conference This paper was prepared for presentation at the International Petroleum Technology Conference held in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, 13 - 15 January 2020. This paper was selected for presentation by an IPTC Programme Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the International Petroleum Technology Conference and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the International Petroleum Technology Conference, its officers, or members. Papers presented at IPTC are subject to publication review by Sponsor Society Committees of IPTC. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the International Petroleum Technology Conference is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented.
Platt, Chris (KrisEnergy) | Chevarunota, Natasha (KrisEnergy) | Taksaudom, Pongpak (KrisEnergy) | Daungkaew, Saifon (Schlumberger) | Duangprasert, Tanabordee (Schlumberger) | Khunaworawet, Tanawut (Schlumberger) | Thiti Lerdsuwankij, Thiti (Schlumberger) | Wattanapornmongkol, Sawit (Schlumberger) | Thongpracharn, Payap (Schlumberger)
Exploration activity is always associated with many challenges such as uncertain pore pressure, and uncertain formation depths and characteristics. Unconsolidated formation could cause more serious troubles for drilling, formation evaluation, and production such as borehole washout, wellbore collapse, and sanding if proper planning is not in place. In addition, a viscous oil can add another complication for fluid sampling operations. An unsuccessful logging program could have a major impact on the field development plan (FDP) and further field investment decision (FID).
In the Gulf of Thailand (GoT), high temperature Pattani basin discovery wells, reservoir fluids are mainly gas and condensate. There are numbers of waxy oil reservoirs
This paper will discuss step by step (1) reservoir characterization challenges (2) proposed methods to obtain reservoir and fluid information, as well as the interval pressure transient test, (3) the actual field results, (4) recommendations and way forward for similar reservoirs.
Different proposed options are also discussed with field examples to obtain high quality PVT samples. Pumping to clean up high viscous oil contaminated tends to attract finer particulates towards the probe and into the flowline, causing plugging issues in other probe types even though a modified sand filter was added. In the end, the 3D Radial probe was proven in making this exploration campaign a success story for acquiring the heaviest oil samples to date in the GoT. The 3D Radial probe equipped with mesh filter plays an important role to restrict ingress of small sand particles, thereby allowing both sustainable pumping speed and flowing pressure. The single packer design also helps to support the formation preventing drawdown collapse. Coupled with larger flow area of the probe itself, the 3D Radial Probe has ability to control flowing pressure to stay above the sand break-away pressure even as more viscous formation oil enters. However, job objectives were achieved, which were formation pressure acquisition, high-quality fluid sampling, and Interval Pressure Transient Testing (IPTT) as well as Vertical Interference Testing (VIT).
This paper also discusses the comparison between Downhole Fluid Analysis results and PVT lab analyses. Limitation and challenges for downhole measurements for this heavy oil environment. Advantages and disadvantages for different testing methods for this heavy oil reservoir will also be discussed.
This paper reviews the current industry practice for the design of Mid-Water-Arch (MWA) including the guidance from International Standards, requirements from Class, engineering (EPC) installation (OIC) practices. Best industry practice has been developed by MISC Berhad based on the past experiences and leasons learnt, to ensure the continuity of operations and prevent production loss through immediate mitigation actions, efficient repair strategy and minimum requirements for new design. The benefits of establishing of a minimum size of tether chain and the implementation of backup tether interventions are emphasized. The information provided in this paper may provenly useful for Class to amend mooring guidance to account for specific technical requirements for MWA long term requirement.
Khunmek, Thanudcha (Mubadala Petroleum) | Abu-Jafar, Feras (Mubadala Petroleum) | Chigbo, Ikenna (Mubadala Petroleum) | Laoroongroj, Ajana (Mubadala Petroleum) | Mohd Ismail, Ismarullizam (Tendeka) | Parrott, Keith (Tendeka)
This paper describes a pilot program for the application of an Autonomous Inflow Control Device (AICD) by retrofitting an existing ICD completion for reservoir optimization. New drill horizontal wells were required to be completed with AICD's to enhance recovery with existing ICD completion materials in inventory desired to be used. The workflow for establishing the decision change from ICD to AICD completion and the completion design process change is discussed.
The well program was selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of AICDs in the Jasmine asset, a current field development in Thailand. ICD screens had previously been purchased for a different application but were unused. To reduce overall project cost and asset inventory, a method of utilization the existing ICD screens was strongly desired. An evaluation was done, followed by design and development of a manufacturing process to retrofit the ICD screens with larger sized AICD housing. Furthermore, overall completion design was implemented to ensure a smooth deployment and optimized production benefit.
