This course discusses the fundamental sand control considerations involved in completing a well and introduces the various sand control techniques commonly used across the industry, including standalone screens, gravel packs, high rate water packs and frac-packs. It requires only a basic understanding of oilfield operations and is intended for drilling, completion and production personnel with some sand control experience who are looking to gain a better understanding of each technique’s advantages, limitations and application window for use in their upcoming completions.
PETRONAS FLNG SATU (PFLNG1) is a floating liquefied natural gas facility producing 1.2 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG, on a facility that is 365m long, and 60m wide, making it among the largest offshore facility ever built. The PFLNG1 project is the first of its kind in the world and is the first deployment of PETRONASâ€™ Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) technology, consolidating the traditional offshore to onshore LNG infrastructure into a single facility. This will see a giant floating facility capable of extracting, liquefying and storing LNG at sea, before it is exported to customers around the globe. The FLNG journey has come a long way since 2006, with many technological options explored to monetise and unlock the potential of small and stranded gas fields. Moving an LNG production to an offshore setting poses a demanding set of challenges â€“ as every element of a conventional LNG facility needs to fit into an area roughly one quarter the size in the open seas whilst maintaining safety and increased flexibility to LNG production and delivery. The keynote address describes the breakthrough features of PFLNG1 â€“ the worldâ€™s first floating LNG facility; and the pioneering innovation that it brings to the LNG industry.
Wijaya, R. (Total E&P) | Muryanto, B. (Total E&P) | Wahyudhi, F. (Total E&P) | Isdianto-Maharanoe, M. (Total E&P) | Styward, B. (Total E&P) | Kadrie, M. (Total E&P) | Al-Sakaf, N. (Total E&P) | Dahnil-Maulana, M. (Total E&P) | Saputra, R. (Total E&P) | Az-Zariat, A. (Total E&P) | Armelia-Suska, R. (Total E&P) | Anggiriani-Putri, A. (Total E&P) | Eko-Jatmiko, C. (Total E&P)
Tunu is a giant gas field located in Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan, Indonesia operated by Total E&P Indonesie. The field development targets two domains: Tunu Shallow Zone (TSZ) and Tunu Main Zone (TMZ). The primary objective of TSZ completion is to have a cost effective sand control methodology to ensure economic vialibility of the wells since TSZ consist of small elliptical shaped deltaic sand bodies containing low reserve gas pockets with a typically short production life.
Multi zone single trip gravel pack (MZ-STGP) systems have been utilized as sand control completion methodology. Technical limitations of these techniques in terms of zone spacing, number of zones and well deviations drove the need developping an alternative completion technique. Using short screen assembly and open-hole isolation technology, a unique multi zone open hole stand alone screen (MZ- SAS) system was developed.
The initial development consists of 14 wells. Both low and high angle deviated wells, numbers of different completion jewelries and different type of reservoir drill-in fluids (RDIF) have been used over the initial phase of the development. The objective of this paper is to review the evolution and improvements in the drilling, fluid, completion and specific post well completion strategy. This has provided a best practice for future completions in the development of similar reservoirs in the portfolio.
Lilasari, Leonora (Schlumberger) | Paterson, Graeme (Schlumberger) | Armstrong, Philip (Schlumberger) | Juandi, Dedi (Schlumberger) | Septama, Erlangga (PT Pertamina EP) | Sukmatiawan, Adang (PT Pertamina EP) | Ardiansyah, Benny (PT Pertamina EP) | Handayani, Tri (PT Pertamina EP)
Seismic surveying is a vital part for the oil and gas exploration and is normally the primary method for structural interpretation. Unfortunately, the remote location and complex geology are most often degrading the seismic quality. In this circumstances, borehole seismic data can be acquired with multiple fixed offset position (MOVSP) to improve the structural image away from wellbore. On top of that, borehole dip data can be used to provide a high definition 3D near wellbore structural modeling. This paper presents a case study on the “BHG” development wells campaign, where these two techniques were integrated to provide an enhanced structural information.
The interpretation workflow of this study started with the structural interpretation of single well borehole dips. Shale dips which were deposited with a horizontal or near horizontal attitude provides the best input for structural analysis. In all “BHG” wells, the shale dips shows high magnitude and demonstrate dipping to different direction, indicating the structural deformation. In order to validate this single well interpretation, multi wells structural modeling was performed. The resulted model shows two structural features, anticline at the bottom which overlain by the monocline structure. The structure model was then integrated to the velocity model, ended up with a CDP image that correlated well with the dip information from the borehole image log, and allowed for a good model validation of the key events in the up-going wavefield, hence also validating the 3D near well structural modeling.
