The basic objective of this course is to introduce the overview and concept of production optimisation, using nodal analysis as a tool in production optimisation and enhancement. The participants are exposed to the analysis of various elements that help in production system starting from reservoir to surface processing facilities and their effect on the performance of the total production system. Depth conversion of time interpretations is a basic skill set for interpreters. There is no single methodology that is optimal for all cases. Next, appropriate depth methods will be presented. Depth imaging should be considered an integral component of interpretation. If the results derived from depth imaging are intended to mitigate risk, the interpreter must actively guide the process.
This course is designed for petro physics and reservoir engineers who are involved in formation sampling and testing. To learn about reservoir characterisation using formation testers, to be able to interpret pressure and fluid properties, and to design a successful sampling and testing operation. This class is designed for geophysicists, reservoir engineers and any engineers involved or interested in wireline formation sampling and testing including petro physical engineers, production engineers and testing engineers. There are no special requirements for this course. It is recommended for participants to bring their own examples to contribute to course discussions.
This year, as part of the Opening Ceremony, SPE brings you two panel sessions that will focus on the conference theme “Co-operating Towards a More Competitive Environment to Encourage Investment Projects.” The panels will represent two different perspectives—the investors and operators in the region. Digitalisation is emerging as a technological driver of change around the world and is transforming how companies in the oil and gas industry operate. A wave of digital technologies and initiatives are leading this new era of innovation and opportunity. Investments in programmes such as analytics, data science, artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and other emerging technologies are being pursued to improve safety, reliability, and efficiency with the expectation of delivering significant value through improved processes and systems.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) A drillstem test was performed on the Zafarani-2 well--located about 80 km offshore southern Tanzania. Two separate intervals were tested, and the well flowed at a maximum of 66 MMscf/D of gas. Statoil (65%) is the operator, on behalf of Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation, with partner ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Tanzania (35%). The FA-1 well--located in 600 m of water in the Foum Assaka license area offshore Morocco--was spudded. The well targets Eagle prospect Lower Cretaceous resources. Target depth is 4000 m. Kosmos Energy (29.9%) is the operator, with partners BP (26.4%),
Africa (Sub-Sahara) ExxonMobil will drill its first exploratory well offshore Liberia this month, the company announced on 18 October. A deepwater well is planned on the Liberia-13 Block, which is about 50 miles off the coast of the West African country. Solo Oil plans to spud the Ntorya-2 appraisal well in Tanzania next month. The drilling pad is a mile southwest of the 2012 Ntorya-1 discovery well, which was tested at rates of 20.1 MMcf/D of gas and 139 B/D of condensate. An independent report estimated the discovery to hold 153 Bcf of gas in place, of which 70 Bcf is considered a gross best-estimate contingent resource. A gross best estimate of more than 1 Tcf of gas in place has been made for the Ntorya prospect as a whole, in which the company has a 25% interest. Asia Pacific BP has decided to abandon drilling plans in the Great Australian Bight offshore southern Australia, an area in which prospective drilling has long been contested by environmentalists.
Differential compaction is an inherent process in carbonate systems that is thought to produce early natural fractures prior to any significant burial. Such fractures can persist and can be major permeability pathways, including areas of minor tectonic overprint. We forward model differential compaction fracturing in a carbonate reservoir in effort to predict the location of fractures in the subsurface.
3D finite-element geomechanical models are created to simulate differential compaction fracturing at a carbonate platform scale (kilometers) and the smaller carbonate build-up scale (10s of meters) commonly present within carbonate platforms. Interpreted seismic surfaces of key reservoir horizons are used as an input for the platform-scale model. Geometry of carbonate build-up from an outcrop analog is used for the build-up scale models. In both type of models layers identified to be compaction prone are restored to their expected pre-compaction state. A simplified mechanical stratigraphy scheme is adopted to distribute mechanical properties within the models consistent with their expected pre-burial properties.
Geomechanical modeling in this study was applied to a field which includes two carbonate platforms at different stratigraphic levels. Modeling results predict increased fracture intensity at the windward margin of the carbonate platform. This coincides with increased windward-leeward asymmetry of an underlying older platform. Increased fracture intensity is predicted at the center of the platform where the underlying older platform displays significantly less asymmetry. Predicted fracture locations over the platform top also correspond with the location of carbonate build-ups identified from seismic data. Fracture observations from image logs and indirectly from mud loss data within the upper platform are consistent with our modeling results. Predicted areas of greatest fracture intensity correspond with the location of wells with the highest fracture intensity observed from image logs.
Build-up scale models suggest that the build-up shape exerts a major control on the resulting differential compaction fracture pattern. Elongate build-ups tend to produce fractures oriented parallel to their axes. Circular build-ups tends to produce radial fracture patterns. Fracture orientation from image logs along with build-up shape observed using the coherence seismic attribute are consistent with these findings.
