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Learn more about training courses being offered. Learn more about training courses being offered. This course covers the fundamental principles concerning how hydraulic fracturing treatments can be used to stimulate oil and gas wells. It includes discussions on how to select wells for stimulation, what controls fracture propagation, fracture width, etc., how to develop data sets, and how to calculate fracture dimensions. The course also covers information concerning fracturing fluids, propping agents, and how to design and pump successful fracturing treatments. Learn more about training courses being offered. Current and future SPE Section and Student Chapter leaders are invited to engage and share. Every attendee leaves energised with a full list of ideas and a support network of fellow leaders. Those sections and student chapters actively participating in this workshop have consistently been recognized with awards as the best in SPE. SPE Cares is a global volunteering drive aimed at promoting, supporting and participating in community services at the SPE section and student chapter’s level. On its official launch this year at ATCE Dubai, SPE Cares will conduct a “Give a Ghaf” Tree Planting Programme to help preserve Ghaf’s cultural and ecological heritage. The Ghaf tree is an indigenous species, specific to UAE, Oman and Saudi Arabia. It is a drought tolerant, evergreen tree that can survive a harsh desert environment. The initiative not only aims to hold events/activities at ATCE, but also recognise community service that SPE members are already conducting in their respective student chapters and professional sections. The KEY Club, open daily, is an exclusive lounge for key SPE members. The lounge is open to those with 25 years or more of continuous membership, Century Club members, current and former SPE Board officers and directors, Honorary and Distinguished Members, as well as this year’s SPE International Award Winners and Distinguished Lecturers. DSATS (SPE’s Drilling Systems Automation Technical Section) will hold a half-day symposium featuring keynote presentations on urban automation. This symposium will explore technologies being used in developing smart cities through the automation of their infrastructure, transportation systems, energy distribution, water systems, street lighting, refuse collection, etc. These efforts rely on many of the same tools needed for drilling systems automation yielding increased efficiencies, lower maintenance and reduced emissions. Their knowledge and experience can guide the path being travelled by the oilfield drilling industry.
SPE is educating the next generation of aspiring engineers, scientists and managers about the oil and gas industry. This is an opportunity for school students in grades 9–12, studying Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Geography or interested in Petroleum Engineering are invited to join SPE members from all over the globe to discover the world of Petroleum Engineering. School teachers are invited to bring a group of 10–15 students. Students will be treated to a range of hands-on activities and presentations from renowned engineers. The oil price outlook coupled with the response of each oil and gas company to make ends meet has led to severe exploration budget cuts.
Decisions in E&P ventures are affected by Bias, Blindness, and Illusions (BBI) which permeate our analyses, interpretations and decisions. This one-day course examines the influence of these cognitive pitfalls and presents techniques that can be used to mitigate their impact. Bias refers to errors in thinking whereby interpretations and judgments are drawn in an illogical fashion. Blindness is the condition where we fail to see an unexpected event in plain sight. Illusions refer to misleading beliefs based on a false impression of reality. All three can lead to poor decisions regarding which work to undertake, what issues to focus on, and whether to forge ahead or walk away from a project. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders. Examples are provided including corporate, business unit and department case studies. This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets.
This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders. Examples are provided including corporate, business unit and department case studies. Safety leadership focuses on the Human Factors (HF) which complement technical training to optimise reliability, safety, compliance, efficiency, and risks within a team-based environment. The IOGP laid down the HF skills and competencies required, and they form the basis for specialised O&G HF training's delivered by Mission Performance. This 1-day course reviews the key human factors but then also reviews what can be done to accelerate and scale operational roll-out for optimum and sustained impact, including integration with existing safety processes and (reporting) systems, refreshers, assessments, measurements, as well as the role of leadership and culture. Decisions in E&P ventures are affected by Bias, Blindness, and Illusions (BBI) which permeate our analyses, interpretations and decisions. This one-day course examines the influence of these cognitive pitfalls and presents techniques that can be used to mitigate their impact. Bias refers to errors in thinking whereby interpretations and judgments are drawn in an illogical fashion.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Drilling began in the SL-5-11 block in the deepwater shelf of west Africa. The targeted depth is 4700 m in water depths of more than 2000 m. Lukoil Overseas (49%) is the operator in partnership with Oranto (30%) and PanAtlantic (21%). Asia Pacific Drilling began on an exploration well in Block G4/50 in the Gulf of Thailand. The planned depth is 2350 m targeting Miocene sandstones. The well is estimated to contain mean prospective recoverable resources of 30 million bbl of oil. Salamander Energy is the operator with a 100% interest. Drilling has been completed on the Klalin-14 development well located in the West Papua region of Indonesia. The well encountered 81 ft of total net pay and tested production rates of 9.8 MMscf/D of natural gas and 220 B/D of condensate on a 24/64-in.
