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TECTONIC FRAMEWORK OF SOUTHEAST ASIA AND AUSTRALASIA; ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN THE OCCURRENCE OF PETROLEUM Abstract The structural entities together forming the tectonic framework of Southeast Asia and Australasia are herein defined according to the type of crust underlying them. As these units of the tectonosphere range widely in age, thickness, composition, and tectonic history and style, each is associated commonly with a cover of sedimentary and igneous rocks of which the thick- ness, lithology, and structure are to some degree controlled by underlying or adjacent crustal elements. Consequently, the potentialities of the cover for the generation and storage of hydrocarbons bear some relationship to crustal entities, of which cratons and continental margins offer the best prospects for the discovery of oil or gas in commercial quantities. Résumé Les entités structurales qui forment conjointement le bâti tectonique de l'Asie du Sud-Est et de l'Austral- asie sont ici définies d'après le type de croûte terrestre sous-jacente à chaque entité. Comme ces éléments de la tectonosphère varient considérablement en âge, épaisseur, composition, et en histoire et style tec- tonique, chacun d'entre eux est en général associé à une couverture de roches sédimentaires et ignées dont l'épaisseur, la lithologie, et la structure sont contrôlées, jusqu'à un certain point, par des éléments de la croûte terrestre sous-jacents ou adjacents. En conséquence, le potentiel de la couverture, en ce qui concerne la génération et la conservation des hydrocarbures, est lié par certaines relations aux entités de la croûte, parmi lesquels les cratons et les marges continentales offrent les meilleures possibilités de découverte de pétrole ou de gaz en quantités commerciales. 1.
Southeast Asia is here defined as that part of the Eurasian continent between Afghanistan and Korea, and the islands on its periphery-the Malay Archi- pelago, Taiwan, and the Ryukyus. Australasia includes Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and Southern Oceania. Thus delimited, the purview of this discussion embraces 120 degrees of longitude between latitudes 47"s and 40"N and covers 116687516 km2 (see Fig. 1). Limitations on space impose cursory treatment of our subject: the relationships between the principal elements that comprise the tectonic framework of the region, and the known and suspected occurrence of petroleum. Furthermore, because some of the nations in this region release only meagre information con- cerning exploration for, and production of, oil and gas within their borders, and as other participants in this ~ ~~ ~ ~ by N. J. SANDER and W. E. HUMPHREY, Amoco International Oil Company, U.S.A., and J. F. MASON, Continental Oil Company, U.S.A. panel describe these activities in seven discrete regions in the Far East, we present factual and inferred data available to us regarding these matters only in the form of tables (Tables 1-111 an
- - Section I Paper 25 PD 3 INDIA EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT FOR OIL IN INDIA L. P. Mathure - G. Kohlif Abstract tested, others will be tested in the very near future. 1. Data on the prospective sedimentary basins of India Proposed programme (for 1961-1966) includes drilling of was presented at the Fifth World Petroleum Congress. over 600 wells by the Oil & Natural Gas Commission alone Since then a large volume of exploratory effort has been and a corresponding increase in geological and geo- put in and new oil-fields were discovered. Development physical activity. drilling has indicated the nature of accumulations and 3. Firm plans have been chalked out for extending explo- given direction for further search. Total information avail- ration in off-shore areas in the Gulf of Cambay and explo- able is summarised in the paper; the stratigraphy and the ration off the Coast of Kutch (in the west) and the Cora- structure of the oil-fields are also illustrated graphically. manda1 Coast (in the south-east) are being considered. Present thinking on the future trends of exploration and 4. Production from the new oil-fields in Assam is obtain- development is presented. ed from sandstone horizons in the ,,Barail series" (Oli- 2. With the partition of the country in August, 1947, India gocene) and in Gujarat from sandstone horizons ranging was left with only the small Digboi oil-field (Assam) with in age from Eocene to basal Miocene. a production of 5,140 barrels per day. Exploration (and 5. Production of crude from the Assam oil-fields (Oil development) in the country is being carried out by India Limited fields) is being fed to a refinery at Nunmati a) Government agency (Oil and Natural Gas Commission) near Gauhati with a capacity of 0.75 million tons. Further i n all major sedimentary basins, refining capacity (2 million tons) for oil from the fields b) by the Government of India in collaboration with Bur- in Assam will be installed in Bihar at Barauni. Trial pro- mah Oil Company (Oil India Limited) which has a con- duction from the Oil and Natural Gas Commission's An- cession over 2396 sq. miles in Upper Assam Valley; klesvar field has started and will soon be stepped up to included in the concession area are the Nahorkatiya- 15,000 barrels per day. At present the crude is being Hugrijan and Moran oil-fields. Indo-Stanvac Project railed down to the Burmah Shell Refineries at Bombay. (Standard Vacuum Oil Company, Government of India) A refinery with 2 million tons capacity is expected to be for exploration in West Bengal (concession - 10,000 sq. set up by the middle of 1964 near Baroda to process the miles) was wound up after drilling 10 dry holes. Nego- Gujarat crude. tiations are being carried out with foreign oil companies and Foreign State Enterprises for extending exploratory effort independently by them or in collaboration with the Government of India. Increased tempo of exploration, Résumé particularly geophysical activity and exploratory d