This course discusses the fundamental sand control considerations involved in completing a well and introduces the various sand control techniques commonly used across the industry, including standalone screens, gravel packs, high rate water packs and frac-packs. It requires only a basic understanding of oilfield operations and is intended for drilling, completion and production personnel with some sand control experience who are looking to gain a better understanding of each technique’s advantages, limitations and application window for use in their upcoming completions.
A casing or tubing clad is a metal sleeve that can be run by several intervention means into a well to isolate an area of interest, be it to provide a permanent seal over splits, holes, or perforations in tubing and casing or for water shut off. Once it is on depth, the clad or metal sleeve is expanded out against the tubing or casing wall to form a seal. Taking the example of water shut-off isolation, conventional clad technology only permits a'bottom up isolation', the current technology does not have the ability to pass through an expanded clad of the same size thus it is not possible at a later date to install a second clad below an existing clad. To resolve this issue, in 2006 TOTAL instigated the development of a "Clad thru Clad" technology through a JIP (Joint Industrial Program) Water Management R&D Project with Maersk, Statoil, Chevron, and BP as partners. Meta was selected to develop the clad through clad technology.
Many producing assets in the world have reached the so-called mature phase of development. Some of these assets have been producing for 30 to 40 years or more, which is typically beyond the design life, and have reached a water to oil ratio of 3 to 9 or more. There are many issues that affect the productivity and economic viability of these fields. Some of the challenges include integrity uncertainty in the wells, flow lines, and facilities; production bottlenecks due to the shift in gas, oil and water ratios; erosion/corrosion; increased sand production and handling costs; high chemical consumption and treatment costs; and obsolete monitoring and control systems that are incompatible with new technologies and which contribute to the need for a large number of operations staff. Generally operators are faced with the commercial decision whether to sell the asset to a low cost operator, reinvest in the asset, or incur the cost of decommissioning.
While the number and complexity of these challenges are significant, there are nevertheless a number of viable options for extending the economic life of such assets. Hydrocarbon recovery and production from these fields can be enhanced by infill drilling; acid and fracture stimulation; by implementing a range of remediation techniques such as recompletion with smart systems to reduce water and solids influx to surface facilities; and by the implementation of improved and enhanced recovery methods. Selecting the optimal strategy requires a holistic perspective on subsurface issues, wells, and surface facilities, and an ability to make projections of integrated performance. This is greatly facilitated by first developing a root cause understanding of the reservoir and production fluid characteristics, and second, the use of analysis tools that allow quick and reasonably accurate assessment of options.
In order to increase value from matured fields, the goal is to increase oil recovery from the historical average of 35% and to optimize production by improving the operational efficiency. To achieve this goal, in this paper we will put forward two key imperatives that extend the life of a mature field: (1) Finding and accessing the by-passed oil and (2) Maintaining High uptime during Asset production and operation.
In this paper, several mature fields in Europe, Far East and Middle East are analyzed and presented in order to:
Peciko is a giant gas field operated by Total E&P Indonésie which has been in production since late 1999. The field is situated in Mahakam PSC about 25 km offshore. After more than six years of production, the field entered its decline phase after reaching peak production at 1.3 Bscfd in 2005. With the total number of wells exceeding 130, sustaining the field production has become very challenging in this maturation phase. Problems like liquid loading, scale, tubing breach and sand production require immediate remedial action to prevent wells from suffering any further. Gas water contact movements must also be monitored prior to define targets for infill drilling.
Data acquisition is of key importance to spot on problems which may impair the producing wells, and to understand the well and field behavior for any next development phase. From 2010 to 2012, around 120 Production Logging Test (PLT) were done as well as over 20 jobs of caliper log. PLT is widely used to evaluate reservoir performance and to identify source of water, while caliper log is commonly used for quantifying wellbore access restriction or enlargement.
Many wells with high water production are associated with wellbore restriction due to scale build-up. Production logging combined with caliper log has also helped tubing breach identification in a zone completed with sleeve only. Further, more than 70 jobs of pulse neutron logging were run to monitor the movement of gas water contacts. Sand production is also an issue in Peciko field, and to these end 10 jobs of sand detection logging were acquired. Results are conclusive for a couple of wells, whilst ambiguous for the other, and for these wells the challenge for a solution to remedy sand production remains.