Moharana, Abhishek (Schlumberger) | Mahapatra, Mahabir Prasad (Schlumberger) | Chakraborty, Subrata (Schlumberger) | Biswal, Debakanta (Adani Welspun Exploration Limited) | Havelia, Khushboo (Schlumberger)
Petroleum Geologists typically study hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs, understand the geology, and build numerical models to help better produce hydrocarbon. On the other hand, conventional sedimentologists try to simulate the natural process of sedimentation in laboratory through miniature sand box models to better understand such processes. But a proper integration of the laboratory-based techniques in developing subsurface reservoirs models was always lacking in the industry.
Petroleum geologists developed computer based geostatistical techniques based quantitative statistics like variograms, histograms to develop stochastic models of reservoirs which could be used to put a number and range on the geological uncertainty. However, geostatistics deals more with regularly sampled data, describing their spatial variability and directionality. In development oil fields with many wells sampling the reservoir, geostatistics helps us to create a more predictive subsurface reservoir model. However, in the exploratory state of a field with few drilled wells, the data for geostatistical analysis reduces and a robust conceptual geological is needed to build a predictive subsurface geological model where a proper integration of sedimentology and petroleum geology is required.
Different approaches like conceptual block diagrams of depositional models, average sand distribution maps, training images from present day analogs were tried. However, these were less than optimal, deterministic with a long turnaround time for any robust subsurface reservoir model.
A relatively recent addition to the geologist's set of quantitative tools has been Geologic Process Modeling (GPM), also known as Forward Stratigraphic Modeling (FSM) technique. This technique aims to digitally model the natural processes of erosion, transport and deposition of clastic sediments, as well as carbonate growth and redistribution based on quantitative deterministic physical principles (
In the current study a 3D reservoir model for a field in Western Offshore India was built based on the results of Geological Process Model (GPM) for the thin deltaic reservoir sands as understanding reservoir continuity from seismic data was not possible. With only 4 wells available in the field, traditional geostatistics based reservoir models were inadequate in explaining the reservoir distribution. GPM based techniques helped not only in mapping the reservoir continuity but also opened up new areas for exploration in the area.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments are performed on the nuclei of atoms by exposing these nuclei to magnetic field. NMR measurement is lithology- independent as the only source of the measured signal is from the pore fluids. As the pore fluids interact with rock surfaces, the rock matrix influences the fluid response and complicate the data interpretation. In this regard, two phenomena, namely internal gradients and restricted diffusion, come into the picture. In porous media, contrast in the magnetic susceptibility of rock grains and pore fluids might lead to significant magnetic-field inhomogeneities. The internal gradients resulting from these local field heterogeneities can cause further reduction in T2 relaxation times as well as the T2 cutoff. Under specific conditions, more precisely, in a free-diffusion regime, internal magnetic-field gradients can be calculated from the increase in the transverse relaxation rate of pore fluids with increasing interecho time.
A comprehensive NMR study was carried out on two distinct formations/pays from two different basins located in the eastern and western parts of India, namely, low- resistivity, low-contrast (LRLC) pay of the Tipam formation (Charali field, Assam and Assam Arakan basin) and the Chhatral pay of the Cambay shale formation (Gamij field, Cambay basin). The influence of magnetically susceptible material on NMR T2 relaxation and hence, on T2 cutoffs, has been analyzed.
