Putro, Ronggo Wiyono Sakuro (PT. Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Sayogyo, Bramarandhito (PT. Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Warsito, Sandy (PT. Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Dahnil, Gitani Tsalitsah (PT. Pertamina Hulu Mahakam)
In this difficult economic condition, oil companies might take higher challenges to grasp only marginal stakes. A new frontier in production method by performing perforations at surface casing has been taken as a novel solution to answer the challenge particularly in a field that is prone to shallow gas such as the Tunu field, a shallow water field in the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. This pioneer method has gone through detailed engineering studies as well as risk evaluations to validate it as a new production method. Detailed reviews of integrity, safety and operational aspects by involving well control experts carried out to ensure that all risks have been properly identified and mitigated.
Operation begins with noise logging which aims to identify any potential integrity cement problems in the outer Annulus, then proceeds with Annulus Cementing, Cement Logging, Perforation, Sand Consolidation and ends with Clean-Up. This operation involves 3 barges, i.e. a multipurpose barge, a testing barge and a waste containment barge. This configuration aims to minimize risks and as a part of mitigation measures so that well killing operations, should it be required, could be done at any time. The operations took 51 days to complete starting from preparation phase up to well clean-up phase. Well clean-up process shows results exceeding the target with gas production rate of 2.6 Million Standard Cubic Feet per Day (MMSCFD) and sand rate only 1 cc/hr in drawdown conditions of 11 bars from the maximum 30 bars.
All operational phases have been conducted with robust engineering design and high operation standards so that the major risk of sustained annulus pressure and unintentional hydrocarbon flow to the surface could be avoided. Additionaly, all precautions and risk mitigations identified during project study have been applied throughout the job resulting in safe operations. Since the end of the operations until the production phase, the well remains intact with no integrity issue.
Despite breaching the dual barrier philosophy, this job has been successfully completed without major well integrity concerns. The combination of surface casing perforation and sand consolidation has proven able to answer challenges and open up opportunities for safe production of sand prone reservoirs at shallow zones. The success of this pilot project proves that producing from shallow reservoirs across surface casing is operationally feasible and can be carried out in a safe manner. Other candidates are being prepared with improvements in engineering design and operational aspects to achieve maximum benefits with minimum operating cost.
This paper aims to review challenges and strategies carried out starting from detailed engineering study until operation execution which could be promising for future shallow reservoir production.
Innovation of perforating the surface casing to unlock reserves in the shallow section is the first in the world. The breakthrough of this unconventional method of producing hydrocarbon will open new opportunities to enhance production especially in shallow gas prone fields worldwide.
This course discusses the fundamental sand control considerations involved in completing a well and introduces the various sand control techniques commonly used across the industry, including standalone screens, gravel packs, high rate water packs and frac-packs. It requires only a basic understanding of oilfield operations and is intended for drilling, completion and production personnel with some sand control experience who are looking to gain a better understanding of each technique’s advantages, limitations and application window for use in their upcoming completions.
Numerous carbonate reservoir discoveries were made in Indonesia (
The process involves multiple cycles—from formation evaluation (e.g., geomechanics analysis, design of an effective fracturing method, and production forecasting) through the economic impact to the operator. During the early phase of this integrated study, the uncertainties of all static and dynamic parameters (i.e., geological complexity, rock physics, and stress profile) were considered for fracturing design. Production performances from multiple fracturing stimulation scenarios were then modeled and compared to select the plan that optimizes production for the Berai Formation.
Results demonstrated an effective multidiscipline approach toward a comprehensive strategy to meet the ultimate objective in optimizing production. This project leveraged formation evaluation and fracturing design to deliver integrated solutions from exploration to accurate production forecast. The well stimulations were performed by carefully selecting fluid characteristics based on geological-petrophysical properties, pressure, and stress profiles within the area. Results yielded excellent production gains—for the best case, up to 50% with an average of 40% in comparison with initial production by using an acid that provides optimum fracture geometry and permeability.
This opportunity demonstrated the importance of understanding formation behavior and the parameters that aid the selection of an appropriate fracturing design for a low porosity/permeability carbonate reservoir.
This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders.
Decisions in E&P ventures are affected by Bias, Blindness, and Illusions (BBI) which permeate our analyses, interpretations and decisions. This one-day course examines the influence of these cognitive pitfalls and presents techniques that can be used to mitigate their impact. Bias refers to errors in thinking whereby interpretations and judgments are drawn in an illogical fashion. Blindness is the condition where we fail to see an unexpected event in plain sight. Illusions refer to misleading beliefs based on a false impression of reality.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Shell's new natural gas discoveries in Egypt are estimated in initial quantities at about 500 Bcf with more reserves possible, said Aidan Murphy, chairman and managing director of Shell Egypt. The discoveries, in a concession area of north Alam El-Shawish in the country's western desert, could yield 10% to 15% of the total production of Badr el-Din Petroleum Company, the 50/50 joint venture of Shell and Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation that is expected to manage the operations. Eni reported that the Laarich East-1 oil well in Tunisia has a delivery capacity of approximately 2,000 B/D. Spudded in June, the well discovered hydrocarbons in Silurian and Ordovician sandstones while reaching a final depth of 13,487 ft. The well has now been connected to production. The company continues to drill Tunisian exploration prospects that have been identified on 3D seismic surveys.
S field has unique geological condition, the depth of maturity based on geochemistry analysis start from 800 m and classified as shallow depth rather than in the core of Kutai basin at 4000 m. It was caused by gravity tectonic from north which lifting the middle miocene formation from below. This situation gives the benefit to find source rock in shallower depth for unconventional exploration.
