This review is based on latest application of nanoparticles in hydraulic fracturing, and their feasibility as compared to other conventional methods. Focusing on technical, economic, mechanisms and direction of future research. Current status and advancement give a promising future application by using unique properties of nanomaterials such as small sizes, stability, magnetic properties and surface area which are yet to be exploited to full potential. Nano materials can be inculcated in drilling in all forms. From acting as additives in drilling mud there by enhancing density, gel breaking strength, viscosity, acting as a proppant, cross linking agent etc.
There are certain problems which are difficult to overcome using macro and micro type additives due to limitations in physical, chemical and environmental characteristics. Hence, the scientists are looking for such smart fluids which can overcome these limitations. Compared to their parent materials, nanoparticles can be modified physically, chemically, electrically, thermally, thermodynamic properties and interaction potential of nanomaterial. However more investment, work and pilot projects are required to understand properties of nanomaterials at reservoir temperature and pressure.
Nanomaterials such as aluminium oxide, zinc oxide, copper oxide, silicon dioxide, low cost carbon nanotubes, fly ash nanoparticles in unconventional reservoirs need to be further researched. Moreover, focus should be put on economic analysis, performance at reservoir conditions, cross linking and agglomeration properties, wettability alterations, interfacial tensions properties. The enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from unconventional reservoirs through wettability alterations and interfacial tension decrement by nanomaterials and combined use of fracturing fluid system comprising of VES, foams, proppants gives a promising future application.
SPE is educating the next generation of aspiring engineers, scientists and managers about the oil and gas industry. This is an opportunity for school students in grades 9–12, studying Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Geography or interested in Petroleum Engineering are invited to join SPE members from all over the globe to discover the world of Petroleum Engineering. School teachers are invited to bring a group of 10–15 students. Students will be treated to a range of hands-on activities and presentations from renowned engineers. The oil price outlook coupled with the response of each oil and gas company to make ends meet has led to severe exploration budget cuts.
A case study on improving waterflood surveillance aided by a better understanding of the correlation between various water injectors and oil producers completed in the shallowest sub-layer of a giant multi-layered matured carbonate reservoir in Mumbai Offshore Basin is presented here. This understanding is then used to gauge effectiveness of the prolonged waterflood programme and to identify ‘target wells’ for optimizing water injection rate. The inferences of this analysis were tested using a simulation model.
Production, injection and pressure data of all wells completed in this sub-layer were extracted. The reservoir injection and withdrawal rates were computed using PVT data which were subsequently fed into an in-house developed streamline simulation program that generates a matrix of flow-based well rate allocation factors (WAF) correlating injection to withdrawal for each individual well as a part of its output. The analysis of injection efficiency per well was carried out in two scenarios viz. with current rates for effective waterflood surveillance and at a cumulative level with averaged rates to identify areas of deficiencies and optimize future injection rates.
Flow-based allocation factors provided a better picture than traditionally employed distance weighted technique owing to the underlying physics involved in describing streamline distribution in the reservoir. Results of analysis at the cumulative level indicated wells where injection efficiency, as measured by the ratio of injection rate to sum of streamlines-weighted withdrawal rates from connected producers, substantially deviates from 1. Few wells had an injector efficiency significantly higher than 1 which defined over-injection and potential recycling while a large number of injector wells had ratios of less than 1, highlighting the need to step-up injection rates and devise strategies for rigorous surveillance. To achieve the latter objective, injection-centric WAF's were regenerated at current situation with current rates and the dynamic nature of these factors could be observed by noting their slight difference with respect to previously estimated factors. This is attributed to averaged-out flow rates limiting the influence of newer high-rate producers and injectors. Nonetheless, wells in areas demanding attention are identified and requisite injection rates are assigned. These changes are included in the history-matched simulation model used for redevelopment activities and results were compared with a do-nothing case. The significant incremental recovery proves as a validation of the methodology adopted.
Waterflood surveillance on a well-to-well basis is always difficult in a matured field where water injectors are deployed in a ubiquitous fashion. This approach has rarely been employed in a reservoir of the size of Mumbai High and can be extended to other sub-layers subject to positive results from field implementation. Thus it is an endeavour to monitor waterflood effectiveness at a large field scale and could be beneficial for similarly developed fields.
The paper presents a case of applying classical reservoir engineering technique of material balance to one of the major carbonate reservoir in the western offshore basin in India that eventually led to establishment of more hydrocarbon volumes.
During Material Balance calculation, multiple runs were performed to match the pressure performance with a balance between the aquifer strength and hydrocarbon volume that was in agreement with geological understanding and performance of the field. The analysis indicated extra energy support that may be in the form of aquifer or higher in-place volumes. Following the in-house developed SIMEX (Simultaneous Exploration) approach a vertical well was identified for testing below assumed lowest known oil (LKO) limit.
