PETRONAS FLNG SATU (PFLNG1) is a floating liquefied natural gas facility producing 1.2 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG, on a facility that is 365m long, and 60m wide, making it among the largest offshore facility ever built. The PFLNG1 project is the first of its kind in the world and is the first deployment of PETRONASâ€™ Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) technology, consolidating the traditional offshore to onshore LNG infrastructure into a single facility. This will see a giant floating facility capable of extracting, liquefying and storing LNG at sea, before it is exported to customers around the globe. The FLNG journey has come a long way since 2006, with many technological options explored to monetise and unlock the potential of small and stranded gas fields. Moving an LNG production to an offshore setting poses a demanding set of challenges â€“ as every element of a conventional LNG facility needs to fit into an area roughly one quarter the size in the open seas whilst maintaining safety and increased flexibility to LNG production and delivery. The keynote address describes the breakthrough features of PFLNG1 â€“ the worldâ€™s first floating LNG facility; and the pioneering innovation that it brings to the LNG industry.
S field has unique geological condition, the depth of maturity based on geochemistry analysis start from 800 m and classified as shallow depth rather than in the core of Kutai basin at 4000 m. It was caused by gravity tectonic from north which lifting the middle miocene formation from below. This situation gives the benefit to find source rock in shallower depth for unconventional exploration.
To characterize and predict the source rock especially for Total organic content value is using a well-known method called ΔLog R. This technique has been applied in many field with success stories. Beyond it is success, this method is less recognizing to predict in coal, because of the huge separation between Porosity log and Resistivity log. This study aims to applied this method in delta plain environment with abundant of coal source rock using between Density log, Sonic log, and Neutron log combine with Resistivity log. Besides that, TOC accumulation will be compared with Cyclostratigraphy trend, which trends contain much TOC content and by this vertical distribution to generate lateral correlation.
Basic principle for ΔLog R method is to seek the overlay between porosity log and Resistivity Log. Assuming when TOC is high the sediment rocks has good porosity and higher Resistivity reading. Those are the effect from kerogen in shale and generation of hydrocaron. In immature organic rocks it has good porosity but Resistivity log shows lowest value. Most of organic accumulation is in non reservoir. To eliminate the reservoir zone by using the Gamma ray log. This TOC value will be validate using several geochemistry analyses from cores.
Cyclostratigraphy-INPEFA log, is cyclic deposition that refer to orbital change that effect insolation on earth. This situation cause fluctuates of Eustachy and change the sea level. When sea level drop or N-Trend and coarse sediment will deposit and the other hand P-Trend or warming phase. Predicted TOC accumulation is much higher when warming phase. This trend will help to know TOC distribution around the field.
Styward, Boris (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Wijaya, Ryan (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Manalu, Dasa (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Wahyudhi, Fransiskus (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Setiawan, Thomas (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Dading, Albert Malvin (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Rizal, Muhdi (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Widarena, Tri Maharika (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Lukman, Geraldie (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Primasari, Indah (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Merati, Putu Astari (Schlumberger) | Hezmela, Rizka (Schlumberger) | Fuad, Muhammad (Schlumberger) | Nwafor, Chidi (Schlumberger) | Hai, Liu (Schlumberger) | Singh, Pratyush
Pertamina Hulu Energi operates numerous wells that produce gas from unconsolidated, tight sands in the Mahakam Delta. The company maintains a zero-sand production policy as its surface facilities are not designed to handle sand. If sand is produced, the wells are choked back, thus impairing the overall field production. To fix sand and fines in place, the primary sand control method used has been multizone single-trip gravel packing, sometimes in conjunction with sand consolidation or ceramic screen for noneconomic zones. However, the current state of the Tunu shallow portfolio renders sand consolidation infeasible, as more than 50% of the remaining reservoirs are either low-stakes (i.e. not economical) or are located in low-permeability zones. Against this backdrop, sand conglomeration is being considered as an alternative solution to produce the remaining reservoirs. A trial has been conducted to assess the feasibility of using sand conglomeration technology as an alternative to sand consolidation in the Mahakam Delta, the results of which will be reviewed in this paper.