This technique has shown that it can greatly enhance the structural interpretation, velocity control and subsequent imaging, which provides invaluable to the oil and gas operator and can provide significant savings, HSE control and to avoid unexpected events during drilling, especially in development campaign where the reservoir structure has not been properly appraised.
Muryanto, B. (Total E&P) | Lavoix, F. (Total E&P) | Labeyrie, C. (Total E&P) | Wijaya, R. (Total E&P) | Ji, Y. (Halliburton) | Roane, T. (Halliburton) | Hustache, H. (Halliburton) | Ayusta, P. (Halliburton) | Albertson, E. (Halliburton)
Multi Zone Single Trip Gravel Pack (MZ-STGP) system has been the main solution for developing shallow reservoirs in the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia. Despite providing cost effective solutions, the system poses safety challenges related to well control. These challenges (i.e long non-shearable period (NSP), heavy completion fluids losses, severe cross flow and trapped gas) must be overcome in design and operational stages. Robust operating procedures and new equipment have been developed to assure safe and efficient operation.
Three main steps of completion (perforation, concentric completion make up and service tool manipulation) were identified as critical and may generate a major well control situation. The completion design phase shall address the issue by carefully targeting appropriate reservoir characteristics, selecting perforation length and total gross net pay. Specific procedures for perforating and making up and manipulating service tools were generated and continuously improved. The continuous improvement process was able to avoid classic challenges such as heavy completion fluid losses after perforating long heterogeneous reservoirs or heavy losses following reservoir stimulation.
Specific tools and equipment such as screens with closing sleeves were designed and deployed to assure the whole process was undertaken safely. One of the important innovations was first worldwide use of a dropping table system to handle multiple concentric pipes. This was developed for two different systems through careful engineering design. It allows securing the well in less than 30 seconds.
To date, more than 200 wells have been safely completed without any major well control issue. Most importantly, the robust safety approach did not hinder operational performance as very low NonProductive Time (NPT) has been maintained since 2008.
Post-fracture proppant flowback has been an unwanted result of high-pressure/high-temperature hard-rock fracturing in the Mahakam river delta for a number of years, causing abundant production-related issues coupled with additional operational risks for the operator.
Previous attempts to reduce proppant flowback with resin-coated proppant (RCP) have proven to be both unsuccessful and expensive due to the brittle nature of the hardened RCP and the extended cleanout periods associated with post-job fracture cleanout using RCP in the swamp environment, leading the operator to search for an alternative solution. In early 2012, the service company implemented a new proppant flowback control service for mid- to high-temperature wells. This service has been applied to the high-pressure/high-temperature fracturing campaign in the Mahakam delta with excellent results. The service consists of a resin-coated fiber additive coupled with technical support software for design and optimization purposes. The service was pioneered on four hydraulically fractured wells throughout 2012 and 2013.
From the four wells currently treated with the new proppant flowback control service, a total of 180 lbm of proppant has been recorded at surface production facilities. All of this proppant is known to be from well A (approximately 0.18% of total proppant placed during fracture treatment). Wells B, C, and D have all recorded zero proppant returned to date. None of the four wells shows any indication of perforation burial from proppant, and there has been no decline in production that can be attributed to proppant flowback.
Over the last 30 years, an operator has been developing several fields in the Mahakam river delta, in the province of East Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia (Fig. 1). The fields comprise a series of interbedded deltaic sandstones, shales, coals, and, locally, limestones, with gas-bearing sand bodies, typically with a total vertical depth of less than 12,000 ft. The majority of the wells are multizone gas producers completed with cemented tubing that are perforated and produced using a bottom-up strategy.
Hydraulic fracturing operations are currently performed in two separate fields within the Mahakam delta. The fracture targets in both cases are medium- to low-permeability gas reservoirs in hard-rock formations. In this case, this is defined as reservoirs with ~1.0 mD permeability and lower and a Young’s modulus of >4.0 Mpsi. The fracturing fluid utilized is a high-temperature organo-metallic crosslinked system with high-strength ceramic proppant that is used because of the reservoir and stress environment in the region.
