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In 2019, the US experienced the lowest natural gas prices since 2016. This was despite natural gas consumption increasing in the residential and commercial sector by 2% (between October and December) according to the US Energy Information Administration. The complete paper presents an integration of geology, geohazards, geophysics, and geotechnical assessments for a design of an offshore gas production facility and an associated export pipeline. Landmark deal called most significant since 1979 peace treaty. The Orca-1 and Marsouin-1 wells have derisked up to 50 Tcf of gas initially in place from the Cenomanian and Albian plays in the BirAllah area, more than sufficient to support a world-scale LNG project, partner Kosmos Energy said.
Since the industrial revolution, the oil and gas industry has played an important role in the economic transformation of the world, fueling the need for heat, light and mobility of the world’s population. Today, the oil and gas industry has the opportunity to redefine its boundaries through digitalisation, after a period of falling crude prices disrupted exploration and production activities, and ineffective mature field development challenges that are currently facing most oil and gas companies in Indonesia. The recent downturn in the oil and gas industry has led to massive layoffs. Digital industrial revolution is slowly changing how upstream businesses operate. Increasing public awareness of climate change has fuelled the urgency to shift to cleaner alternative energy.
PETRONAS FLNG SATU (PFLNG1) is a floating liquefied natural gas facility producing 1.2 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG, on a facility that is 365m long, and 60m wide, making it among the largest offshore facility ever built. The PFLNG1 project is the first of its kind in the world and is the first deployment of PETRONASâ€™ Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) technology, consolidating the traditional offshore to onshore LNG infrastructure into a single facility. This will see a giant floating facility capable of extracting, liquefying and storing LNG at sea, before it is exported to customers around the globe. The FLNG journey has come a long way since 2006, with many technological options explored to monetise and unlock the potential of small and stranded gas fields. Moving an LNG production to an offshore setting poses a demanding set of challenges â€“ as every element of a conventional LNG facility needs to fit into an area roughly one quarter the size in the open seas whilst maintaining safety and increased flexibility to LNG production and delivery.
It is evident that, to quantify formation damage and to study its impact on hydrocarbon production, one must have reasonable estimates of the flow efficiency or skin factor. Several methods have been proposed to evaluate these quantities for oil and gas wells. The most common methods are multirate tests, isochronal gas-well tests, and transient well tests (pressure-buildup analysis). Multirate tests can be conducted on both oil and gas wells. In these tests, several stabilized flow rates, qi, are achieved at corresponding stabilized flowing bottomhole pressures, pwf. The simplest analysis considers two different stabilized rates and pressures. The IPR can be written as ....................(6.6) Simplifying and solving for the flow efficiency, F, we obtain ....................(6.7) The above equation clearly shows that it is possible to obtain flow efficiency rather simply with two stabilized bottomhole pressures and two stabilized flow rates. A similar analysis can be performed to obtain an expression for a linear IPR (x 0). For many gas wells and some oil wells, flow rates are sufficiently high that turbulent or inertial pressure drops near the wellbore can be significant. In such cases, the additional pressure drop measured by the skin can be confused with the pressure drop because of non-Darcy or inertial flow.
Formation damage in gas/condensate reservoirs can be caused by a buildup of fluids (condensate) around the wellbore. This reduces the relative permeability and therefore gas production. This page discusses condensate banking and how to overcome its effects. As shown in Figure 1, gas/condensate reservoirs are defined as reservoirs that contain hydrocarbon mixtures that on pressure depletion cross the dewpoint line. In such instances as when the bottomhole pressure is reduced during production, the dewpoint pressure of the gas is reached in the near-wellbore region.
There are many possible causes of formation damage. In addition to the numerous sources identified in separate articles (see See Also section below), other, less common causes include emulsions and sludges, wettability alteration, bacterial plugging, gas breakout, and water blocks. The presence of emulsions at the surface does not imply the formation of emulsions in the near-wellbore region. Most often, surface emulsions are a result of mixing and shearing that occur in chokes and valves in the flow stream after the fluids have entered the well. It is uncommon to have emulsions and sludges form in the near-wellbore region without the introduction of external chemicals.The
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is the acid of choice for acidizing operations in most carbonate formations and is the base acid commonly paired with others such as hydrofluoric (HF) in most sandstone applications. However, high dissolving power, high corrosion rate, lack of penetration, and sludging tendency coupled with high temperature can make HCl a poor choice. Alternatively, weaker and less corrosive chemicals such as organic acids can be used instead of HCl to avoid these issues. The objective of this paper is to provide an intensive review on recent advancements, technology, and problems associated with organic acids. The paper focuses on formic, acetic, citric, and lactic acids.