This study offers a process-based fracture modeling approach that can enhance the predictability of the location and orientations of natural fractures in carbonate reservoirs.
Skalinski, Mark (retired Chevron ETC) | Mallan, Robert (Chevron ETC) | Edwards, Mason (Chevron ETC) | Sun, Boqin (Chevron ETC) | Toumelin, Emmanuel (Chevron ETC) | Kelly, Grant (Chevron ETC) | Wushur, Hazaretali (Chevron ETC) | Sullivan, Michael (Chevron Canada Resources)
Assessment of the “net pay” is an essential part of reservoir characterization and resource determination. Standard methods usually involve the use of porosity, permeability and water saturation cutoffs to define net reservoir, net pay and perforation zones. However, there are no industry standards for the definition of cutoffs and their application in the reservoir characterization workflows. Assessment of net-pay cutoff s in carbonates is more challenging than in clastics due to inherent heterogeneity of pore architecture and permeability. Historically, the success rate of flowing perforations is low, and operators tend to “overperforate” to capture all potential flowing zones.
This study was undertaken to redefine pay categories and provide methods of cutoff determination in carbonates, leveraging applications of NMR logging, capillary pressure, and in-situ flow measurements. The new category of “gross hydrocarbon” is introduced to describe the rock charged with hydrocarbon. The new methods defining “gross hydrocarbon” are described: NMR shape analysis and hydrocarbon-charged pore-throat (HCPT) or R10 method. NMR T2 shape and 2D shape analyses define the minimum porosity and/or permeability with detectable hydrocarbon signal. The T2 shape analyses were performed for several carbonate fields around the world, yielding a porosity cutoff for hydrocarbon charge varying between 1.5 and 3.5%, depending on reservoir type.
The HCPT or R10 method used an extensive MICP dataset from these carbonate fields to predict an entry pore-throat radius corresponding to potential hydrocarbon charge. The predicted entry pore-throat log combined with the pore-throat size corresponding to capillary pressure at specific height above free-water level (HAFWL) allowed to define zones which were not penetrated by hydrocarbon charge due insufficient capillary pressure. Definition of those zones corroborated results from the NMR shape analysis. Both methods are restricted to hydrocarbon column.
The next cutoff investigated was the minimum value of permeability associated with observed flow of in-situ fluids indicated by wireline pressure test or production logs. This cutoff would correspond to the conventional “net reservoir” definition. The use of permeability mitigates the need for porosity cutoff s, which usually vary by rock type. The study performed in the different carbonate reservoirs yielded permeability cutoff s varying between 0.01and 1 mD.
Practical examples from Tengiz, Karachaganak, PZ, West Africa and Permian basin validate the consistency between methods and the validity of statistical predictions of R10 pore throat. The methods presented here can be applied to any conventional reservoir.
Epoxy-resin applications in oil and gas wells have significantly increased for remediation and sustained-casing-pressure mitigation because of its solids-free nature and excellent thermomechanical/bonding properties when used either as a single component or as a resin/cement-enhanced composite. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the formation and degradation of structures in cured epoxy resin at downhole temperatures, particularly because hydrocarbon production requires long-term wellbore integrity.
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the proposed resin system, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to characterize the thermal degradation response by monitoring the resin specimens’ mass loss over time under controlled temperatures ranging from 300 to 680°F at atmospheric pressure. The thermal kinetic response based on TGA was then modeled using the Arrhenius equation to predict the resin lifetime under expected wellbore conditions. A uniaxial load frame Tinius Olsen tester was used to assess the mechanical response of the resin system under elevated temperatures.
For a resin system subjected to downhole temperatures of 263°F, the model predicts that reaching 10% mass loss by thermal degradation can take more than 160 years, which is beyond the operational life of the wells where the system is evaluated. This indicates that the investigated resin system provides long-term dependability that ultimately results in reduction of intervention/remediation costs, along with production maximization. Additionally, the resin mechanical properties were evaluated at different temperatures to assess their response to expected thermal loading, which resulted in competent barriers that can withstand the cyclic loads generated by continuous wellbore operations. This work also presents a case study in which an epoxy-resin-cement composite is used as an annular barricade to help prevent and reduce sustained casing pressure. The resin-cement composite was placed in the annular section as a chemical packer tailored to improve bonding to steel pipe, along with optimizing its mechanical response to cyclic downhole loads, which resulted in no up-to-date sustained casing pressure. Furthermore, Cement Bond Log (CBL) results further support the optimum annular integrity attained when utilizing a cement-resin composite as chemical packer for enhanced isolation and annular pressure buildup mitigation.