The material balance study formed the basis for revisiting the geological understanding. The establishment of oil through the testing of well necessitated the revision of geological maps and re-estimation of hydrocarbon in-place volumes. Accordingly property maps have been prepared and volumes are revised. The revised volumes are about 14% more than the previous estimation. Similar approach was successfully applied to another reservoir in the Mumbai High field. Presence of more established oil will help in planning future strategies for field development.
Especially in fields where enough pressure production history is available, it is important to reassess the field's potential from time to time through simple and classical techniques available. Fields with multiple reservoirs have added advantage of developing the established hydrocarbons through zone transfer and in turn saving significant cost of drilling new well. This being a proven and classical technique, can be applied to other analogous reservoirs.
An Under Balanced Drilling (UBD) pilot project in the Heera and Mumbai High fields of Western offshore India was recently completed successfully. The objective of the project was to establish whether the technology can improve productivity performance in the reservoir section, avoid reservoir damage and thereby enhance oil production from the wells. This paper incorporates the drilling experiences and challenges faced during execution of this pilot project, the well design considerations and methodology, evaluation of the drilling fluid systems and also describes the tangible benefits of using this technology in the drilling of these sections and wells. In terms of the productivity gains from drilling these wells using UBD technology, through the sub-hydrostatic formations offshore Mumbai, the results were very positive. With the success and encouraging results from the pilot project, more wells are now planned, including wells in the losses-prone and depleted Mumbai High and Neelam fields, to incorporate the experiences of the learning curve.
Panna Formation is a very critical and challenging formation deposited during Paleocene time of geological past in various parts of Western Offshore Basin of India. It was deposited in a fluvio-deltaic environment, sometimes even in a restricted marine set-up. Such variation in depositional setting caused mineralogical complexity, which in-turn imposed a limitation in conventional approach of formation evaluation and saturation determination to identify the pay zones with confidence. A comprehensive approach of integrated formation evaluation for rock quality characterization was attempted using a combination of new generation elemental and acoustic analysis for delineating the potential hydrocarbon bearing zones independent of conventional resistivity-based approach along with a better insight on formation heterogeneity. The studied well was drilled up to Panna Formation and conventional open-hole logs were acquired while drilling. However, due to complex mineralogical nature of the formation, estimation of key critical reservoir parameters was very challenging and imposed higher uncertainties in the results. An alternate approach was adopted using a few advanced log measurements to address this challenge. A combination of new generation elemental and acoustic data has been recorded in a single wireline run after acquiring conventional basic logs while drilling. An accurate porosity was derived by eliminating various mineralogical assemblages along with estimation of a geochemical permeability based on detailed elemental analysis. Measured aluminum from neutron inelastic capture spectrum method enabled to estimate clay volumes with accuracy, which provided the required insight for better effective porosity in such shaly-sand environment. Based on this improved porosity and permeability, an approach for rock-quality indexing was used for reservoir delineation.
Moreover, a good amount of organic carbon was found associated with clays caused shales with higher resistivity. Based on elemental measurements an interesting insight was possible to extract for resistivity independent fluid saturation. An additional pay zone with hydrocarbon saturation based on such resistivity independent approach was possible to identify, which was masked by conventional resistivity-based interpretation. Acoustic analysis results assisted in delineating the zones with possible open fractures to avoid any possibility for unwanted fluid breakthrough.
Based on this approach of alternate integrated petrophysical analysis perforation zones were selected including an additional zone, which was masked based on conventional analysis. The well was started producing around 1,05,000 m3 gas with around 200 barrels of oil per day. This study showcased an alternate and efficient characterization approach for any such mineralogically challenging clastic formations.
The Kreuz Glorious has accommodation for 304 people and an eight-point mooring system. It will be deployed for a 2-year project in the Arabian sea for ONGC. Kreuz Subsea and Seamec have successfully completed the mobilization of the Kreuz Glorious vessel as part of a 2-year project with India’s Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC). The scope of work includes the inspection of 27 offshore jackets in the Mumbai High North, Mumbai High South, Heera, Neelam, and Bassien assets located off the coast of Mumbai in the Arabian Sea. The Kreuz Glorious has a 1200-m2 deck area, with accommodation for 304 people and an eight-point mooring system.
