Luo, Xianbo (Tianjin Branch of China National Offshore Oil Company) | Li, Jinyi (Tianjin Branch of China National Offshore Oil Company) | Yang, Dongdong (Tianjin Branch of China National Offshore Oil Company) | Shi, Hongfu (Tianjin Branch of China National Offshore Oil Company)
The relative permeability test (RPT) plays an important part in production prediction, the law of water cut increasing analysis, the research on recovery factor and the reservoir numerical simulation. The residual oil saturation is one of the most significant parameters of RPT. While literature on the quality control of RPT is limited, the experimentalists make qualitative judgments on the rationality of the key data estimate based on their own experience. A new method is presented to predict residual oil saturation of light oil reservoirs.
Zhang, Yiming (CNPC Huabei Oilfield Company) | Tian, Jianzhang (CNPC Huabei Oilfield Company) | Yang, Dexiang (CNPC Huabei Oilfield Company) | Chen, Shuguang (CNPC Huabei Oilfield Company) | Liu, Xing (CNPC Huabei Oilfield Company) | Hou, Fengxiang (CNPC Huabei Oilfield Company) | Tian, Ran (CNPC Huabei Oilfield Company) | Zhang, Chuanbao (CNPC Huabei Oilfield Company)
The study area is located in the Langgu sag of Northern Jizhong depression, Bohai Bay Basin, East China. In order to achieve exploration breakthrough in deep buried hill, key engineering technologies are developed and used to accurately demonstrate important target identification by recognizing new hydrocarbon accumulation patterns resulting from the analysis of multi-stage structure-controlled trap mechanism and the detailed study of controlling factors over high-quality Ordovician reservoirs based on new high-accuracy 3D seismic data. This study reveals a new evolution mechanism of buried hill controlled by structural superposition, experiencing "the uplift from thrusting in Indo-Chinese to early Yanshan epoch, uplifted block faulting into horsts in middle Yanshan epoch, horsts tilting into belt in Eocene, and belt reversion into trap", and thus puts forward a new mechanism for reservoir forming controlled by a superposition of "dolomite, karsting, and faulting". Three types of reservoir development are identified, including "regional layered pore, local block micropore-fracture, and fracture hole pore layer-block composite", and an accumulation pattern in deep buried hill is constructed, characterized by "efficient hydrocarbon supply from gas-type source rock, predominant migration through fractured surface-nonconformity surface, and stratum- and mass-controlled accumulation", which has guided the 40 years' exploration of Ordovician Yangshuiwu buried hill zone and made a great breakthroughs. Novel relevant exploration technologies have been developed, involving high-accuracy imaging, high-precision well logging identification of hydrocarbon reservoir, ultra-high temperature deep drilling and completion, ultra-high temperature carbonate reservoir stimulation, etc, which solve a worldwide problem that has restricted the exploration of the ultra-high temperature buried hill for many years. These technologies make possible the highest daily production of over 100 m3 oil and 0.5 million m3 gas respectively and sustain a high and stable production for a long term, which guarantee the clean energy supply for Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.
A pre-exploration well was drilled in the Xihu Sag of East China Sea basin, and commercial oil and gas flow had been achieved. But the oil and gas bearing trap had a big depth with low closure height and small area. The resolution of seismic data acquired by towed streamer is low, so it's difficult to obtain seismic velocity precisely. There were great risk and uncertainty in description of the trap and distribution of gas-bearing sandstone, reservoir prediction of sweet spot, direct hydrocarbon indication, and reserves assessment.
In consideration of the drilling platform on the trap, seismic acquisition technique of walkaway VSP and walk around VSP were introduced, meanwhile some innovative methods in source, receivers and geometry were applied. Twenty three-component hydrophones were composed as signal receivers which had a sample interval of ten meters in the well, two straight shot lines and two loop shot lines were designed around the drilling platform. Besides, volume and depth of air gun array were optimized, and the sailing route of seismic source vessel was planned properly in order to improve the efficiency of collecting work.
The collecting work of walkaway VSP and walk around VSP was accomplished efficiently, and more than seventy kilometers VSP seismic data was achieved. Afterwards, the new data was processed finely in company with zero offset VSP data, so high resolution VSP profiles and accurate seismic velocity were obtained. Reprocess to original seismic data acquired by towed streamer was implemented on the basis of walkaway VSP and walk around VSP data. The quality of normal seismic data was improved through reprocess constrained by walkaway VSP data, and S/N and resolution were much higher than old data. So it would be credible to research the distribution of gas-bearing sandstone and direct hydrocarbon indication using the reprocessed seismic data.
It was the first time to use joint acquisition technique of walkaway VSP and walk around VSP in offshore China which was an important breakthrough. High resolution VSP seismic profiles and precise seismic velocity could be acquired, and the data was important basis for refined evaluation of pre-exploration targets. It's very necessary to popularize and utilize these new techniques further.