The operator has endured proppant flowback following hydraulic fracturing in both fields. In some cases, this proppant flowback caused considerable production loss with production meeting only 20% of the full potential of the well. This is due to restrictive well choking after proppant detection, as seen in the Fig. 2 for well Z. There have been cases of both perforation burial, leading to well shut-in for cleanout and proppant production at surface. The potential of further lost production and extensive damage to surface necessitated a permanent solution to proppant flowback in the Mahakam delta.
Since the nineteen seventies, Total E&P Indonesie (TEPI) operates a block in the Mahakam River delta, where it coexists with local communities that live in a traditional way and get their livelihoods from agriculture and marine activities such as shrimp farming. For ten years, the relationship with these communities has become more and more intense, occasionally leading to conflicts and reaching a peak where TEPI neighbors are getting unsatisfied with the company and have increasing societal expectations. Consequently, the societal strategy was in dire need of an update, to improve TEPI’s relationship with its stakeholders and ensure undisturbed operations. To achieve this goal, TEPI used SRM+, a corporate tool by which the company compares its perception of the societal context in which it operates with that of its external stakeholders, with a view to better adapting its societal strategy. Usually used at subsidiary level, the innovation here was that it was adjusted to the operational needs. In the Mahakam block, operations are divided into 3 assets, which cover several sites and have a dedicated management. Therefore, four SRM+ surveys were conducted: one on each of the assets and one at Province level to listen to higher level stakeholders. Internally, the survey consisted in workshops gathering around 50 people from societal and operations teams, in order to jointly identify the societal risks and to map the stakeholders. Externally, 45 stakeholders were interviewed, 27 at assets level and 18 at the level of East Kalimantan province. The result was the delivery of a uniquely shaped action plan, made of 4 different plans: one common and one for each asset. Each of these plans aimed at answering local stakeholder’s expectations, which vary from one asset to another. The global action plan targeted general actions to improve impact management, redirect the community development strategy towards needs of local communities, while improving the quality of relationships with stakeholders. Whilst this project strengthened ties between societal and operations teams, and triggered an opening of sites to local communities, it also enabled TEPI to improve its societal management practices and, most importantly, to better understand its neighbors.
Dutrieux, Eric (Creocean) | Proisy, Christophe (IRD-UMR AMAP) | Fromard, Francois (CNRS, Ecolab, University of Toulouse) | Walcker, Romain (CNRS, Ecolab, University of Toulouse) | Ilman, Muhammad (School of Geography Planning and Environmental Management, the University of Queensland) | Pawlowski, Frederic (ECO-MED) | Ferdiansyah, Henry (Total E&P Indonesie) | Ponthieux, Olivier (Total)
Copyright 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE International Conference on Health, Safety, and Environment held in Long Beach, California, USA, 17-19 March 2014. Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright. Abstract Mangroves are critical ecosystems given their key role in conserving biodiversity, protecting coastlines from erosion and supporting coastal resources. They may be impacted by oil and gas activities, either directly or indirectly. Restoring them is therefore of prime importance. In the Mahakam Delta (East Kalimantan, Indonesia), oil and gas exploration and production have been conducted for more than 40 years. This industry has operated in a quasi-pristine area barely affected by human activities until the mid 80's. Toward the late 1980's and until 2000, the delta was subject to massive and rapid development of shrimp farming and by 2001, 85% of the delta mangroves were destroyed and most of it replaced by ponds used for aquaculture. By the end of 1990's, shrimp farm productivity in the delta decreased due to a lack of nutrients in ponds and the occurrence of shrimp diseases. Numerous ponds were abandoned in the delta. This economic situation generated social instabilities that could threaten the oil and gas industry in the region. Therefore, in order to better protect mangroves and optimize restoration of damaged areas, Total E&P Indonesie embarked on a mangrove restoration initiative of the Mahakam Delta aimed at understanding and contributing to the restoration processes through both natural recolonization and planting techniques. The general methodology implemented has been to i) describe the land cover using satellite imagery, interpreting aerial photos, conducting field work, and establishing GIS maps, ii) inventory the fauna and flora (including mangroves, birds, mammals, reptiles), iii) monitoring the naturally re-colonized areas, replanted areas and original forest in selected areas. Results show that natural recolonization of a mangrove area can be very quick under certain conditions (subject to availability of seeds and easy access of seeds to the area to be recolonized).
