The artificial lift system (AL) is the most efficient production technique in optimizing production from unconventional horizontal oil and gas wells. Nonetheless, due to declining reservoir pressure during the production life of a well, artificial lifting of oil and gas remains a critical issue. Notwithstanding the attempt by several studies in the past few decades to understand and develop cutting-edge technologies to optimize the application of artificial lift in tight formations, there remains differing assessments of the best approach, AL type, optimum time and conditions to install artificial lift during the life of a well. This report presents a comprehensive review of artificial lift systems application with specific focus on tight oil and gas formations across the world. The review focuses on thirty-three (33) successful and unsuccessful fieldtests in unconventional horizontal wells over the past few decades. The purpose is to apprise the industry and academic researchers on the various AL optimization approaches that have been used and suggest AL optimization areas where new technologies can be developed.
Wang, Zhihua (Northeast Petroleum University) | Zhu, Chaoliang (Northeast Petroleum University) | Lou, Yuhua (PetroChina Daqing Oilfield Engineering Company Limited) | Cheng, Qinglin (Northeast Petroleum University) | Liu, Yang (Northeast Petroleum University) | Wang, Xinyu (PetroChina Daqing Oilfield Company Limited)
Wax crystals can aggregate and precipitate when the oil temperature decreases to below the wax appearance temperature (WAT) of waxy crude oil, which has undesirable effects on the transportation of crude oil in pipelines. Thermodynamic models considering the molecular diffusion, shearing dispersion, and shear stripping as well as hydrodynamic models have been developed for predicting the wax deposition in crude oil pipelines. However, the aggregation behavior of wax crystals during crude oil production and transportation is not well understood. The microscopic rheological parameters have not been related to the bulk flow parameters in the shearing field, and the prediction of the wax deposition behavior under complex conditions is restricted by the vector characteristics of the shearing stress and flow rate. A set of microscopic experiments was performed in this study to obtain the basic information from images of wax crystals in shearing fields. A novel method of fractal dimensional analysis was introduced to elucidate the aggregation behavior of wax crystals in different shear flow fields. The fractal methodology for characterizing wax crystal aggregation was then developed, and a blanket algorithm was introduced to compute the fractal dimension of the aggregated wax crystals. The flow characteristics of waxy crude oil in a pipeline were correlated with the shearing stress work, and a wax deposition model focusing on shearing energy analysis was established. The results indicate that a quantitative interpretation of the wax crystal aggregation behavior can be realized using the fractal methodology. The aggregation behavior of the wax crystals is closely related to the temperature and shearing experienced by the waxy crude oil. The aggregation behavior will be intensified with decreasing temperature and shearing effect, and a wider fractal dimension distribution appears at lower temperatures when the same shear rate range is employed. The lower the fractal dimensions obtained at high temperature and strong shear action, the weaker will be the nonlinear characteristics of the wax crystal aggregation structure, and thus, the potential wax deposition will be inhibited during waxy crude oil production and transportation. Furthermore, the improved model provides a method for discussing the effects of the operating conditions on wax deposition. The average relative deviation between the improved model prediction results and experimental results from the literature is 3.01%–5.32%. The fractal methodology developed in this study and the improvement in wax deposition modeling are beneficial for understanding and optimizing flow assurance operations in the pipeline transportation of waxy crude oils, and the results are expected to facilitate a better understanding of the wax crystallization and deposition mechanism.
This course discusses the fundamental sand control considerations involved in completing a well and introduces the various sand control techniques commonly used across the industry, including standalone screens, gravel packs, high rate water packs and frac-packs. It requires only a basic understanding of oilfield operations and is intended for drilling, completion and production personnel with some sand control experience who are looking to gain a better understanding of each technique’s advantages, limitations and application window for use in their upcoming completions.
Gas injection is a proven EOR method in the oil industry with many well-documented successful field applications spanning a period of more than five decades. The injected gas composition varies between projects, but is typically hydrocarbon gas, sometimes enriched with intermediate components to ensure miscibility, or carbon dioxide in regions such as the Permian Basin, where supply is available at an attractive price.
Miscible nitrogen injection into oil reservoirs, on the other hand, is a relatively uncommon EOR technique because nitrogen often requires a prohibitively high pressure to reach miscibility. Unlike other injection gases, the minimum miscibility pressure for nitrogen decreases with increasing temperature. In fact, in deep, hot reservoirs containing volatile oil, nitrogen may develop miscibility at a pressure similar to the MMP for hydrocarbon gas or carbon dioxide. The phase behavior is more complicated than what can be captured by correlations and hence requires equation-of-state calculations.