This review includes various laboratory evaluation tests and field cases which outline the usage of organic acids for formation damage removal and dissolution. Rotating disk apparatus results were reviewed to determine the kinetics for acid dissolution of different minerals. Additional results were collected from solubility, corrosion, core-flooding, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscope Diffraction (SEM) tests.
Due to their retardation performance, organic acids have been used along with mineral acids or as a stand-alone solution for high-temperature applications. However, the main drawback of these acids is the solubility of reaction product salts. In terms of conducting dominant wormhole tests and low corrosion rating, organic acids with low concentrations show good results. Organic acids have also been utilized in other applications. For instance, formic acid is used as an intensifier to reduce the corrosion rate due to HCl in high-temperature operations. Acetic and lactic acids can be used to dissolve drilling mud filter cakes. Citric acid is commonly used as an iron sequestering agent.
This paper shows organic acid advances, limitations, and applications in oil and gas operations, specifically, in acidizing jobs. The paper differentiates and closes the gap between various organic acid applications along with providing researchers an intensive guide for present and future research.
This page pulls together technology-focused articles from various departments within JPT. In this paper, the authors consider the effect of water chemistry on water/rock interactions during seawater and smart waterflooding of reservoir sandstone cores containing heavy oil. This paper focuses on the preparation for, and implementation of, well-control training, while highlighting the integration of people skills into curricula and what advantages operators and drilling contractors have obtained. To predict liquid-loading tendencies and to identify opportunities for production enhancement, the performance of 150 gas wells was analyzed in two gas fields in India. Many forms of remote sensing imagery can be used, along with data sets and the resultant products, to improve the efficiency and safety of upstream oil and gas operations on the North Slope of Alaska. This paper updates a previous case study and presents the results of actual implementation of an optimized steam-injection plan based on the model framework. The bulk of the literature on enhanced oil recovery from the past year has been devoted to an improved understanding of trends started more than a decade ago with physical and numerical modeling. Production decline with field maturing is a natural phenomenon, but the efforts to mitigate this decline are truly remarkable. Achieving this feat requires not only a deeper understanding of the subsurface process involved but also a total synergy between the various disciplines engaged. The objective of this study is to show how the capacitance-resistance model (CRM) was used on this field and how it validated the use of other independent methods. This paper demonstrates that integration of different sources of data in reservoir management is critical. The XamXung field offshore Sarawak, Malaysia, is a 47-year brownfield with thin remaining oil rims that have made field management challenging. The dynamic oil-rim movement has been a key subsurface uncertainty, particularly with the commencing of a redevelopment project. The complete paper explores technical and economic development options to produce heavy-oil resources at commercial rates and showcases three optimization scenarios of higher recovery efficiency aimed at increasing net present value at the basin level. Fiber-optic technologies—distributed temperature sensing and distributed acoustic sensing—have been experiencing an ever-increasing number of applications in the oil and gas industry as monitoring systems.
Landmark deal called most significant since 1979 peace treaty. The Orca-1 and Marsouin-1 wells have derisked up to 50 Tcf of gas initially in place from the Cenomanian and Albian plays in the BirAllah area, more than sufficient to support a world-scale LNG project, partner Kosmos Energy said. Separate collaboration agreements between ADNOC and Lukoil, Gazprom Neft, and the Russian Energy Agency cover all segments of the oil and gas industry, including upstream technology and exploration and development of Abu Dhabi concessions. In its first 50 years, LNG has become the world’s fastest-growing gas supply source and is now part of an upheaval in the global energy market. Today, the sector stands at a crossroads, and the industry must adopt new thinking to address current and future needs of buyers, sellers, and consumers.
The Orca-1 and Marsouin-1 wells have derisked up to 50 Tcf of gas initially in place from the Cenomanian and Albian plays in the BirAllah area, more than sufficient to support a world-scale LNG project, partner Kosmos Energy said. Separate collaboration agreements between ADNOC and Lukoil, Gazprom Neft, and the Russian Energy Agency cover all segments of the oil and gas industry, including upstream technology and exploration and development of Abu Dhabi concessions. In its first 50 years, LNG has become the world’s fastest-growing gas supply source and is now part of an upheaval in the global energy market. Today, the sector stands at a crossroads, and the industry must adopt new thinking to address current and future needs of buyers, sellers, and consumers. The state-owned firm is looking within its home country, around Southeast Asia, and to the Americas—including shale—in an effort to maintain its forecast average yearly production of 1.7 million BOE/D over the next 5 years.