This course discusses the fundamental sand control considerations involved in completing a well and introduces the various sand control techniques commonly used across the industry, including standalone screens, gravel packs, high rate water packs and frac-packs. It requires only a basic understanding of oilfield operations and is intended for drilling, completion and production personnel with some sand control experience who are looking to gain a better understanding of each technique’s advantages, limitations and application window for use in their upcoming completions.
This paper introduces a new core-analysis work flow for determining resistivity index (RI), formation factor (FF), and other petrophysical properties directly from an as-received (AR) set of core samples. In this paper, the authors discuss the characterization process for GR tools and how they behave in boreholes different from the one used in the University of Houston (UH) GR characterization pit. This paper discusses a study undertaken to gain better understanding of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characteristics of volcanic reservoirs with different lithologies. Formation evaluation drew special attention at the 2019 International Petroleum Technology Conference Education Week in Beijing, 24–28 March 2019. The student team that worked on Integrated Formation Evaluation for Resources Exploration and Reservoir Delineation won the first-place award. The first subsea multiphase boosting system was installed in 1994. Since then, it has grown into a technology with a global track record. A new enabling technology known as electrically heat-traced flowline (EHTF) will be used to enable system startup and shutdown and to maintain production fluids outside of the hydrate envelope during steady-state operation. This study incorporates previous learnings, as well as globally collected data, to develop a strategy that can be used to help implement an industry-specific mental health program. The value of hidden-danger data stored in text can be revealed through an approach that can help sort and interpret information in an ordered way not used previously in safety management. This paper highlights the results of a test campaign for a tool designed to predict the short-term trends of energy-efficiency indices and optimal management of a production plant. This paper presents the recent expansion of UNFC guidance to cover social and environmental effects and the further transformation of the system to make it a valuable tool in resource management for governments and businesses.
This page pulls together technology-focused articles from various departments within JPT. This paper introduces a new core-analysis work flow for determining resistivity index (RI), formation factor (FF), and other petrophysical properties directly from an as-received (AR) set of core samples. In this paper, the authors discuss the characterization process for GR tools and how they behave in boreholes different from the one used in the University of Houston (UH) GR characterization pit. This paper discusses a study undertaken to gain better understanding of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characteristics of volcanic reservoirs with different lithologies. Formation evaluation drew special attention at the 2019 International Petroleum Technology Conference Education Week in Beijing, 24–28 March 2019. The student team that worked on Integrated Formation Evaluation for Resources Exploration and Reservoir Delineation won the first-place award. The first subsea multiphase boosting system was installed in 1994.
PETRONAS FLNG SATU (PFLNG1) is a floating liquefied natural gas facility producing 1.2 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG, on a facility that is 365m long, and 60m wide, making it among the largest offshore facility ever built. The PFLNG1 project is the first of its kind in the world and is the first deployment of PETRONASâ€™ Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) technology, consolidating the traditional offshore to onshore LNG infrastructure into a single facility. This will see a giant floating facility capable of extracting, liquefying and storing LNG at sea, before it is exported to customers around the globe. The FLNG journey has come a long way since 2006, with many technological options explored to monetise and unlock the potential of small and stranded gas fields. Moving an LNG production to an offshore setting poses a demanding set of challenges â€“ as every element of a conventional LNG facility needs to fit into an area roughly one quarter the size in the open seas whilst maintaining safety and increased flexibility to LNG production and delivery. The keynote address describes the breakthrough features of PFLNG1 â€“ the worldâ€™s first floating LNG facility; and the pioneering innovation that it brings to the LNG industry.
In its first 50 years, LNG has become the world’s fastest-growing gas supply source and is now part of an upheaval in the global energy market. Today, the sector stands at a crossroads, and the industry must adopt new thinking to address current and future needs of buyers, sellers, and consumers. The state-owned firm is looking within its home country, around Southeast Asia, and to the Americas—including shale—in an effort to maintain its forecast average yearly production of 1.7 million BOE/D over the next 5 years. Anadarko Petroleum now plans to exit its agreement with Chevron after deeming Occidental Petroleum's revised takeover bid "superior." Most underground gas-storage facilities are depleted reservoirs.
