Penghui, Su (PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Explorationand and Development) | Zhaohui, Xia (PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Explorationand and Development) | Ping, Wang (PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Explorationand and Development) | Liangchao, Qu (PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Explorationand and Development) | xiangwen, Kong (PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Explorationand and Development) | Wenguang, Zhao (PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Explorationand and Development)
Interest has spread to potential unconventional shale reservoirs in the last decades, and they have become an increasingly important source of hydrocarbon. Importantly, pore structure of shale has considerable effects on the storage, seepage and output of the fluids in shale reservoirs so that reliable fractal characteristics are essential. To better understand the evolution characteristics of pore structure for a shale gas condensate reservoir and their influence on liquid hydrocarbon occurrences and reservoir physical properties, we conducted high-pressure mercury intrusion tests (HPMIs), field emission scanning electron microscopies (FESEM), total organic carbon (TOC), Rock-Eval pyrolysis and saturation measurements on samples from the Duvernay formation. Furthermore, the fractal theory is applied to calculate the fractal dimension of the capillary pressure curves, and three fractal dimensions D1, D2 and D3 are obtained. The relationships among the characteristics of the Duvernay shale (TOC, organic matter maturity, fluid saturation), the pore structure parameters (permeability, porosity, median pore size), and the fractal dimensions were investigated.
The results show that the fractal dimension D1 ranges from 2.44 to 2.85, D2 ranges from 2.09 to 2.15 and D3 ranges from 2.35 to 2.48. D2 and D3 have a good positive correlation. The pore system studied mainly consists of organic pores and microfractures, with the percentage of micropores being 50.38%. TOC has a positive relationship with porosity and D3 due to the development of organic pores. D3 has a positive correlation with gas saturation. With increased D3, median pore size shows a decreasing trend and an increase in permeability and porosity, demonstrating that D3 has a large effect on pore size distribution and the heterogeneity of pore size. In general, D3 has a better correlation with petrophysical and petrochemical parameters. Fractal theory can be applied to better understand the pore evolution, pore size distribution and fluid storage capacity of shale reservoirs.
This paper discusses the successful application of managed-pressure drilling (MPD) in the basin with reduction in risks and well costs. The national oil company’s aim to lift oil and gas production and reserves over the next few years will rely on growth from big international projects, including those in Nigeria, Guyana, and the US. The country continues to step up its delivery of shale gas, but has a long ways to go to meet the government's target. Chevron, ConocoPhillips, Equinor, Shell, and Total are among nine firms looking to explore the Pearl River Mouth Basin. This paper presents a literature review to determine the engineering challenges and opportunities presented by CBM production in China.
The basic objective of this course is to introduce the overview and concept of production optimisation, using nodal analysis as a tool in production optimisation and enhancement. The participants are exposed to the analysis of various elements that help in production system starting from reservoir to surface processing facilities and their effect on the performance of the total production system. Depth conversion of time interpretations is a basic skill set for interpreters. There is no single methodology that is optimal for all cases. Next, appropriate depth methods will be presented. Depth imaging should be considered an integral component of interpretation. If the results derived from depth imaging are intended to mitigate risk, the interpreter must actively guide the process.
Petrobras and Shell have brought online the Lula field’s seventh FPSO as the firms continue to ramp up production from the pre-salt Santos Basin. The national oil company’s aim to lift oil and gas production and reserves over the next few years will rely on growth from big international projects, including those in Nigeria, Guyana, and the US.
Ghawar vs. Permian Basin: Is There Even a Comparison? While some try to put the two enormous oil producers toe-to-toe, the best thing to do might be to understand why they are different. The technical challenges imposed by tight well spacing and fracture interactions have become a focal point of recent earnings calls between investors and the leaders of several shale producers. The picture of the future is becoming clearer, and there are fewer oil wells in it. A new report expects US producers to drill their highest number of wells since 2014, and that completion activity may exceed drilling for the first time since 2016.
Wu, Xiaye (The University of Oklahoma) | Han, Lihong (Tubular Goods Research Institute of CNPC) | Yang, Shangyu (Tubular Goods Research Institute of CNPC) | Yin, Fei (Chengdu University of Technology) | Teodoriu, Catalin (The University of Oklahoma) | Wu, Xingru (The University of Oklahoma)
Due to the layered texture and sedimentation environment, shale formations usually characterized as high heterogeneity and anisotropy in in-situ stresses. During the hydraulic fracturing process, fracturing fluid is injected at a pressure above the formation pressure. This injection process changes the local in-situ stresses in a quick and significant manner while generating fracture systems. In the regions of existing geo-features such as natural fractures and faults, local stress changes could lead to the activation of formation movement, which in return impacts the casing going through the locale. Casing deformations during hydraulic fracturing have been observed in Southwest China Sichuan basin, and it have impeded completion operations in certain regions. In order to ensure further exploring, we analyszed this phenomenon and propose practical solutions for fault reactivation prevention.