Frommer's travel guide describes Jakarta as a "steamy, raw, chaotic place that puts all five senses in overdrive" and "not for the faint-hearted." Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans and located on the northwest corner of the island of Java, Jakarta is a dizzying and sprawling metropolis. A city that used to serve as an integral trading port for the kingdom of Sunda and the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies, Jakarta continues to be an economic, cultural, and political epicenter for southeast Asia. Although the population of Jakarta proper is estimated at 10.2 million people, its urban area has spread to encompass more than 23 million people, trailing only Tokyo as the largest urban area in the world. This ultradense population has led to complex socioeconomic problems.
Armenta, Miguel (Shell International Exploration and Production Company) | Dykstra, Mark (Shell International Exploration and Production Company) | Muesel, Justin (Shell Exploration and Production Company) | Marshall, Evan (Shell Exploration and Production Company) | Yango, Takwe (Shell Exploration and Production Company) | Adeleye, Olayinka (Shell Exploration and Production Company) | Nagaraj, Mahavir (Schlumberger) | Nasief, Mary (Schlumberger)
This paper describes the strategies and practices used to deliver best in class ROP performance in three different applications (through salt, soft clastic and medium-hard clastic formations) on the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico. A novel advanced bit design was tested with mechanical (WOB and RPM) and hydraulic (flow rate) parameters beyond the current operational envelope. Several operational and equipment limits were also tested and moved beyond the previous levels. The drilling parameters and results from the three applications are also included.
Over the last couple of years, the drilling cost for deep-water drilling has been reduced through continuous performance improvement resulting in a "Beyond the Best" mentality. Every time a new best in class ROP performance is achieved, questions about "What else can be done", are asked. A project was taken up to challenge the current drilling operational envelope resulting in ROPs faster than ever in the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico. Integrated well planning combining operator and service provider knowhow and modeling capability were used to identify current operational limits and the required changes to go beyond them. BHA configuration and downhole tools were design and adjusted accordingly. Rig equipment were also reviewed and modified. The novel advanced bit design, with 3D cutting elements combining the shearing action of conventional PDC cutters with the crushing action of tungsten carbide insert, was selected by the project due to its capability of delivering less torque when higher mechanical parameters (WOB and RPM) are used.
Field data demonstrates that using WOB up to 70,000 lbs while drilling with a 14-3/4" bit through medium-hard rock resulted in 9 % increase in ROP (103.2 ft/hr), when compared with the previous fastest ROP achieved while drilling similar formations in the field. Also, using 220 rpm while drilling trough salt with a 16-1/2" bit delivered 12% increase in ROP (307.3 ft/hr), when compared with the previous best performance. Furthermore, using 220 rpm in combination with 1460 gpm flow rate (22% above the normal flow rate), while drilling with a similar 16-1/2" bit through interbedded soft rock formations delivered 91% increase in ROP (368.7 ft/hr), when compared with the previous fastest ROP achieved while drilling similar formations in the field. The cuttings load limit in the annulus was tested beyond its current limit (3%) without observing hole pack off or stuck pipe issues. No vibration was observed while operating at the surface torque limit. A cost saving of over $2M was realized from this performance improvement effort.
The identified opportunities for improvement and lessons learned included in the paper have led to best practices for future wells resulting in a valuable benchmark benefiting practicing engineer involved in similar projects. Furthermore, operational parameters used in the project confirm the robustness and benefits of the novel advanced bit design used in the project delivering higher ROP with a smooth torque response.
Multiphase pipelines manufactured from carbon steel are susceptible to several forms of corrosion, including top-of-line (TOL) corrosion. In wet gas pipelines, produced water can condense at the top of the pipeline when the temperature and pressure along the length of the pipeline decreases. If this happens, TOL corrosion will occur, which can be severe as the pH of the condensed water will be very low (< 5). However, it is possible to mitigate TOL corrosion with the application of corrosion inhibitors.