To characterize and predict the source rock especially for Total organic content value is using a well-known method called ΔLog R. This technique has been applied in many field with success stories. Beyond it is success, this method is less recognizing to predict in coal, because of the huge separation between Porosity log and Resistivity log. This study aims to applied this method in delta plain environment with abundant of coal source rock using between Density log, Sonic log, and Neutron log combine with Resistivity log. Besides that, TOC accumulation will be compared with Cyclostratigraphy trend, which trends contain much TOC content and by this vertical distribution to generate lateral correlation.
Basic principle for ΔLog R method is to seek the overlay between porosity log and Resistivity Log. Assuming when TOC is high the sediment rocks has good porosity and higher Resistivity reading. Those are the effect from kerogen in shale and generation of hydrocaron. In immature organic rocks it has good porosity but Resistivity log shows lowest value. Most of organic accumulation is in non reservoir. To eliminate the reservoir zone by using the Gamma ray log. This TOC value will be validate using several geochemistry analyses from cores.
Cyclostratigraphy-INPEFA log, is cyclic deposition that refer to orbital change that effect insolation on earth. This situation cause fluctuates of Eustachy and change the sea level. When sea level drop or N-Trend and coarse sediment will deposit and the other hand P-Trend or warming phase. Predicted TOC accumulation is much higher when warming phase. This trend will help to know TOC distribution around the field.
With an increasing focus on identifying cost-effective solutions to well design with a minimal impact on productivity, this paper will focus on an alternative to cesium (Cs) formate as the perforation fluid in the high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) Gudrun Field operated by Equinor. Cs formate has been used with success for drilling and perforating many HP/HT wells. However, because of the significant cost of this fluid coupled with low oil prices, Equinor wanted to perform testing to assess the performance of an alternative oil-based mud (OBM) as a perforation fluid. In this paper we describe the extensive qualification testing that we have conducted, which includes coreflooding using representative plugs from Gudrun Field under downhole temperature and pressure conditions. In addition, eight API RP19B (2014) Section IV perforation tests have been conducted to compare the performance of the Cs formate with the OBM. These tests were undertaken using gas- and oil-saturated cores to reflect different production scenarios. The main aspects of the perforation operation that were reflected in the test design were as follows:
On the basis of the results of the coreflooding combined with the API RP19B (2014) Section IV testing, the OBM was selected as the perforating fluid for use on Gudrun Field. The perceived benefits of using the OBM were as follows:
Perforation modeling is described, and a comparison is made between this and the API RP19B (2014) Section IV tests. Finally, the well-startup experiences and the production data are presented, demonstrating the effectiveness of the OBM as a perforation fluid.
As part of the overall Ichthys project there was a requirement to develop a remedial sand control application that would be suitable for installation should the sand production levels exceed the tolerance of the system. After an exhaustive review of available techniques, a remedial insert ceramic sand screen was selected as a potential option for these high rate gas wells. In order to be confident that the screen would be suitable for the application a comprehensive design and qualification plan was developed.
Due to the nature of the application and the technology itself the qualification programme was significantly more complex than typical oilfield equipment qualification; many of which can adopt standard API/ISO testing protocols with clear cut pass/fail criteria.
A number of specific elements were required to underpin the qualification. Firstly and perhaps most importantly was pre-qualification of the overall strategy itself. This can be thought of as the engineering work to endorse the approach, including the assessment of any inherent risks, and the development of the overarching qualification framework including understanding the dependencies between specific qualification work scopes.
Once the strategy was endorsed and the framework developed, a significant amount of time was spent maturing the testing programme and the subsequent pass/fail criteria, often involving extensive discussion with a number of specialised companies and especially the provider of the screen.
A thorough and extensive set of modelling and testing was conducted to endorse the final product for the application including fundamental FEA and CFD modelling through more traditional burst/collapse testing, end ring weld certification and corrosion studies to bespoke bending, impact and erosion testing.
In addition as this is a new technology and does not conform to any existing sand screen quality plan it was necessary to conduct a joint quality management system audit and screen manufacturing assessment. This led to the construction of an agreed Quality Control Plan; and specific production quality checks to ensure critical requirement conformance of the overall process and end product. The end result was a successfully qualified product for the Ichthys high rate gas remedial application.
Styward, Boris (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Wijaya, Ryan (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Manalu, Dasa (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Wahyudhi, Fransiskus (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Setiawan, Thomas (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Dading, Albert Malvin (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Rizal, Muhdi (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Widarena, Tri Maharika (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Lukman, Geraldie (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Primasari, Indah (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Merati, Putu Astari (Schlumberger) | Hezmela, Rizka (Schlumberger) | Fuad, Muhammad (Schlumberger) | Nwafor, Chidi (Schlumberger) | Hai, Liu (Schlumberger) | Singh, Pratyush
Pertamina Hulu Energi operates numerous wells that produce gas from unconsolidated, tight sands in the Mahakam Delta. The company maintains a zero-sand production policy as its surface facilities are not designed to handle sand. If sand is produced, the wells are choked back, thus impairing the overall field production. To fix sand and fines in place, the primary sand control method used has been multizone single-trip gravel packing, sometimes in conjunction with sand consolidation or ceramic screen for noneconomic zones. However, the current state of the Tunu shallow portfolio renders sand consolidation infeasible, as more than 50% of the remaining reservoirs are either low-stakes (i.e. not economical) or are located in low-permeability zones. Against this backdrop, sand conglomeration is being considered as an alternative solution to produce the remaining reservoirs. A trial has been conducted to assess the feasibility of using sand conglomeration technology as an alternative to sand consolidation in the Mahakam Delta, the results of which will be reviewed in this paper.