To study the mechanism of local slippage and the impact on casing integrity, we set up a 2D finite element model with considerations of in-situ stresses acquired from fields, natural fracture orientation from available seismic data, and we simulated water injection process in order to quantify potential slippage and displacement. The finite element model features an integration of casing, cementing, and formation under the hydraulic fracturing conditions. For particular parameters such as permeability and leak-off coefficeint, we conducted sensitivity studies to quantify their impacts on displacement amount.
The theoretical geomechanics studies indicate water induced slippage existence in shale due to its fracture reactivation. Using the finite element model, this paper interpreted and quantified the impact of fracturing fluid injection on casing from strike-slip fault regiems. Simulation results revealed that water injection into natural fractured shale formation can induce finite displacement characterized as fault slippage along discontinues surfaces. This study could help engineers to have a better prediction as how hydraulic fracture intereact with subsurface structures and potential risks that comes along with it. This type of casing damage can be reduced by improving well trajectory design, completion operation, and higher strength level of casing-cement system.
The findings from this study not only can be applied to naturally fractured formations, but also to other pre-existing geo-features such as discountinues surfaces. It also provides fundamental basis for more practical solution to find the measures and overcome the casing deformation problems in hydraulic fracturing.
Lu, Cong (Southwest Petroleum University) | Li, Junfeng (Southwest Petroleum University) | Luo, Yang (SINOPEC Southwest Oil & Gas field Company) | Chen, Chi (Southwest Petroleum University) | Xiao, Yongjun (Sichuan Changning Gas Development Co. Ltd) | Liu, Wang (Sichuan Changning Gas Development Co. Ltd) | Lu, Hongguang (Huayou Group Company Oilfied Chemistry Company of Southwest) | Guo, Jianchun (Southwest Petroleum University)
Temporary plugging during fracturing operation has become an efficient method to create complex fracture network in tight reservoirs with natural fractures. Accurate prediction of network propagation process plays a critical role in the plugging and fracturing parameters optimization. In this paper, the interaction between one single hydraulic fracture within temporary plugging segment and multiple natural fractures was simulated using a complex fracture development model. A new opening criterion for NF penetrated by non-orthogonal HF already was implemented to identify the dominate propagation direction of HF under plugging condition. Fracture displacements and induced stress field were determined by the three dimensional displacement discontinuity method, and the Gauss-Jordan and Levenberg-Marquardt methods were combined to handle the coupling between rock mechanics and fluid flow numerically. Numerical results demonstrate that the opening and development of NF are mainly dominated by its approaching angle and relative location. For a certain NF crossed by HF within plugging segment, HF tends to propagate along the relative upper part when the approaching angle is less than 90°, otherwise the lower part will be easier to open. The farther interaction position is away from HF tip, the easier NF with approaching angle less than 30° or larger than 150° can be open, and the outcome will be opposite if the approaching angle is larger than 45° or less than 135°. Higher approaching angle and plugging strength is necessary for expanding the position scope of NF that can be opened around HF. Under the impact of plugging, fluid pressure in HF plummets at the beginning of NF opening and keeps decreasing until NF extending for a certain distance or encountering secondary NFs. Fluid pressure drop occurs mainly in the unturned NF, together with the width of unturned NF is significantly lower than that of turned NF and HF. Sensitivity analysis shows that the main factors, such as geometry, aperture profile, and fluid pressure distribution, affecting the network progress under temporary plugging condition are the horizontal differential stress, NF position, approaching angle, plugging time, and plugging segment length. The simulation results provide critical insight into complex fracture propagation progress under temporary plugging condition, which should serve as guidelines for welling choosing and plugging optimization in temporary plugging fracturing.
Liu, Wei (BGP, CNPC, Chengdu University of technology) | He, Zhenhua (Chengdu University of technology) | Cao, Junxing (Chengdu University of technology) | Zhang, Jianjun (BGP, CNPC) | Xu, Gang (BGP, CNPC) | Wan, Xiaoping (BGP, CNPC) | Yu, Gang (BGP, CNPC)
Shale play, as one kind of non-conventional natural gas resource, has become the focus of domestic and overseas research in recent years. shale is pertained to be a reservoir with an ultralow porosity and permeability, its occurrence mode, accumulation pattern of natural gas, as well as development model are remarkably different conventional oil gas reservoirs, its development must be implemented by some special technique, e.g. horizontal drilling, drilling geologic steering, hydraulic fracturing, microseismic monitor, etc. Research shows, shale gas production depends on two factors, one is geological sweet spot factor, e.g. Total organic carbon, brittleness, core fluid pressure, micro-fractures, high quality shale thickness etc., the other is engineer technique factors, e.g. horizontal drilling, drilling geologic steering, hydraulic fracturing, microseismic monitor, fracturing schemes, etc. Single factor, sweet spots or engineering technique factor often not guarantee shale gas highly production, only when the most optimal combination of both, can achieve shale gas production maximization. How to integrate sweet spots and engineering technique to guide shale gas exploration and development? This is a serious question. This question involves to many fields, including geology and engineer sweet spots, horizontal well location deployment, drilling geologic steering, pre-fracturing warning and design, hydraulic fracturing design real-time adjustment, microseismic monitoring, etc., sweet spots results runs through the entire shale exploration and development. In this article, we will pay more attention to demonstrate that how to adjust the fracturing scheme and optimize the reservoir stimulation in real time by integrated geological sweet Spot and microseismic monitor.