Liu, Lang (CNPC Middle East) | Zheng, Xiaowu (CNPC Middle East) | He, E (CNPC Middle East) | Liu, Fang (Research Institute of PetroChina Exploration and Development) | Luo, Hong (Research Institute of PetroChina Exploration and Development)
Mishrif carbonate formation is widely developed in Iraq and other areas of Middle East. When it comes to carbonate reservoir water injection development, the high heterogeneity commonly existed in carbonate reservoirs makes water flow complicated and performance of water injection differed from reservoir to reservoir. The existence of high permeability stripes and zones would make the problem more complicated and always result water early break through and poor sweep of the reservoir. Water injection pilots started recently in Mishrif carbonate reservoirs in M Field and N Field in southern Iraq. The objectives of these pilots were to investigate the feasibility to conduction water flooding in the Mishrif carbonate reservoirs, including test the injectivity and its change through time, sweep efficiency, responses from offset producers, investigate the methods that can be applied to tackle the problems brought by high permeability zones in water injection. The pilots were carried out in two different well patterns in the two fields, one is inverted nine spots pattern and the other is vertical-horizontal well pattern with vertical well as injector. In one pilot, separated injection was applied to avoid water channeling and improved producer performance. 3D numerical model was applied to track and monitor water sweep during the pilot. It was found out that directional connectivity and high permeability zones were developed in these reservoirs and resulted in early water breakthrough and quick increase of water cut in offset producers. This effect impact vertical and lateral sweep greatly and lower recovery potential in future field water flooding development if not well learned and handled. The challenges are to make description of these directional connectivity and distribution of high permeability zones in reservoir description and modeling and find effective ways in field operations to avoid the negative impact of them in field scale water flooding. To tackle the challenges, integrated reservoir study of multi-discipline is necessary in order to make full description of high permeability zones and reservoir heterogeneity and understand their mechanism on water sweep. It is suggested to pay additional attention to high permeability zone as a key factor in reservoir development of these kinds of reservoirs and integrated the study results into the design of field development plan in an early stage, to narrow the uncertainties brought by them and reduce development risks.
Al-Jumah, Ali (Shell Iraq Petroleum Development) | Doush, Mohamad (Shell Iraq Petroleum Development) | Alharthy, Said (Shell Iraq Petroleum Development) | Lalji, Farhad (Shell Iraq Petroleum Development)
With limited and scarce subsurface and surface data, it becomes quite challenging to monitor a rather large field, having more than 50 wells actively producing, and actively optimize the production, achieving the desired production rates and maximizing the benefit for the operator and partners. The field in question was inherited from the previous operator, with 27 legacy wells, and a surface facility capable of processing ca. 100kbb/d of crude. Additional processing facility was installed to double the legacy capacity and 30 wells drilled by the time of preparing this paper for supplying the crude. The field had a shut-in period of 14 months in 2011-12 for various upgrades and surface works. It was then necessary to introduce an integrated modelling tool, to allow for a more efficient control and monitoring of the producing asset, combining all the components together and testing the interactions between the different system parts.
The Integrated Production System Model (IPSM) was built based on the principle of following the oil molecule from the pore throat to the export. As such, it comprises of three main components, linking the subsurface to the surface, those are: Reservoir Models (built with Petex® MBAL©) Well Models (built with Petex® PROSPER©) Trunklines/Flowlines and Separators (built with Petex® GAP©)
Reservoir Models (built with Petex® MBAL©)
Well Models (built with Petex® PROSPER©)
Trunklines/Flowlines and Separators (built with Petex® GAP©)
Petroleum Experts® (Petex) develop the Integrated Production modelling software suite that comprises the tools mentioned above and are the company's proprietary. The current version of the IPSM is used in variety of situations; these include mainly but not limited to: Medium Term Production Forecasting (MTPF) Production System Optimization (PSO) Opportunities assessment Identification of bottlenecks Further well scoping
Medium Term Production Forecasting (MTPF)
Production System Optimization (PSO)
Identification of bottlenecks
Further well scoping
The IPSM has facilitated the application of many processes, allowing for a faster and more informed decision making, these include: Optimization: as required and identified in PSO Meetings, optimization activities are carried out as part of increasing the total system production output, which adds more value to this process MTPF: generated on a monthly basis, the MTPF clearly highlights the production pitfalls, and the expected targets with a given set of assumption, and honouring the constraints that exist in the system, allowing for proper future planning, and the need for well scoping studies and highlight of the requirements to meet the desirable targets Maturing opportunities and assessing their system gains and impact on system
Optimization: as required and identified in PSO Meetings, optimization activities are carried out as part of increasing the total system production output, which adds more value to this process
MTPF: generated on a monthly basis, the MTPF clearly highlights the production pitfalls, and the expected targets with a given set of assumption, and honouring the constraints that exist in the system, allowing for proper future planning, and the need for well scoping studies and highlight of the requirements to meet the desirable targets
Maturing opportunities and assessing their system gains and impact on system
This paper presents the process of building and maintaining an IPSM model throughout the different phases of a super giant field's life, from early production days with limited wells and data to the point of having real time data transferred to the office, fully utilizing the available data help make decisions that maximizes and eliminates waste.
Entry Overview: ZADCO Senior Management along with ADMA Initiated Project of Enhancing Zakum Field's Marine Safety to the highest HSE Standards/best practices as a step forward in Risk Management by investigating all root causes of previous incidents, setting and implementing the recommendations to close the gap and strengthen the safety barriers.