We studied echo-spacing dependence on the diffusion component of transverse relaxation and could observe different asymptotic relaxation regimes. In the present study, T1/T2 2D laboratory data have also been acquired and T1/T2 ratios have been studied alongside the echo-spacing dependence of T2 relaxation. In two presented case studies, although we have contrasting permeability ranges (poor in one set/field to moderate/high in other), we obtained perceptibly low T2 cutoff values (compared to a default 33- ms T2 cutoff) for both cases.
Our study shows the presence of an internal field gradient, which in turn indicates a magnetic susceptibility contrast between pore-filling fluids and rock matrix. The presence of paramagnetic minerals is one of the factors in lowering the T2 cutoff values that has also been reported in mineralogical studies. The observed range of T1/T2 ratios indicates the presence of varying size, susceptibility, concentration and distribution of magnetically susceptible sites as well as different orders of grain sizes.
Government of India has set an ambitious target of reducing hydrocarbon import. Increasing oil & gas production is one of the measures by which oil & gas import dependency can be reduced. Despite relatively low crude prices globally, substantial E&P activities have been carried out in the country in the last decade, which has witnessed an exponential increase in exploration of oil and gas reserves. Many new fields were discovered during this exploration campaign out of which, few are potential traps containing hydrocarbons. Kutch and Saurashtra Basin off Gujarat coast is one of the exploration fields that involves trap drilling to explore reservoir sands below. Recently for the very first time, in a decade, oil reserves have been discovered in prospective sedimentary basin of Saurashtra. (DGH India Outlook, 2017-18)
Drilling in this basin is characterized by slow rate of penetration (ROP), frequent bit trips, drill string failure, and high well cost. The 12 1/4-in section in this offshore block typically drills through very hard, abrasive and thick layers of Basaltic formation (known as Deccan Trap) with unconfined compressive strength (UCS) between 18-42 kpsi. Conventional polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits and roller cone (RC) bits faced extreme cutting structure damage and delivered poor ROPs in this section. In this paper, challenges of drilling approximately 2,200 m of hard and abrasive Deccan Trap in the 12.25-in section is discussed along with a proposed solution of hybrid bit design by combining conical (CDE) and ridged (RDE) diamond elements.
Two new hybrid 8-bladed 16-mm bit were specifically designed for this application. The first bit drilled an interval of 952m with an average ROP of 1.9m/hr and the second bit drilled an interval of 960m with an average ROP of 1.83m/hr. Both the bits came out of the hole in good condition, thereby delivering a benchmark performance in drilling this challenging section. The runs resulted in 40% reduction in cost/meter for this section and saved 36 offshore days for the customer.
Pandey, Vivek (ONGC Ltd) | Dimri, Sunil Kumar (ONGC Ltd) | Mathur, Dinesh Kumar (ONGC Ltd) | Singh, Raman Kumar (ONGC Ltd) | Dutt, Ankit (Schlumberger) | Khataniar, Sanjoy (Schlumberger) | Agarwal, Ankit (Schlumberger) | Herrera, Adrian (Schlumberger) | Fischer, Karsten (Schlumberger) | Darous, Christophe (Schlumberger) | Mukku, Vinil Kumar Reddy (Schlumberger) | Talreja, Rahul (Schlumberger) | Gunasekaran, Dinesh Chinnapparaja (Schlumberger) | Aderemi, Samuel Bankole (Schlumberger) | Bahuguna, Somesh (Schlumberger)
Rock fabric characteristics of Gamij Field lies in the purview of conventional reservoirs but are as complex and uncertain as unconventional. It is a multi-layered, heterogeneous reservoir on depletion drive with very low permeability. Even after hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift, the production rate lies in the range of 3-4 m3/d. This paper evaluates the impact of past hydraulic fracture operations and uses this understanding to optimize the stimulation strategy for future wells.