Chen, Xin (BGP) | Wang, Guihai (CNODC) | Wang, Zhaofeng (CNODC) | Liu, Zundou (CNODC) | Liu, Zhaowei (CNODC) | Cui, Yi (CNODC) | Tian, Wenyuan (CNODC) | Wei, Xiaodong (BGP) | Hou, Liugen (BGP) | Yang, Ke (BGP) | Chen, Gang (BGP) | Xia, Yaliang (BGP) | Yan, Xiaohuan (BGP) | Zhang, Zeren (BGP) | Liu, Jingluan (BGP)
To improve the accuracy of permeability prediction, seismic constraint and sedimentary facies has often been adopted in conventional methods. However, it is porosity that both of them constrain, rather than permeability, and different pore structure with different permeability, the accuracy of permeability prediction cannot be radically improved. To address the problem of permeability prediction in carbonate reservoir, new permeability prediction technique workflow were summarized based on pore structure analysis and multi-parameters seismic inversion: division reservoir types based on the pore structure, construction of the rock types identification curve, carry out a rock type inversion and a porosity inversion constrained by seismic impedance respectively, and then get a final permeability prediction volume according to the porosity-permeability relationship and pore structure of core samples. It breaks the bottleneck that is difficult for seismic impedance (continuous variable) to constrain rock type (discrete variable), then constrains pore structure (continuous variable) related to rock type instead, and converts it into rock type using multi-parameters seismic inversion. According to the certification of new wells, this workflow have been applied successfully in carbonate reservoir of H oilfield in Middle East, it not only improves the prediction of rock type in space, but also permeability prediction accuracy.
Xue, Heng (China Zhenhua Oil Co., Ltd, State Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University) | Huang, Zuxi (China Zhenhua Oil Co., Ltd) | Liu, Fei (Engineering Technology Research Institute, PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gas Field Company) | Liu, Pingli (State Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University) | Wang, Hehua (China Zhenhua Oil Co., Ltd) | Zhang, Bo (China Zhenhua Oil Co., Ltd) | Cheng, Yi (China Zhenhua Oil Co., Ltd) | He, Bing (China Zhenhua Oil Co., Ltd) | Chen, Xiang (State Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University)
Leakoff has been regarded as the key factor affecting live acid penetration distance and fracture etching patterns. The current leakoff coefficient model is insufficient to describe dynamic acid leakoff in the comprehensive matrix-vug-fracture medium. Furthermore, the carbonate reservoir medium is normally complex because of physical and mineral heterogeneity, which makes the acid leakoff process much more complicated. In order to increase the prediction accuracy of acid fracturing, the leakoff behavior of the matrix, wormhole & fracture and its’ related heterogenous etching patterns must be highlighted clearly.
In this paper, the leakoff experiments were performed under high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) to study the leakoff behavior for the matrix, wormhole & fracture respectively. Integrated with the experimental results, the wormhole leakoff model was developed considering the matrix and fracture medium. Based on the split rock, the conductivity of the acid etched fracture was studied to understand the effects of acid type, acid fracturing technique, closure stress, fracture roughness, mineral composition and structure on the conductivity. the integrated acid fracturing equation was developed through coupling the pseudo 3D fracture propagation model, wormhole leakoff model and the fracture heterogenous etching model. The solution was used to optimize technique parameters and predict acid fracturing effects in the carbonate reservoir.
According to the studies, the acid leakoff in the matrix agrees with Carter leakoff theory, while leakoff in the wormhole do not. The acid leakoff increases sharply with the wormhole propagation, and it has the quadratic relation with t^1/2 in the fracture. The mineral heterogeneity highly affects fracture etching patterns. Closed acidizing is an efficient method to enhance etching depth, therefore increasing fracture conductivity. The simulation results show that acid leakoff rates along the fracture length change locally and dynamically because of reservoir heterogeneity and the reaction between acid and rocks. The average leakoff rate on the fracture surface ranges in the magnitude of 10-4~10-3m/min, which tends to generate face-dissolution on the fracture surface. When the acid connects the natural fractures, the leakoff rate is sharply increased.
More than 10 wells’ acid fracturing proposals were designed based on the above works in the Upper Sinian Dengying Fm gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin of China. The simulated acid fracture length ranges from 23.4~42.6m, which is close to the well test results of 18.4~45.3m.