This paper explains how reservoir management team of the Peciko field has extensively used surveillance technologies in fighting the decline by solving liquid unloading problem, maintaining wellbore integrity, and horizontal well placement for hydrocarbon recovery optimization.
Bourgoin, Sebastien (Total) | Sobirin, Muhammad (Total E&P Indonesia) | Mahardhini, Antus (TOTAL E&P Indonesie Jl. Yos Sudarso) | Nathanael, Christian Andriko (Total E&P Indonesia) | Jones, Mike (Meta Downhole)
A casing or tubing clad is a metal sleeve that can be run by several intervention means into a well to isolate an area of interest, be it to provide a permanent seal over splits, holes, or perforations in tubing and casing or for water shut off. Once it is on depth, the clad or metal sleeve is expanded out against the tubing or casing wall to form a seal.
Taking the example of water shut-off isolation, conventional clad technology only permits a ‘bottom up isolation', the current technology does not have the ability to pass through an expanded clad of the same size thus it is not possible at a later date to install a second clad below an existing clad.
To resolve this issue, in 2006 TOTAL instigated the development of a "Clad thru Clad?? technology through a JIP (Joint Industrial Program) Water Management R&D Project with Maersk, Statoil, Chevron, and BP as partners. Meta was selected to develop the clad through clad technology. The project objective was to design an electric line conveyed clad able to pass through other similarly sized clads previously installed in a well incorporating a metal-to-metal interference fit with elastomer seal against the 5-1/2?? production casing or tubing wall.
In addition to the dimensional, pressure rating (5000 psi absolute, 2000 psi differential) and temperature rating (125 degC) constraints, one of the major challenges was to achieve sufficient collapse rating for the clad once expanded.
The Internal Clad™ is deployed using a hydraulic expansion system. The setting tool consists of a standard electric line cable head, an electronic section (consisting of gamma ray (GR), a casing collar locator (CCL), a motor control module and pressure sensors), a down-hole reservoir, hydraulic module (consisting of motor, a pump, an intensifier and valves), and the setting tool itself.
The first trial was performed in Total Indonesia's Peciko field; well C, a gas well producing from a multilayered reservoir. The field trial was SUCCESSFUL although a number of improvements for future operations were identified.
The Oil and Gas Industry requires 4H: High Investments, High Technology, High Risks and High skillful manpower. The Industry are facing difficult situation on obtaining local skillful manpower with high tech calibers due to unmatched between the Industry needs and the supplies of the educational institutions. Education is one of the key milestones stipulated in the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs).
Despite most of the MDGs are achieved or progressing, there are several goals needs major attention or required hard works. UN Secretary General Ban Ki - Moon in a UN report on the MDGs in 2013 confirms the global conditions associated with the level of achievement of the MDGs as a whole lot of progress. The proportion of urban slum dwellers is significantly decreased. Indonesia for example from 2000 to 2010 has been reduced from 34 % to 23 %. Likewise, the amount of decrease in TB patients and the fight against Malaria , and improvement efforts in health and basic education. On the MDG targets on Education that need hard works: the number of children out of school declined by almost half from 102 million to 57 million. While the MDG targets on Education that need attention: Poor children are three times likely to drop out of school compared with wealthier households.
Indonesia keeps improving the quality of education. From 1945 to nowadays Indonesia has changed into better improved curriculum for 10 times. However, the quality is still considered to be "low??. The PISA data shows that in the very last year , the score of student's ability in reading is 393, in mathematics 393, in problem solving 361, while the international average score is 450. This situation is caused by the low teacher's quality: 48,69% of the teachers do not have sufficient qualification of education and 70% of teachers are not certified yet. Furthermore, there are some problems of current education curriculum in Indonesia such as the content of the current curriculum is too much and it is not based on competence.
The national ratio of student and teacher numbers in elementary school level is 1:20 which means one teacher has to teach 20 students. It is better than the situation in Singapore ((1:25), Korea (1:31), and Philippines (1:35). The condition of secondary level is about similar. It is 1:15 in Indonesia which is better than Malaysia (1:18), China (1:19), or Thailnad (1:25). In fact, Indonesia still has the problem of uneven distribution of teachers. It really affects the quality of education in Indonesia. PISA shows that Indonesia is at the 34th out of 41 countries. In science, Indonesia is the 38th out of 41 countries.