A customized multidisciplinary modeling and flow simulation workflow; integrating petrophysical, geomechanical, stimulation and production data was adopted and applied to sectors of the field. Two techniques were combined 1. Unconventional (Fast Loop) 2. Conventional (Slow Loop) in an intriguing and iterative manner. Hydraulic Fractures were designed, optimized and calibrated using a rigorous workflow of unstructured grid and unconventional fracture modelling/3D planar fractures in the sector models. Sector model is considered the most effective approach to characterize completion quality in Gamij Field due to the limitation of current modelling technologies to design and simulate hydraulic fractures in full-field model.
The results of sector model is validated with full field model and a number of iterations were performed to match pressure from the result to the initially assumed in creation of 3D MEM (Mechanical Earth Model). Reservoir quality (RQ) estimation is affected by complex mineralogy including abundance of iron and titanium rich sediments. Stress regime shows vertical transverse isotropy nature of shales and suggest re-orientations near to fault zones. There are several areas, especially in the eastern part, where the tectonic regime changes from normal to strike-slip faulting. HF modelling not only explains the contrasting behavior of existing wells, but also discusses alternatives that could help to unlock the true potential of the pay zones. This paper elucidates techniques to maximize reservoir understanding and allow optimization of hydraulic fracture design in terms of casing diameter, job size, and design. Simulations shows multiple fractures were created from different preformation cluster in a single stage treatment. Overall, the case study showcases different factors that govern the development of a tight oil reservoir and the ways to characterize and quantify these uncertainties.
This work is the first step to quantify the complex reservoir mineralogy, impact of laminations, depletion, stress variation on the efficiency of HF jobs. Identification of potential sweet spots based on reservoir quality and completion quality indexes, establishing well productivity. The uncertainty cannot be eliminated but it ought to be reduced and risk analyzed before the actual execution.
Moharana, Abhishek (Schlumberger) | Mahapatra, Mahabir Prasad (Schlumberger) | Chakraborty, Subrata Kumar (Schlumberger) | Biswal, Debakanta (Adani Welspun Exploration Limited) | Havelia, Khushboo (Schlumberger)
Petroleum Geologists have always been a group who looked at rocks, developed and described depositional concepts, mapping structures to discover and develop hydrocarbons for profit. With the advent of new technologies and computing power, geology started to become a lot more quantitative. The first wave of this new revolution was the introduction of geostatistics and the discipline of geomodelling, dealing with quantitative statistics like variograms, histograms, stochastic models which could be used to put a number and range on the geological uncertainty. However, geostatistics which was originally developed in the mining industry in the 1950's deals more with regularly sampled data, describing their spatial variability and directionality. In majority of development fields, with many wells sampling the reservoir, geostatistics helps us to create a feasible proxy for the subsurface reservoirs, when it is backed by a strong conceptual geological foundation. However, as the number of wells decreases, the data for geostatistical analysis reduces and a geomodeller must rely strongly on the conceptual geological knowledge, to build a predictive geological model rather than the noisy picture which over-reliance on blind geostatistics can provide. Until recently, there was no way of quantifying or visualizing depositional concepts in 3D for a geologist save for few block diagrams and average sand distribution maps. However, these were mostly manual, deterministic with a long turnaround time for any alternate concepts.
A relatively recent and still underused addition to the geologist's set of quantitative tools has been geologic process modeling (or GPM, also called stratigraphic forward modeling). This technique aims to model the processes of erosion, transport and deposition of clastic sediments, as well as carbonate growth and redistribution on the basis of quantitative deterministic physical principles (
In the currents study a 3D geological model for the B-9 field, based on the Geological Process Modeling (GPM) has been attempted Owing to the thin pays in deltaic sands, understanding reservoir continuity from seismic data was not possible. With only 4 wells available in the field, traditional geostatistics based facies models were inadequate in explaining the reservoir distribution. Thus, a combination of Stratigraphic Forward Modeling with Multi Point Statistics is used to accurately capture sub-surface facies heterogeneity.