Wang, Bingjie (CNOOC LTD.-TianJin Bohai Oilfield) | Xu, Changgui (CNOOC LTD.-TianJin Bohai Oilfield) | Wu, Kui (CNOOC LTD.-TianJin Bohai Oilfield) | Zhang, Rucai (CNOOC LTD.-TianJin Bohai Oilfield) | Deng, Jun (CNOOC LTD.-TianJin Bohai Oilfield) | Guo, Naichuan (CNOOC LTD.-TianJin Bohai Oilfield)
A new oil property identification parameter (Pw) is derived which represents the total hydrocarbon generation and pyrolysis hydrocarbon. Using continuous measurement data (Pw) and a series of samplebased attributes from 3D seismic, a strong linear trend is observed. This trend linear is used to calculate heavy oil property data in 3D volume. At the same time, we have got the relationship between reservoir physical and oil properties. Based on this, the core data and geochemical data are used to study the charging of crude oil.
Drilling, as a direct and effective method of opening oil and gas layers, has been widely used. A reasonable combination of drilling tools plays a key role in increasing the rate of mechanical drilling, reducing drilling costs, and reducing downhole accidents. Conventional drilling relies on years of experience of on-site workers and reference to the operation of drilling wells, making use of drilling tools and lacking scientific basis. However, the reservoir situation is erratic, the unknown factors are very numerous, unpredictable, and the difficulty of drilling is increased. Drilling into unknown reservoirs, especially high-temperature and hightemperature risk wells, poses a huge threat to the lives of workers on site. Conventional drilling of known reservoirs will also encounter unknown problems such as drilling distance growth, stuck drilling, drilling tools falling, increased inclination, and deviation from the intended target position, which seriously reduces drilling efficiency, increases operating time, risk and drilling difficulty affected by the reasonable use of the drilling tool combination. With the development and application of computational intelligence, through the accumulation of massive geological property data, reservoir structure data, drilling tool parameters, construction data, drilling fluid parameters and other drilling data, intelligent drilling is used to predict unknown drilling information which can reduce the risk of drilling and improve drilling efficiency. In this paper, the work mode of "data running first, operation post" is used to further strengthen the application of drilling tools combination to improve the rate of mechanical drilling and reduce downhole problems.
Is Surfactant Environmentally Safe for Offshore Use and Discharge? The current presentation date and time shown is a TENTATIVE schedule. The final/confirm presentation schedule will be notified/available in February 2019. Designing Cement Jobs for Success - Get It Right the First Time! Connected Reservoir Regions Map Created From Time-Lapse Pressure Data Shows Similarity to Other Reservoir Quality Maps in a Heterogeneous Carbonate Reservoir. X. Du, Y. Jin, X. Wu, U. of Houston; Y. Liu, X. Wu, O. Awan, J. Roth, K.C. See, N. Tognini, Shell Intl.
By International Petroleum Technology Conference (IPTC) Monday, 25 March 0900-1600 hours Instructors: Olivier Dubrule and Lukas Mosser, Imperial College London Deep Learning (DL) is already bringing game-changing applications to the petroleum industry, and this is certainly the beginning of an enduring trend. Many petroleum engineers and geoscientists are interested to know more about DL but are not sure where to start. This one-day course aims to provide this introduction. The first half of the course presents the formalism of Logistic Regression, Neural Networks and Convolutional Neural Networks and some of their applications. Much of the standard terminology used in DL applications is also presented. In the afternoon, the online environment associated with DL is discussed, from Python libraries to software repositories, including useful websites and big datasets. The last part of the course is spent discussing the most promising subsurface applications of DL.
Guo, Hu (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Li, Yiqiang (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Kong, Debin (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Ma, Ruicheng (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Li, Binhui (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Wang, Fuyong (China University of Petroleum, Beijing)
Although the alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding technique used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) was put forward many years ago, it was not until 2014 that it was first put into practice in industrial applications with hundreds of injectors and producers in the Daqing Oil Field in China. In this study, 30 ASP-flooding field tests in China were reviewed to promote the better use of this promising technology. Up to the present, ASP flooding in the Daqing Oil Field deserves the most attention.
Alkali type does affect the ASP-flooding effect. Strong alkali [using sodium hydroxide (NaOH)] ASP flooding (SASP) was given more emphasis than weak alkali [using sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)] ASP flooding (WASP) for a long time in the Daqing Oil Field because of the lower interfacial tension (IFT) of the surfactant and the higher recovery associated with NaOH than with Na2CO3. Other ASP-flooding field tests completed in China all used Na2CO3. With progress in surfactant production, a recent large-scale WASP field test in the Daqing Oil Field produced an incremental oil recovery nearly 30% higher than most previous SASP recoveries and close to the value of the most-successful SASP test. However, the most-successful SASP test was partly attributed to the weak alkali factor. Recent studies have shown that the WASP incremental oil recovery factor could be as good as that of SASP but with much-better economic benefits.