Indonesia's achievements on education lag behind other countries both in terms of access and quality. The quality of education in Indonesia is the most on Below Level 1, the least on level 4, and none is on level 5. On the other hand, Thailand, Korea, and Japan has a little number of level 1 and the most of level 3, 4 dan 5.
In Human Development Index in ASEAN + 3 Countries, Indonesia takes position at 110 out of 164 countries. It is under Vietnam which is at 108. Malaysia is at 61. Thailand is at 7.
A wide variety of mechanical and chemical technologies have been implemented for controlling unwanted fluid production in hydrocarbon-producing wells. This paper presents the field implementation of a porosity-fill sealant (PFS) system for water and gas shutoff applications. Proper diagnostics and candidate selection process is the key to a high success ratio with this type of treatment. Case histories are presented along with lessons learned from more than 1,000 treatments highlighting the diagnostic stage.
The PFS system is based on a copolymer of acrylamide and t-butyl acrylate (PAtBA) crosslinked with polyethyleneimine (PEI). The PFS system is placed into the formation as a low-viscosity solution that eventually actives at a predicted time to form a three-dimensional (3D) gel structure. The crosslinked gel provides a total shutoff of pore spaces and channels, thus limiting undesired water or gas flow. The PFS is not a selective treatment; thus, zonal isolation might be required. The working temperature range of this system is 40 to 400°F. This system has been successfully tested to withstand a differential pressure of at least 2,600 psi and is resistant to acid, CO2, and H2S environments. The following parameters are discussed: (1) PFS performance testing, (2) design considerations, and (3) case histories.
To date, more than 1,000 treatments have been performed with the PFS system worldwide to address conformance problems, such as water coning/cresting, high-permeability streaks, gravel-pack isolation, fracture shutoff, and/or casing-leak repair. Because of the capability of the PFS system to withstand high-pressure environments, workover operations have been successfully performed in previously treated wells, including acid stimulation, sand control, and frac-pack treatments, among others. Case histories are presented for different types of water production mechanisms and different wellbore completions and reservoir conditions where the PFS system was successfully implemented.
Excessive water production from hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most serious problems within the oil industry. Water production greatly affects the economic life of producing wells (Halliburton 1996; Curtice and Dalrymple 2004) and can potentially induce other types of problems, such as sand production, scale, and corrosion of tubulars, among others. A variety of techniques for controlling water production have been attempted within the oil industry. Previous attempts to reduce water production have included mechanical isolation, squeeze cementing, solid-slurry (clay) injection, and oil/water emulsions. More successful results have been obtained with in-situ polymerized systems, crosslinked polymeric solutions, and silicate-based gels (Prada et al. 2000). Polymer-gel systems have been used during the last two decades as some of the most effective tools for controlling water production. One of the most widely used polymer systems employs polyacrylamides (PAMs) or an acrylamide copolymer and chromium [Cr(III)] as a crosslinker (Sydansk 1990). Cr(III) has been extensively used because of its relatively low cost. However, the short gelation times of this system at elevated temperatures limit its application in low- to moderate-temperature reservoirs (Bartosek et al. 1994). Another polymer system that has been widely used is a water-based gel based on a phenol/formaldehyde crosslinker for homo-, co-, and ter-polymer systems containing acrylamide. The loss of phenol by partitioning when it contacts crude oil has been identified as an important issue for that polymer system (Albonico et al. 1995). The toxicity issues associated with formaldehyde and phenol have been addressed by other researchers (Moradi-Araghi 1994).
Peciko is one of the giant gas fields located in the Mahakam area, Indonesia, operated by Total E&P Indonesie. Since start up in December 1999, until May 2012, the average wellhead pressure and temperature of its wells have decreased from 150 barg to 20 barg and from 95 °C to 60 °C, respectively, while the average water/gas ratio (WGR) has increased from approximately 2.5 to 20.5 bbl/MMscf. These dramatic shifts of production parameter and borehole environment are believed to be the main factor of the increasing rate of scale deposition in significant number of its wells in the last few years. The nature of the scale encountered is mainly calcium carbonate and iron carbonate.