The Oil and Gas Industry requires 4H: High Investments, High Technology, High Risks and High skillful manpower. The Industry are facing difficult situation on obtaining local skillful manpower with high tech calibers due to unmatched between the Industry needs and the supplies of the educational institutions. Education is one of the key milestones stipulated in the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs).
Despite most of the MDGs are achieved or progressing, there are several goals needs major attention or required hard works. UN Secretary General Ban Ki - Moon in a UN report on the MDGs in 2013 confirms the global conditions associated with the level of achievement of the MDGs as a whole lot of progress. The proportion of urban slum dwellers is significantly decreased. Indonesia for example from 2000 to 2010 has been reduced from 34 % to 23 %. Likewise, the amount of decrease in TB patients and the fight against Malaria , and improvement efforts in health and basic education. On the MDG targets on Education that need hard works: the number of children out of school declined by almost half from 102 million to 57 million. While the MDG targets on Education that need attention: Poor children are three times likely to drop out of school compared with wealthier households.
Indonesia keeps improving the quality of education. From 1945 to nowadays Indonesia has changed into better improved curriculum for 10 times. However, the quality is still considered to be "low??. The PISA data shows that in the very last year , the score of student's ability in reading is 393, in mathematics 393, in problem solving 361, while the international average score is 450. This situation is caused by the low teacher's quality: 48,69% of the teachers do not have sufficient qualification of education and 70% of teachers are not certified yet. Furthermore, there are some problems of current education curriculum in Indonesia such as the content of the current curriculum is too much and it is not based on competence.
The national ratio of student and teacher numbers in elementary school level is 1:20 which means one teacher has to teach 20 students. It is better than the situation in Singapore ((1:25), Korea (1:31), and Philippines (1:35). The condition of secondary level is about similar. It is 1:15 in Indonesia which is better than Malaysia (1:18), China (1:19), or Thailnad (1:25). In fact, Indonesia still has the problem of uneven distribution of teachers. It really affects the quality of education in Indonesia. PISA shows that Indonesia is at the 34th out of 41 countries. In science, Indonesia is the 38th out of 41 countries.
Indonesia's achievements on education lag behind other countries both in terms of access and quality. The quality of education in Indonesia is the most on Below Level 1, the least on level 4, and none is on level 5. On the other hand, Thailand, Korea, and Japan has a little number of level 1 and the most of level 3, 4 dan 5.
In Human Development Index in ASEAN + 3 Countries, Indonesia takes position at 110 out of 164 countries. It is under Vietnam which is at 108. Malaysia is at 61. Thailand is at 7.
The Badak Field, operated by VICO Indonesia, is one of the world's giant gas fields. Located in East Kalimantan, the field lies in the northern part of the Badak - Handil giant anticline. Discovered in January 1972, production started in October 1976 and reached a peak of 1,1 BCFD in December 1990. Up until now, cumulative production has exceeded 6 TCF.
Today, Badak is a very mature gas field which produces 80 MMscfd. The drilling of new wells and the well intervention activities continue to be the main way to maintain production in the field. Most of the reservoirs units, especially the larger ones, have been intensively drained over the life of the field. Only a few of them are producing, but at relatively low rates, due to their significant depletion. Finding zones with remaining production potential has become a much more difficult task, especially if some of these zones have incomplete suites of logs.
In VICO, the improvement in the subsurface analytical methods has proven successful in helping identify additional reservoir opportunities. Recently, a method has been developed to identify "bypassed gas zones?? in shallow reservoirs. This method uses the sonic log as the main tool for analysis. It also incorporates all of the subsurface data that has been acquired through time. The method has proven very successful in the Badak field in areas where no Density-Neutron log has been acquired.
Theoretically, the sonic log can be used as a complimentary tool to identify gas in the reservoirs. The problem arises when trying to differentiate between the event of gas and the effect of poor or under-compacted shallow reservoirs, as in many cases these events will present a similar feature across the sonic log. The development and implementation of these methods have helped significantly to maintain production in the Badak field.
Badak is a giant gas field consisting of more than 180 production layers with more than 530 reservoirs. The cumulative production has reached more than 6 TCF since start up in October 1976. Today, the field is already in very mature production stage, and it has become very difficult to find high deliverability zones to be produced. The location of Badak field with respect to the Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan is shown in Figure 1.