Using corrosion inhibitors to control TOL corrosion in multiphase systems presents several challenges. The corrosion inhibitor must be carried long distances within the gas phase and partition to the condensed water when necessary to form a protective barrier on the pipeline surface. An additional issue concerns the development and testing of inhibitors that can effectively mitigate TOL corrosion. Traditional laboratory tests used to assess corrosion inhibitors (e.g., kettle tests, autoclaves and flow loop) are not suitable, as they have been designed to determine corrosion inhibitor performance in controlling corrosion in the bottom-of-line (BOL) environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop test methods that can be used to test TOL corrosion inhibitors. In addition, corrosion inhibitors used to control BOL corrosion are not effective in preventing TOL corrosion. Conversely, inhibitors that mitigate TOL corrosion are not suitable for controlling BOL corrosion. Therefore, multiphase inhibitors are needed that will control corrosion occurring on the entire pipe surface.
This paper describes the work carried out to develop test methods suitable for assessing inhibitor performance in controlling TOL corrosion. Using the novel test methods, new corrosion inhibitors have been developed that effectively mitigate TOL corrosion. Furthermore, a hypothesis is proposed to explain the TOL corrosion inhibition mechanism. This hypothesis is based on the findings of a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis that was used to measure the concentration of individual corrosion inhibitor components present in the condensing brine and pH measurements of this brine. Finally, the paper examines the issues that need to be overcome when developing TOL inhibitors in the laboratory and applying them in the field to achieve effective mitigation.
Muryanto, B. H. (Total E&P) | Fransiskus, W. (Total E&P) | Wijaya, R. (Total E&P) | Styward, B. (Total E&P) | Ji, Y. (Halliburton) | Albertson, E. (Halliburton) | Sudirgo, A. W. (Halliburton) | Hutahaean, A. (Halliburton) | Widyastuti, A. (Halliburton)
Multizone single-trip gravel-pack (MZ-STGP) completion systems not only save rig time to complete wells with long multilayer intervals but can significantly reduce capital and operational expenditures by standardizing completion design and simplifying operation complexity. It can also help improve quality, health, safety, and environment (QHSE) performance for a long-term project development. This paper discusses a case history of an operator in Indonesia developing a major offshore field primarily with MZ-STGP completion systems to produce marginal reservoirs. A MZ-STGP system was selected to reduce multizone gravel-packing operation time as compared to conventional stacked-pack systems. The main focus was to standardize completion design and help improve system reliability and operational efficiency, which is associated with both logistic preparation and field execution.
Offshore Mahakam is one of the fields developed by Total E&P Indonesie. Some of the areas in this field have challenging drilling conditions consisting of hard and thick carbonates as well as interbedded carbonates, sandstone, and shale, which naturally pose a risk of high-impact damange to cutters, especially PDC cutters. These challenging zones were encountered in 12.25-in or 8.5-in hole sections, where multiple bit runs were normally required to drill to the section total depth (TD) due to a low penetration rate as a result of worn or broken bit cutters. This situation reduced the drilling efficiency in those specific areas.
The conical diamond element (CDE) bit was proposed as a means of more efficient drilling in these challenging carbonates and interbedded formations. The unique 3D geometry of the conical diamond elements, which were placed across the bit blade, provided not only a superior impact and wear resistance, but also a concentrated point load onto the formation, which failed and fractureed the hard-to-drill rock more efficiently. The CDE also featured a diamond layer that is twice as thick as that of a conventional PDC cutter, enhancing impact strength and improving overall bit durability. For the specific high-impact formation in offshore Mahakam field, the presence of the CDE would give an ultimate protection to the conventional PDC cutters and therefore preserve the bit cutter sharpness in order to maintain the performance until end of the run.
CDE bits were utilized in three (3) different areas: M, P, and J in Offshore Mahakam. One well was drilled in M and P area, while five (5) wells were drilled in J area. Most of them were used to penetrate hard and high-impact carbonates in 12.25-in section. The performance was excellent, with an ROP improvement of 101.4% in M, 82% in P, and up to 41.3% in J area (compared with offset wells). Various CDE bit designs were implemented in J area, and each design had a specific benefit which continuously improved the ROP from one well to another. In J area 8.5-in section—which has interbedding carbonates, sandstones, and shales layers—the CDE bit performed very well, drilling the section to TD in one run, eliminating two unnecessary bit trips that the offset well had experienced. Compared with the offset well, there was up to a 60% ROP improvement in the 8.5-in section.