The present paper describes the results of analysis of depositional environment and tectonic setting within Karaton-Tengiz uplift zone in the southeastern part of the Pre-Caspian basin. The main purpose of the study is generalization and interpretation of geological and geophysical data for creation of stratigraphic charts and a description of lithological and tectonic processes for reconstruction of the structural history of pre-salt prospective traps located close to Tengiz field.
It is known that carbonates are "born, not made"; hence, their characteristics can give an insight into their depositional environment. The combination of such factors as availability of the light, warm climate, chemical composition and transparency of the water define the growth of the reef-building organisms. The highest carbonate production takes place close to the water surface; therefore, facies and texture of carbonates may be linked to the sea level changes. This means that understanding of the depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy may be used for a potential reservoir description where no well data is available. As a general understanding of the relative sea level fluctuations and its effect on carbonate growth, comparison of vertical thickness of studied platforms was carried out.
Analysis of regional seismic reflectors P3 (Top of Middle Devonian, tentative), P2D (Top of Upper Devonian), P2 (Top of Carboniferous), P1 (Top of Permian), VI (Kungurian salt deposits), V (surface of unconformity, Triassic), III (Top of Jurassic), II (Top of Lower Cretaceous) was also carried out for understanding of tectonic processes. Dipping of reflectors, thickness and depth variation of time-equivalent units, unconformities may indicate the change in tectonic setting. The shallowest depth of top of carbonates is observed on Tazhigali-Pustynnaya structure, gradually deepening towards Ansagan and Maksat to the south-southeast. Also, post-salt III and V reflective horizons are inclined from the north to the south of Karaton-Tengiz uplift zone.
Tectonic deepening in the south-southeast direction took place in several stages. The first stage, most probably, took place in Late Devonian–Early Carboniferous, as the result of which Ansagan and Maksat structures drowned. In the northern part of the Karaton-Tengiz uplift, the growth of reefs continued up to Late Carboniferous.
Well logging interpretation and published papers were integrated when possible. As the result, a conceptual model of the geological history and stratigraphic charts were created for the studied region.
Tham, Su Li (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Ariffin, Mohd Hafizi (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Johing, Fedawin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | M Khalil, Muhammad Idraki (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Dolah, Khairul Arifin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Yusop, Zainuddin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.)
Water injection was implemented in a 30-year old brownfield offshore Sarawak, Malaysia in August 2016. Seawater is processed at a Water Injection Facility (WIF) and sent to four injectors, each injecting commingled into two or three different reservoirs. This paper discusses on challenges faced in initial start-up of water injection in a brownfield including the inability to meet target injection rate, frequent WIF trips and off-spec injection water, metering issues, as well as mitigation measures and lessons learned.
Initially, the injectors were able to take in only 33% of target injection volume as per the FDP plan. To remedy this, a ramp-up injection procedure was introduced to allow the injectors to gradually take in more water until the target injection rate could be achieved. A leaner and practical water quality SOP was devised to reduce injector downtime, particularly for satellite platforms, while ensuring water quality is not compromised. Injection fall-off testing was performed on the injectors to investigate the root cause of the injectivity issue through manipulation of downhole ICV. Through this exercise, it was discovered that the injection meters were not properly calibrated.
A combination of these methods proved successful in improving injection rate of the water injectors. Initial SOP developed for the injection water quality required testing of water quality at each sampling point including at unmanned satellite platforms, prior to recommencement of water injection post WIF shutdown. This is despite the duration of shutdown being shorter than the frequency of required sampling, which led to prolonged injection downtime. The requirement for water sampling for satellite platforms were modified to be less stringent while still maintaining good water quality. As a result, there was an improvement in WIF uptime from 92% in second month of injection to 99% in the fifth month.
The fall-off testing provided valuable information in terms of well and reservoir data. Careful and specific operational steps were required to adjust the downhole ICVs during fall-off testing, as opposed to hard shut-in of the water injectors which would cause backpressure and tripping of the WIF. Adjustment of the surface-controlled ICVs allowed sequential testing of different zones, which successfully shortened the total testing duration by 25%. The fall-off test also revealed that an injector was injecting into a reservoir which did not benefit any producers, and that the flowmeters for certain injectors were not calibrated properly.
Through these efforts, injection rates were successfully increased by 25 kbwpd, from 35% to 75% of the total injection target, within six months of its implementation. Water injection start-up challenges and mitigation methods are not often discussed in literature, such as adjustments needed to achieve target injection rate, operational steps in well testing for commingled injectors, and finding the optimum balance between quality and practicality of injected water testing. It is hoped that the issues and strategy in this field will serve as lessons learnt for upcoming water injection projects in this and nearby fields.