Arisandy, Mellinda (PETRONAS Carigali Indonesia Operations) | Mazied, Miftah (PETRONAS Carigali Indonesia Operations) | Putra, Bayu P (PETRONAS Carigali Indonesia Operations) | Yogapurana, Erik (PETRONAS Carigali Indonesia Operations) | B Mohd Idris, Jamin Jamil (PETRONAS Carigali Indonesia Operations) | Darmawan, Hendra I. (PETRONAS Carigali Kuala Lumpur)
This paper describes geochemistry analysis, hydrocarbon charge and entrapment model for prolific "MA" Block in the West Natuna Basin. Even though the area is currently at a mature exploration stage, the behaviour of hydrocarbon distribution in the area is still poorly understood and the link between discovered hydrocarbon and possible kitchens is still unknown. This study is an attempt to understand hydrocarbon expulsion, charging and entrapment in "MA" Block to de-risk further exploration efforts.
Several localized inverted half-grabens were identified through seismic interpretation. Nearby wells were then selected in evaluating source rock quality and maturity. In order to determine hydrocarbon expulsion model, 1D-3D burial history and thermal maturity models were constructed using integration of source rock and fluids geochemistry, temperature, seismic, and well data. Hydrocarbon charge and entrapment models were then simulated using 3D basin modeling software and calibrated with existing proven accumulation to produce a risked understanding of hydrocarbon distribution in the study area.
This study suggests that the most possible source rocks are the Late Eocene and Oligocene shales of Lama Formation and Lower Gabus Formations. Both source rocks are indicated by type I & type III kerogen. Lama source rock was confined in the initial grabens and post mature in deep paleo-grabens. This study confirmed that charging is derived from four (4) kitchen areas: Anoa, Gajah, Kakap, and Kambing grabens. The oil samples from "MA" Block indicated lacustrine facies. Rock geochemistry analysis portrayed oil-prone and gas-prone source rock.
In general, hydrocarbon was migrated from the southeastern area (Kambing graben) and southwestern area (Gajah graben). Hydrocarbon was later on accumulated in the nearest structural entrapments (anticlines). In the deep grabens (Kakap and Kambing), the hydrocarbon expulsion was starting as early as 37 Ma and 31 Ma, respectively, while in shallow graben (Anoa) the expulsion was starting at 29 Ma. The earliest structural trap commenced at 21 Ma, aligned with the initial compressional regime that was affecting the West Natuna Basin. Notable accumulative erosion in Miocene was nearly 1000 m at inverted structures, by which partly removed regional seal and reduced reservoir effectiveness. Significant yet-to-find hydrocarbon is predicted to be concentrated in the Anoa, Kakap, and Northeast Kambing area.
Carbon intensity (CI) of oil and gas production varies widely across global oil plays. Life cycle extraction from certain unconventional plays (
We perform well-to-refinery calculations of CI for major unconventional oil plays in North America and conventional plays in Asia Pacific. This approach accounts for emissions from exploration, drilling, production, processing, and transportation. The analysis tool is an open-source engineering-based model called Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE). OPGEE makes estimates of emissions accounting using up to 50 parameters for each modeled field. This model was developed at Stanford University. Data sources include government sources, technical papers, satellite observations, and commercial databases.
Applied globally, OPGEE estimates show highest values in areas with extensive flaring of natural gas and very heavy crude oils - heavy oils require large energy inputs (
Unconventional production, especially from light tight oil is the most significant new source of fossil fuels in the last decade. Under a wide variety of carbon constraints, oil usage will continue for many decades and increase in the near term. Operators, governments, and regulators need to be able to avoid "locking in" development of suboptimal resources and instead provide incentives for shale operators to manage resources sustainably. This approach provides quantitative measures of such actions. Oil producers must prepare by eliminating development of marginal projects, elimination of flaring and venting, optimizing hydraulic fracture treatments, using improved recovery methods (
As Malaysia’s basins mature, we laid clear strategies to arrest reserves and production decline. Among others, it involved unlocking our stranded resources, designing innovative contracts, developing marginal fields, seating our assets, and intensifying our exploration efforts. That approach resulted in strong performance in 2013. Petronas’ production rates have crossed more than 2 million BOEPD, with about two-thirds of this contributed by fields in Malaysia. We have also had significant gas discoveries in east Malaysia, allowing our gas reserves to hit above the 100 Tcf mark, and are currently managing 100 active production sharing contracts with various international and local companies.