It is evident that, to quantify formation damage and to study its impact on hydrocarbon production, one must have reasonable estimates of the flow efficiency or skin factor. Several methods have been proposed to evaluate these quantities for oil and gas wells. The most common methods are multirate tests, isochronal gas-well tests, and transient well tests (pressure-buildup analysis). Multirate tests can be conducted on both oil and gas wells. In these tests, several stabilized flow rates, qi, are achieved at corresponding stabilized flowing bottomhole pressures, pwf. The simplest analysis considers two different stabilized rates and pressures.
Formation damage in gas/condensate reservoirs can be caused by a buildup of fluids (condensate) around the wellbore. This reduces the relative permeability and therefore gas production. This page discusses condensate banking and how to overcome its effects. As shown in Figure 1, gas/condensate reservoirs are defined as reservoirs that contain hydrocarbon mixtures that on pressure depletion cross the dewpoint line. In such instances as when the bottomhole pressure is reduced during production, the dewpoint pressure of the gas is reached in the near-wellbore region.
There are many possible causes of formation damage. In addition to the numerous sources identified in separate articles (see See Also section below), other, less common causes include emulsions and sludges, wettability alteration, bacterial plugging, gas breakout, and water blocks. The presence of emulsions at the surface does not imply the formation of emulsions in the near-wellbore region. Most often, surface emulsions are a result of mixing and shearing that occur in chokes and valves in the flow stream after the fluids have entered the well. Such emulsions usually have a higher viscosity than either of the constituent fluids and can result in significant decreases in the ability of the hydrocarbon phase to flow.
Mature fields, also known as brownfields, are fields that are in a state of declining production or reaching the end of their productive lives. These fields are considered the "backbone" of the industry, though new discoveries and developments often take the limelight. About two-thirds of the world's daily oil production comes from mature fields, according to a report from IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associates. For the purposes of the study, fields were considered mature if they had produced more than 50% of their established proved plus probable resource estimates or had produced for more than 25 years. The term "mature field" has no single definition.
Tight carbonate formations with extremely low porosity and permeability depend on well-designed completion and stimulation treatments to achieve economic production. Acid fracturing, a relative cost-effective choice compared with propped fracturing, is widely used for carbonate stimulation. However, many factors contribute to the acid etching created conductivity, which is a key parameter for the success of acid fracturing. From a petrophysical perspective, depth-by-depth rock mechanical properties, stress distribution as well as the heterogeneous petrophysical properties (e.g. porosity and permeability) are important local information affecting final fracture conductivity. In this paper, we conduct an integrated evaluation for multi-stage acid fracturing in a horizontal well in a deep, tight carbonate reservoir in Tarim field, China.
We perform multi-mineral analysis and estimate volumetric concentrations of minerals, porosity, and fluid saturations with conventional well logs. Since shear wave sonic logs are not available for most of the wells, we estimate rock mechanical properties (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) using effective medium models including self-consistent approximation and differential effective medium theory. Corrections including the impact of fluids are developed using Gassmann's fluid substitution. Besides, we estimate depth by depth permeability with empirical correlations. Core measurements are used for cross-validating the well-log-based estimates of rock mechanical properties, porosity and permeability. Horizontal stress distribution and closure stress field are generated using poroelasticity stress model with estimated Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio as inputs. We also perform variogram analysis on well-log-based estimates of permeability and obtain its correlation length in both vertical and horizontal direction to quantify formation heterogeneity.
The estimated rock mechanical properties, stress distribution, and petrophysical properties are used as inputs to 3D acid fracturing treatment modeling. The simulated fracture geometry, especially fracture height, is highly dependent on stress variation. The modeled acid transportation in fracture is strongly affected by permeability correlation lengths. The study result shows that the conductivity created by acid fracturing under local high closure stress is insufficient for successful acid stimulation treatments.