Multiple joints of existing ICD screens were successfully retrofitted with AICD technology locally within the region. The operator was able to reduce current inventory book levels by 20% that resulted in a direct cost saving of 40% comparing to new AICD screen cost. The field deployment of the retrofit completion was a success without any operational issues.
Despite the improved productivity and uplift in reserve recovery associated with horizontal wells, reservoir heterogeneity can cause uneven production and early water and gas breakthrough from portions of the wellbore. The AICD delivers a variable flow restriction in response to the properties (viscosity) of the fluid with water or gas flow restricted. With multiple segmentation along the horizontal section in this application, excessive production of unwanted gas and water have been limited. Installed in late 2017 and another application in 2018, production from the wells have exceeded expectation, with an uplift in recovery.
Complex hydrocarbon distributions where reservoirs are filled by oil and gas phases with different densities and genetic types interfingering within a basin are a common phenomenon in Southeast Asia and are often attributed to vertical migration. Attempts to understanding the controlling factors of vertical hydrocarbon migration by modeling the hydrocarbon charging and entrapment history from two Cenozoic basins in Southeast Asia—West Java and the Madura Platform—are discussed.
A modified invasion percolation algorithm was used to simulate the secondary migration models, which follows the principle that migration occurs in a state of capillary equilibrium in a flow regime dominated by buoyancy and capillary forces. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data were used as the base grid for migration simulation to capture the effect of both structure and facies variations on fluid flow.
Two models, one from the West Java Basin (fault-bounded structure) and the East Java Basin (nonfault-bounded structure), are presented. For both cases, interfingering between oil and gas occurred, with most oils trapped within the lower formations, a mixture of oil and gas dominates the middle formations, and mostly gas in the upper formation. These vertical arrangements are possible because of the relatively weak formational seals within the basin. For vertically distributed reservoirs, oil is often trapped within the lower interval, and gas is trapped at the upper interval. For a basin dominated by a vertical migration regime, the potential risk for hydrocarbon lateral travel far away from the kitchen is high, thus increasing the potential risk of prospectivity away from the kitchen. Understanding factors that help control vertical migration also help geologists better understand hydrocarbon distributions within the basins.
Case studies during which modeling helped determine the factors that influenced vertical hydrocarbon migration and the resulting potential phase distribution prospectivity risks in the studied basins are discussed.
Asia is the largest and the most populous continent in the world covering an area of 44,579,000 sq. Its 4.5 billion people form roughly 60% of the world's population. To understand the intricacies of this vast and diverse continent, it is a common practice to categorize the constituting countries as per the subject--economic development--under discussion. One such categorization is "Tiger Economies." It is the nickname given to the economies of Southeast Asia. The tigers are South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore.
Easy oil is no longer low hanging fruit for oil and gas operators, and drilling targets are becoming increasingly ambitious, which results in escalation of the well trajectory complexity. This accordingly spirals the well and completion costs. To overcome this situation, technology must play a role to reduce cost, increase efficiency and ensure safety at all times. Conveyance is the key for any data acquisition and well completion activities. Historically, conveyance methods for data acquisition and perforation in highly deviated or horizontal wells required drill pipe or coiled-tubing methods. These methods are time consuming, labor intensive, require a larger equipment footprint, with possible HSE risks involved. Mubadala Petroleum in Thailand has seen a significant increase in horizontal and high deviated wells over the past few years. The wireline tractor technology has been used for the first time in Mubadala Petroleum's Thailand operations during the drilling, initial completion and workover intervention operations, and it has been a game changer for Mubadala Petroleum in Thailand in terms of reducing rig time, well cost, and most importantly minimizing the HSE risks.
Over the past few decades, the oil and gas industry has developed the technique of drilling horizontally through the reservoir to maximize the surface contact area of the reservoir, to gain higher recovery and production. However, one downside from this technique is that it has become challenging and costly to perforate or to obtain measurements in this horizontal environment, as gravity will no longer support the wireline tools to reach to the bottom of the well. Wireline Tractor technology has played an important role to overcome this challenge. It reduces time, cost and will improve data quality as well as increase wellbore coverage. The wireline tractor functions with an electric over hydraulic power relationship, using its drive/wheel sections to push the passenger tool downhole as the cable is spooled off the unit allowing the tool to reach the end of horizontal or deviated wells without deploying drill pipe or coiled tubing conveyance methods. With this principle, any job that is typically run on electric wireline in a vertical well can be efficiently done in a horizontal or deviated well using wireline tractor.