With increasing focus on identifying cost effective solutions to well design with minimal impact on productivity, this paper will focus on an alternative to cesium formate as perforation fluid in the HPHT Gudrun field operated by Statoil. Cesium formate has been used with success for drilling and perforating many HPHT wells. However, given the significant cost of this fluid coupled with low oil prices, Statoil wanted to perform testing to assess the performance of an alternative low ECD oil based mud as a perforation fluid. The paper will describe the extensive qualification testing that has been performed. This includes coreflooding using representative plugs from Gudrun under downwhole temperature and pressure conditions. In addition, eight Section IV perforation tests have been performed to compare the performance of Cs formate and the low ECD oil based mud. These tests were undertaken using gas and oil saturated cores to reflect different production scenarios. The main aspects of the perforation operation that were reflected in the test design were as follows. Perforating at reservoir pressure and laboratory testing temperature of approximately 100°C Simulating an extended shut in period after perforation Undertaking a clean up sequence using scaled down flowrates
Perforating at reservoir pressure and laboratory testing temperature of approximately 100°C
Simulating an extended shut in period after perforation
Undertaking a clean up sequence using scaled down flowrates
Based on the results of the coreflooding combined with the section IV 19B testing, the low ECD OBM was selected as the perforating fluid for use on Gudrun. The perceived benefits of using the low ECD OBM were as follows. Simplification: use of the same fluid for drilling and perforating the reservoir section. Tangible cost savings in fluid cost and time savings of approximately 40M NOK ($5M). Potentially increased productivity compared to cesium formate. Improved standardization of the operational sequence.
Simplification: use of the same fluid for drilling and perforating the reservoir section.
Tangible cost savings in fluid cost and time savings of approximately 40M NOK ($5M).
Potentially increased productivity compared to cesium formate.
Improved standardization of the operational sequence.
Perforation modelling is described and comparison is made between this and the Section IV tests. Finally, the well start-up experiences and production data are presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the low ECD oil based mud as a perforation fluid.
Andrieu, J. (Engineered nanoProducts Germany AG) | Kutzky, B. (Engineered nanoProducts Germany AG) | Schackmann, B. T. (Engineered nanoProducts Germany AG) | Mahardhini, A. (Total) | Abidiy, I. (Total) | Poitrenaud, H. M. (Total)
Tunu field, which is located in Mahakam area, consists of sandstone reservoir. Due to the maturity of the field, producing layer has moved from the deep zone, which has consolidated sand, into shallow zone, which has unconsolidated sand. Hydrocarbon production from shallow zone is unmanageable without having primary sand control downhole.
Here, we present a new type of sand consolidation composite (or hybrid) low-viscous binding material, based on combination of both inorganic and organic components. After describing the properties of this material, like low viscosity and strong adhesion to sand surface, we introduce the models used in the laboratory to stay as close as possible to the injection parameters on the field. We present the results of consolidation and regained permeabilities obtained in the laboratory with this binder on several substrates (loose sand and sand stone cores) with various porosities. The formulation was tested with success on samples ranging from several darcys down to 80 millidarcys. It is also noteworthy that samples display strong consolidation after extensive brine-based overflush.
Then, this paper discusses the results obtained during eight field trials divided into three successive campaigns. The volume of water-based overflush was identified as the main parameter to find the right balance between consolidation strength without sand production and expected productivity. We achieved improvement of the formulation as well as learning curve from each campaign. After first campaign with 6 pore volumes overflush, three wells out of five produced sand free. During second campaign (1.5 pore volume overflush), two wells were treated and able to produce sand free with average gas rate 1 MMscfd (million standard cubic feet per day), after productivity impairment was solved. The trial on one well in a third campaign with 3 pore volumes overflush was successful, with the well producing sand free with average gas rate 0.8 MMscfd.