Results from a recent EOR screening study in ADNOC indicate that a couple of high-temperature oil reservoirs in Abu Dhabi may be potential targets for miscible nitrogen injection. This paper discusses key aspects of the EOS modeling. Advanced gas injection PVT data are available to enable a fair comparison between nitrogen, carbon dioxide and lean hydrocarbon gas. In this work, we have modelled and analyzed the phase behavior of two volatile oil systems with respect to nitrogen, hydrocarbon gas, and carbon dioxide injection, as part of a reservoir simulation study, which will be covered in a subsequent publication; see
This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders.
Aker Solutions and FSubsea have agreed to a joint venture, named FASTSubsea, to help operators increase oil recovery. High-concentration polymer flooding can improve oil-displacement efficiency but separation of oil/water mixture becomes more difficult because of emulsification. In this work, a case history of dehydration technology for HCPF production and lab investigation of emulsion behaviors are reviewed. The authors discuss the results of a pilot project to capture post-combustion CO2 for purposes of EOR. Produced water from chemical floods can cause problems for separation and water treatment equipment due to the polymers and surfactants used.
Learn more about training courses being offered. Learn more about training courses being offered. This course covers the fundamental principles concerning how hydraulic fracturing treatments can be used to stimulate oil and gas wells. It includes discussions on how to select wells for stimulation, what controls fracture propagation, fracture width, etc., how to develop data sets, and how to calculate fracture dimensions. The course also covers information concerning fracturing fluids, propping agents, and how to design and pump successful fracturing treatments. Learn more about training courses being offered. Current and future SPE Section and Student Chapter leaders are invited to engage and share. Every attendee leaves energised with a full list of ideas and a support network of fellow leaders. Those sections and student chapters actively participating in this workshop have consistently been recognized with awards as the best in SPE. SPE Cares is a global volunteering drive aimed at promoting, supporting and participating in community services at the SPE section and student chapter’s level. On its official launch this year at ATCE Dubai, SPE Cares will conduct a “Give a Ghaf” Tree Planting Programme to help preserve Ghaf’s cultural and ecological heritage. The Ghaf tree is an indigenous species, specific to UAE, Oman and Saudi Arabia. It is a drought tolerant, evergreen tree that can survive a harsh desert environment. The initiative not only aims to hold events/activities at ATCE, but also recognise community service that SPE members are already conducting in their respective student chapters and professional sections. The KEY Club, open daily, is an exclusive lounge for key SPE members. The lounge is open to those with 25 years or more of continuous membership, Century Club members, current and former SPE Board officers and directors, Honorary and Distinguished Members, as well as this year’s SPE International Award Winners and Distinguished Lecturers. DSATS (SPE’s Drilling Systems Automation Technical Section) will hold a half-day symposium featuring keynote presentations on urban automation. This symposium will explore technologies being used in developing smart cities through the automation of their infrastructure, transportation systems, energy distribution, water systems, street lighting, refuse collection, etc. These efforts rely on many of the same tools needed for drilling systems automation yielding increased efficiencies, lower maintenance and reduced emissions. Their knowledge and experience can guide the path being travelled by the oilfield drilling industry.
PETRONAS FLNG SATU (PFLNG1) is a floating liquefied natural gas facility producing 1.2 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG, on a facility that is 365m long, and 60m wide, making it among the largest offshore facility ever built. The PFLNG1 project is the first of its kind in the world and is the first deployment of PETRONASâ€™ Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) technology, consolidating the traditional offshore to onshore LNG infrastructure into a single facility. This will see a giant floating facility capable of extracting, liquefying and storing LNG at sea, before it is exported to customers around the globe. The FLNG journey has come a long way since 2006, with many technological options explored to monetise and unlock the potential of small and stranded gas fields. Moving an LNG production to an offshore setting poses a demanding set of challenges â€“ as every element of a conventional LNG facility needs to fit into an area roughly one quarter the size in the open seas whilst maintaining safety and increased flexibility to LNG production and delivery. The keynote address describes the breakthrough features of PFLNG1 â€“ the worldâ€™s first floating LNG facility; and the pioneering innovation that it brings to the LNG industry.