This course discusses the fundamental sand control considerations involved in completing a well and introduces the various sand control techniques commonly used across the industry, including standalone screens, gravel packs, high rate water packs and frac-packs. It requires only a basic understanding of oilfield operations and is intended for drilling, completion and production personnel with some sand control experience who are looking to gain a better understanding of each technique’s advantages, limitations and application window for use in their upcoming completions.
The Enterprise Standard of Method for Petroleum Initial Reserves Evaluation in China prescribes the economic limit production prediction model is the standard evaluation method of the developed oil and gas initial reserves. This model is derived from the theory of input-output balance, and the important key is the clear classification of fixed cost and variable cost in use of this model. Owing to the composite of operating cost, it is difficult to divide the operating costs into fixed costs and variable costs, therefore affects the evaluation accuracy of the initial reserves to a certain extent. Due to more and more oilfields entering the middle to later development stage, the measures of increasing production and the development mode change become the important ways for holding and increasing production, thus cause the differences of cost structure in different stages, therefore the difficulty of cost classification and the uncertainty of initial reserves evaluation are increasing obviously.
In order to avoid the cost classification errors and evaluation effects of proved recoverable reserves, this paper sets up an economic limit of oil production prediction model derived from the discounted cash flow method. Furthermore, this paper puts the prediction model and Petrochina Standard's model and D&M Co.'s simple calculating formula comparison. The comparison study shows several differences among the three models on formula derive basis, cost preferences and government revenues. Cases analysis shows important conclusions as follows, first, the cost classification was not involved in model calculation process; thereby multiple solutions from the economic limit production calculation were avoided effectively. Second, the model standardizes the costs preference and its assignment, and then improves the economic limit prediction accuracy. Third, the formulas determined by this model can conveniently complete the scenario analysis of the oil price, cost, government revenue and other factors.