Screening of surfactant by IFT test is very important in the ASP-flooding practice in China. Whether dynamic or equilibrium IFT should be selected as criteria in surfactant screening is still in dispute. Many believe the equilibrium IFT is more important than the dynamic IFT in terms of the displacement efficiency; thus, it is better to choose a lower dynamic IFT when the equilibrium IFT meets the 10–3 order-of-magnitude requirement. However, it is impossible for many surfactants to form ultralow equilibrium IFT. Because of the low acid value of the Daqing crude oil, the asphaltene and resin components play a very important role in reducing the oil/water IFT and asphaltene is believed to be more influential, although more work is required to resolve this controversial issue.
Whether polymer viscoelasticity can reduce the residual oil saturation is still a matter of debate. Advances in surfactant production and in the overcoming of scaling and produced-fluid-handling challenges form the foundation of the industrial application of ASP flooding. Further work is advised on the emulsification effect of ASP flooding. According to one field test, the EOR routine should be selected depending on consideration of the residual oil type to decide whether to increase the sweep volume and/or displacement efficiency. The micellar flooding failure in one ASP field test in China has led all subsequent field tests in China to choose the “low concentration, large slug” technical route instead of the “high concentration, small slug” one. ASP flooding can increase oil recovery by 30% at a cost of less than USD 30/bbl; thus, this technique can be used in response to low-oil-price challenges.
Jia, Hu (State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University) | Yang, Xin-Yu (State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University) | Zhao, Jin-Zhou (State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University)
Hu Jia*, Xin-Yu Yang, and Jin-Zhou Zhao, State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University Summary Foams can be used as well-killing fluid for workover operation in low-pressure oil and/or gas wells. However, foams usually come from gas injection under high pressure or high-speed stirring, which is complicated, expensive, and hazardous. In addition, the foam's stability is still limited by the current method of adding viscous polymer or the single crosslinking between the polymer and single crosslinking agent. This systematic study consists of optimization of different foaming agents, gel bases, and the effect of the GPC compositions (carbonate and acid) and their quantity, a macroscopic comparison of the stability and rheological properties of the double crosslinking and the common single crosslinking systems, with further investigation of their stability differences through microscopic research, and a coreflooding experiment to evaluate working performance. Within 4 days, the density of this novel foamed gel varies from 0.711 to 0.910 g/cm This is because of the function of the GPCs and foaming agent, which means that finer foams can be obtained to achieve target low density. Meanwhile, on the basis of the double crosslinking, a more compact gel structure is formed; thus the stability can be effectively improved. Results also demonstrated that this foamed gel shows a favorable performance of low fluid loss and temporary plugging, and the gas-permeability-recovery rate is up to 93.90%, which proves the gel to be effective for formation-damage control. This study suggests that the novel in-situ-generated foamed gel has the potential to achieve favorable well-workover performance in low-pressure and low-temperature reservoirs. Introduction In the later stages of mature oil-and gasfield development, workover is a frequent job for oil and gas wells. For safety consideration, pumping killing fluid into the wellbore is often a prerequisite to providing well control, even in ultralow-pressure reservoirs.
Li, Junfei (CNOOC Ltd, Tianjin Branch) | Liu, Xueqi (PetroChina Research Inst. Petroleum Exploration and Development) | Gao, Zhennan (CNOOC Ltd, Tianjin Branch) | Shang, Baobing (CNOOC Ltd, Tianjin Branch) | Xu, Jing (CNOOC Ltd, Tianjin Branch)
After more than 20 years’ development, S oilfield has entered high water cut stage. The layer contradiction is prominent and the water flooding condition is complex, which result in the complex decentralized state of the remaining oil. In order to determine the remaining oil distribution to guide the comprehensive adjustment of the oilfield, the reservoir architecture analysis of delta front was conducted.
Based on the core, seismic data, dense well logging data and production performance data, the reservoir architecture of delta front in Dongying group is characterized with hierarchy process, model guidance and numerical simulation methods. In the paper, the distribution style of interlayers in single mouth bar is discussed. The distribution feature of the remaining oil under the control of interlayers is analyzed.
It shows that multiple main channels form continuous mouth bar complex and single mouth bar develops several accretions. Interlayers in single mouth bar express in two forms: the foreset type along the source direction and the arch type perpendicular to the source direction with a low angle from 0.4° to 1.0°. Along the source direction, remaining oil gathers inside accretions whose injection-production does not correspond under the control of interlayers. And the remaining oil is enriched at the front of accretion. In the vertical source direction, the remaining oil accumulates in the high part of accretions. Under the guidance of remaining oil distribution characteristics controlled by reservoir architecture, one horizontal well was deployed. The average output is more than 100m3/d and the water cut is under 30%, which indicates the effect of this reservoir architecture analysis work.
The successful implementation of the horizontal well demonstrates the vital function of the reservoir architecture research for this kind of mature oilfield. This will also be one promising research direct for the overall adjustment and remaining oil tapping.