In S-Field, first oil was in 1975, and the field is undergoing a redevelopment project. Integrated operations (IO) has been identified as part of the redevelopment initiative aiming at providing an asset decision support system. The S-Field operator has identified gravity-assisted simultaneous water and gas injection (GASWAG) as the suitable enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method for the field's reservoir. In implementing a digital oilfield solution addressing the GASWAG performance in S-Field, only the EOR field development plan exists as a guidance. S-Field is the first of its kind to implement EOR GASWAG. This increases the uncertainty of the agreed metrics for measurement and formulas to monitor and implement control of the effectiveness of GASWAG (sweep efficiencies and volume displacement). The scope given is to implement an EOR GASWAG-compatible digital solution that allows flexibility for the users to update their established analysis methods and that uses a web application as a basis for periodic assessment and monitoring within the asset team.
The current implementation of IO at the software level has minimum flexibility to change a workflow. Any changes that are not considered during workflow development and deployment require a specialist from the development team to implement. The described system addresses the challenges in implementing digital solutions for EOR, including introducing more flexibility in adapting to changes in workflows.
The EOR applications include a reservoir simulator to assist the estimation of vertical and areal sweep efficiencies and residual oil displacement in each formation; a geomodel application: to provide graphical interface of the oil, gas, and water distribution in S-Field MN reservoir model; and a data analysis application to provide classical reservoir analysis and method.
To bring the applications together as digital solutions, only applications with application programming interfaces (API) are selected. This is to minimize the development effort. The analysis of EOR GASWAG can be maintained by any user through the current software. This means any changes in the analysis method can be implemented within the existing software interface without affecting the overall solutions. The changes will then be reflected in the corporate-wide implementation (web application) without the presence of a specialist and lengthy administration process.
Applications with API allow extensibility that minimizes the data extraction effort and drives higher utilization time and effort that can be invested in geological models and engineering analysis. In addition, the system minimizes the change management effort because the process leverages current business processes and reduces the cost of investment by using the existing centralized powerful processing computer.
Developing the solution through an analysis application that has the extensibility (API) to other third-party applications has significantly reduced the project implementation duration by half of the initial estimated effort (benchmarked with current project alike).
Development of oil rim reservoirs is challenging and could lead to low oil recovery, if multiple determining factors are not well understood, that influences successful field development concept. It requires detailed analysis and development of specific procedures to optimize the oil production from a thin oil rim underlaying gas cap. Few IOR/EOR applications for oil rim development have been reported in the literature so far. This study presents a concept for the optimization of oil production from an oil rim reservoir by numerical simulation.
As a starting point, a representative sector of the field was selected for the initial analysis. It was decided to perform IOR/EOR methods including water/gas flooding/injection and surfactant flooding using inverted five-spot horizontal well pattern, for the application in the selected sector. Upon execution of the detailed sensitivity analysis, the pattern was optimized by its characteristic geometric variables including the length of the vertical/horizontal section of the well, the location of the wells, lateral well distances and the orientation of the pattern. The optimization was performed by setting an objective function to improve recovery factor and reduce water/gas cut by using the differential evolution algorithm. The latter was run until converging, and the optimal solution was used to perform further IOR/EOR studies.
Finally, after selection of a base-case scenario and best well pattern, IOR/EOR options were evaluated, and the comparative results were reported. The generated results show that the application of 5-spot horizontal well pattern in the oil rim reservoir could increase the oil recovery by water flooding, but with low sweep efficiency. The losses of injected water into the underlaying aquifer and up laying gas gap are large. Immiscible gas injection into the gas cap can support the pressure but massively increases the gas cut. In addition, displacement efficiency by gas flooding is poor.
Simulation results of the surfactant flooding case shows better displacement efficiency compared to water flooding. Also, the possibility of reducing residual oil saturation could increase the ultimate oil recovery but at very late time.
With declining trends in production and dwindling reserves for a 35-year-old offshore field, the Samarang Redevelopment Project was initiated with a vision toward implementing integrated operations as an asset-management decision-support tool. This paper describes a case study in which four reservoir models were coupled with a production-network model, with the objectives of maximizing recovery factors, identifying operational problems, and evaluating water-production effects.
Energy consultancy Wood Mackenzie estimates the find holds some 2 Tcf of gas, making it this year’s seventh-largest discovery worldwide. Malaysia’s Petronas, Shell Malaysia, and Thailand’s PTTEP are now in the midst of full-scale digital adoption. The companies are beginning to see results, but none is counting on a “big bang” in development of the technology soon. The state-owned firm is looking within its home country, around Southeast Asia, and to the Americas—including shale—in an effort to maintain its forecast average yearly production of 1.7 million BOE/D over the next 5 years. This paper describes challenges faced in a company’s first deepwater asset in Malaysia and the methods used to overcome these issues in the planning stage.
Moving their directional drillers into their Houston real-time remote operations centers has improved drilling efficiency for two of the top shale producers. Marathon Oil says its shale fields are producing more oil and gas with less hands-on work from company personnel thanks to a growing arsenal of digital technologies and workflows. Adoption of digital technologies will continue to improve the offshore sector, including improved well efficiency, real-time directional drilling, lower maintenance costs, and safer operations. The contract is helping to solidify Europe’s offshore sector as the focal point for the rise of automated drilling technology. Drilling: What Can We Do To Thrive?
Indigo Natural Resources, Aethon Energy, and Rockcliff Energy are among the most active operators in the revived Haynesville Shale of North Louisiana and East Texas. And most people outside of the region likely have never heard of them. Ghawar vs. Permian Basin: Is There Even a Comparison? While some try to put the two enormous oil producers toe-to-toe, the best thing to do might be to understand why they are different. Encana CEO Doug Suttles assures that shale executives are acutely aware of the parent-child well challenge, and he doesn’t think it’s “a big threat” to the sector.
In need of an exploration boost, Norway doled out a record 83 production licenses in mature areas of the Norwegian Continental Shelf to 33 firms. Mature brownfields contribute significantly to global oil production. A study of the papers presented during the past year at various SPE conferences reveals continuation of the trend to put in massive effort to minimize decline from mature brownfields. Well RXY is located in Cairn’s Ravva offshore field in the Krishna-Godavari Basin in India. One goal for the field was significant crude production by means of a secondary reservoir section.
The large independent put together a team of data scientists, software developers, and petrotechnical staff to create a forward-looking vision for how to use digital technology to solve problems. Baker Hughes is still a GE company, but it has partnered with a second company for artificial intelligence expertise, C3.ai. The deal is expected to speed the integration of AI into oilfield operations by the company which also markets GE’s device analytics platform, Predix. Marathon Oil says its shale fields are producing more oil and gas with less hands-on work from company personnel thanks to a growing arsenal of digital technologies and workflows. Malaysia’s Petronas, Shell Malaysia, and Thailand’s PTTEP are now in the midst of full-scale digital adoption.
This section features industry or work-related photographs submitted by readers. Selected pictures will be published on the website. Be sure to provide your full name, job position, company name, picture location, and a caption for the picture. Recently, I had the opportunity to go onboard the FPSO Armada Claire. Another beautiful sunrise onboard SIEM Helix 2 NS-52, where i-Tech 7 has two remotely operated vehic...