The first Offshore Technology Conference Asia exceeded attendance expectations while providing in-depth panel and technical sessions on the increasingly important Asian energy sector as well as other globally significant upstream trends and technology applications. The conference was held from 25 to 28 March in Kuala Lumpur. Dato' Sri Mohd Najib Tun Haji Abdul Razak, cited the importance of the Asia Pacific region in future global energy activity during his keynote address at the official opening of the first OTC Asia. He was joined at the opening ceremony by YBhg Tan Sri Dato' Shamsul Azhar Abbas, chairman of the OTC Asia Advisory Committee and group chief executive officer (CEO) of Petronas, and Edward Stokes of Chevron, chairman of the OTC Board of Directors. "These are exciting times for the Asian oil and gas industry, and that is why it is apt that the first OTC Asia is being held in Malaysia," he said. "Asia is a continent with a voracious appetite for energy," he said, noting the region's projected 2.5% annual growth in consumption and the fact that Asia will account for more than 60% of total global energy demand in 2030. The region's rising consumption is not being met as local hydrocarbon supplies are in decline and some countries that once were exporters of energy are now importers. "The easy oil is indeed gone," presenting challenges, but also opportunities, for the oil and gas industry, the prime minister said. "We are embarking on a new era of innovation" to help unlock new resources in hard-to-reach places, he said. "We are going further and deeper both literally and with the technology we use." Malaysia has "the perfect mix of ingredients to be a regional energy hub," the prime minister said, because of its The inaugural OTC Asia attracted 25,100 attendees from 88 countries, exceeding initial expectations. "Based on the positive feedback that we have received from speakers, delegates, and visitors on the conference sessions as well as the interactive exhibition floor, OTC Asia 2014 has been an absolute success," Edward Stokes, chairman of the OTC Board of Directors, said at the conference's closing session.
A methodology is outlined for performing desktop studies in geohazard-prone areas to estimate feasibility for subsea cables and pipelines. Various global cases studies are referenced with relevance to development areas in South-East Asia. This involves a review of available geological, geophysical and geotechnical data, to provide guidance for routing, planning of surveys, and geohazard mitigation. Seismic hazard is not discussed in detail as it is comprehensively dealt with elsewhere.
Enhanced subsea construction activity results from increased demand for energy supply and communication networks. The need for transportation of these products often necessitates the crossing of tectonically active areas that may be prone to geohazards which may result in pipeline rupture or cable breakage. Implications of tectonic activity may be direct (e.g. earthquakes), as well as shaping the terrain through imposition of structural controls, and providing potential trigger mechanisms for slope instability and density flows.
Seafloor morphology is characterized on a regional-scale to understand structural controls, and local-scale to identify characters indicative of seafloor rupture, past slope instability, or future flow conduits. Interpretation of geophysical data provides information to feed an evolutionary geological model. This rationalizes periods of tectonic activity with geohazard scenarios, e.g. regional-scale catastrophic slope failures during intense rifting, compared with smaller, discrete landslides during periods of relative quiescence. Integration with available geotechnical data provides information to understand sedimentary processes and inform forward-looking analyses, such as debris-flow modeling. Thus, an estimation can made of magnitude and duration of forces impacting on structures. Examples are provided of how slope failures and sediment density flows may vary on slopes that have been modified by different tectonic processes. Conduits laterally offset by faults, or uplifted by toe-thrusts may limit the downslope run-out of flows; however, linear, fault controlled canyons may permit longer travel distances.
A phased and integrated framework is outlined for early stage geohazard assessment in tectonically active areas to inform feasibility and concept routing studies. The intention of this approach is to ensure early stage decisions can be made with respect to route selection and to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of future data acquisition.