Reviews have been carried to better understand the phenomena of scale formation in the field and to formulate the optimum solutions in overcoming it. Guidelines have been established to facilitate early detection or prediction of scaling, which includes routine water analysis, periodic check of tubing clearance, and running multifinger caliper in the well.
Numerous attempts of removing the scale have been tried, with mechanical and/or chemical techniques, from light intervention using slick line unit, until semi-heavy intervention with coiled tubing unit (CTU). Several successful results have been observed, to some extent. Calcium carbonate scale showed to be relatively easy to remove, but the presence of iron carbonate imposes more challenge and complication. The milling operation, in particular, has been improved to minimize the negative effect of liquid circulation in sensitive wells, i.e. evolving from CTU milling using brine, to CTU milling using nitrified base oil, to electric line milling without liquid circulation.
The guidelines, lessons learned, and the foreseen solutions are considered as the key elements of scale management in the field, and will be described further in the paper.
Offshore wellhead platform (OWP) extension is one of Total E&P Indonesie (TEPI) strategic action to slowdown the natural decline of total production by giving possibility to add new well-slot on an existing wellhead platform that its well-slots have been all occupied.
Wellhead platform extension project scope is to extend the existing platform structure in order to accommodate additional three or four new well slots. New well slots will be equipped with Conductor Pipe (CP) Guide above and under water, and also CP Protection Frame. Additional Wellhead Control Panel (WHCP), field instruments, F&G system and electric power supply are also constructed for the new wells. Modification of control system is also required in order to integrate new wells input/ output points and Safety Shutdown System (SSS) to the existing Distributed Control System (DCS) for process control.
As brown field project, OWP project activities are executed in SIMOPS (Simultaneous Operation) condition with production activities. Field Operation team as a host will ensure the project will be done safely within their operation perimeter and with minimum impact to production continuity especially due to unplanned shutdown. Field Operation also responsible to prepare procedure and line-up the system for tie-in between new and existing facilities (i.e. piping and instrument). Generally there will be requirement for platform shutdown period in order to perform final tie-in, commissioning, and final start-up of new facilities.
Offshore wellhead platform extension project include several high risk activities such as: saturation diving, heavy lifting and naked flame jobs within existing live facilities, which become project major challenges and require detailed job risk assessment and good preparation from both Project and Field Operation team. Currently, offshore wellhead platform extension has been successfully implemented on seven TEPI's platforms within three years and with minimum impact to production continuation.
1. Project Background and Objectives
Mature Oil and gas field usually have passed their peak production and starts to decrease due to reservoir natural decline. Oil and Gas Company will try to slowdown this natural decline by either performing well services intervention, artificial lift, or drilling new wells to maintain or increase production from the field. For offshore oil and gas field, drilling new wells is possible only if there is still well slot available on the wellhead platform. If all well slots have been occupied, then wellhead extension might be the solution for the required additional new well slot on the platform.
TEPI has implemented this modification in 7 (seven) existing platform at Peciko field and Sisi Nubi field around Mahakam area - East Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Wellhead platform extension project objectives are to have additional of three or four new slots with conductor pipes of 30?? or 36?? diameter each, able to accommodate dual splitter wells. Platform top site structure section deck (lower, mezzanine and upper deck) will be extended to provide new slots for drilling, production and maintenance operations. This structure modification also includes installation of CP guide and its protection frame at platform jacket section.
Seismic quality monitoring during processing: what should we measure? Summary Understanding geological and geophysical specificities allows one to design a suite of dedicated QC attributes that best correspond to the (re)processed seismic dataset and best respond to the processing defined objectives. Active monitoring of processing flows imposes operational constraints whose benefits can be seen in the final result and the confidence attached to it. We successfully applied the processing flow monitoring methodology on a low-fold non-WAZ land reprocessing project, where we defined five general directions for which we wanted to achieve significant improvements: (1) signal quality for seismic bandwidth and SNR optimization, (2) lateral consistency for identification of areas with unstable phase, low resolution and weak SNR, (3) pre-stack consistency for seismic inversion studies, (4) azimuthal consistency for fracturation analysis and (5) seismic interpretability for fault mapping and interpretation. Introduction Challenging seismic reservoir characterization requires the best seismic data possible.