Material presented in the paper will be from actual operations, examples being tractor conveyed wireline logging tool and 4.5in Outer Diameter (OD) 90 ft heavy long perforation gun in single tractor operations. It will also display the operational efficiencies increases and risk reduction being obtained.
Sreeroch, Asadawut (Mubadala Petroleum Thailand Ltd.) | Nicolson, Don (Mubadala Petroleum Thailand Ltd.) | Abu Jafar, Feras (Mubadala Petroleum Thailand Ltd.) | Charoensil, Teeranun (EMAS Energy Services Thailand Ltd.)
In a global first, Mubadala Petroleum in Thailand has successfully completed a three-month trial of a new technology designed to improve the operational performance of the regular program of well maintenance workovers required for its Gulf of Thailand fields. The trial tested the use of an innovative modular Rigless Pulling Unit (RPU) in place of a conventional Hydraulic Workover Unit (HWU) in a program of workover operations.
Historically, the RPU used by most operators worldwide for Plug and Abandon (P&A) type of operation. However, Mubadala Petroleum has pushed the technical limits for the RPU to perform ESP change out and running upper/lower completions (Re-completion) on existing wells that has ESP failures, or any recompletion opportunities.
During the trial period, this new unit achieved similar operational efficiency to a HWU, while proving its capabilities to execute the most complicated tasks that are challenging even for the HWU, in terms of reducing rig time, well cost, and most importantly minimizing the HSE risks. This technology can be developed to be a
With this first worldwide successful trial of a RPU for well workover operations, we have opened the doors for new opportunities to perform workover activities other than with standard hydraulic workover rigs. The RPU technology offers many advantages and capabilities to perform more efficient complex workovers or recompletion operations.
Material presented is from actual workover operations, including electrical submersible pumps (ESP) change outs and cycling lower completions, wellbore cleanout, etc. It will also display the operational efficiencies increase and risk reduction achieved.
The Jasmine Field sandstone reservoir described in the paper is highly compartmentalized, has a sand thickness of about 30-40ft, reservoir pressure is supported by a strong aquifer, and most wells have high productivity. However, in the particular fault block of interest, a gas cap is present, which is normally not present in other fault blocks. This reduces the oil sand thickness to about 20 ft, with a big gas cap above and water below. To efficiently produce the oil rim in this area, a horizontal well was required, with an electrical submersible pumps (ESP) to aid lift. Since ESPs don't typically handle gas very well, the challenge was to ensure the well is economic by preventing premature gas breakthrough, and hence increase oil recovery.
The Autonomous Inflow Control Device (AICD) is an active flow control device that delivers a variable flow restriction in response to the properties (viscosity) of the fluid flowing through it. Water or gas flowing through the device is restricted more than oil.When used in a horizontal well, segmented into multiple compartments, this device prevents excessive production of unwanted fluids after breakthrough occurs in one or more compartments. The JS-06 well was drilled with almost 2000 ft horizontal length within the original thin oil column, with gas on top and water below. AICD flow loop testing, performance modelling, candidate selection, and completion design for this well was focused on gas production control, given that gas production was the main concern.
Post implementation and production, gas production has been controlled very well compared to the base case conventional completion. The gas oil ratio (GOR) observed from nearby wells was within the normal production range, which has allowed more oil to be produced from the JS-06 well. The production results observed were consistent with modelling and laboratory flow testing, thereby increasing confidence in the methods employed in designing the AICD completion for the well and in AICD modelling and candidate selection.
The successful implementation of AICD in this well has opened up another similar opportunity, which are currently being evaluated for the same application
Its 4.5 billion people form roughly 60% of the world's population. To understand the intricacies of this vast and diverse continent, it is a common practice to categorize the constituting countries as per the subject—economic development—under discussion. One such categorization is “Tiger Economies.” It is the nickname given to the economies of Southeast Asia. The tigers are South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore. With the injection of large amounts of foreign investment capital and huge push from government and corporate sector, these economies grew substantially between the late 1980s and early-to-mid-1990s.