This course discusses the fundamental sand control considerations involved in completing a well and introduces the various sand control techniques commonly used across the industry, including standalone screens, gravel packs, high rate water packs and frac-packs. It requires only a basic understanding of oilfield operations and is intended for drilling, completion and production personnel with some sand control experience who are looking to gain a better understanding of each technique’s advantages, limitations and application window for use in their upcoming completions.
Energy consultancy Wood Mackenzie estimates the find holds some 2 Tcf of gas, making it this year’s seventh-largest discovery worldwide. Malaysia’s Petronas, Shell Malaysia, and Thailand’s PTTEP are now in the midst of full-scale digital adoption. The companies are beginning to see results, but none is counting on a “big bang” in development of the technology soon. The state-owned firm is looking within its home country, around Southeast Asia, and to the Americas—including shale—in an effort to maintain its forecast average yearly production of 1.7 million BOE/D over the next 5 years. This paper describes challenges faced in a company’s first deepwater asset in Malaysia and the methods used to overcome these issues in the planning stage.
Analytics, sensors, and robots are changing the way one of the world’s largest oil and gas companies does business. Underpinning all the new technology though is a shift in how BP thinks, and what it means to be a supermajor in the 21st century. This paper describes a coreflooding program performed with sandpacks at different permeabilities, water qualities, and injection conditions. In this paper, a new type of sand-consolidation low-viscous binding material, based on a combination of inorganic and organic components, is presented. This paper presents the first successful application of ceramic sand screens offshore Malaysia.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Bowleven has started drilling operations at the Moambe exploration well on the Bomono permit in Cameroon. Moambe is the second well in a two-well program, approximately 2 km east of the first well, Zingana. It targets a previously undrilled Paleocene Tertiary three-way dip fault block containing multiple sands and will be drilled to an estimated 1620 m in measured depth. Both wells will be logged. Bowleven is the operator and holds 100% interest. Asia Pacific Murphy Oil discovered gas at its Permai exploration well in deepwater Block H in the South China Sea offshore Malaysia. The find is Murphy's eighth consecutive success in the area around the Rotan floating liquefied natural gas project, which is planned to begin its first production in 2018.
This article presents brief summaries of detailed petrophysical evaluations of several fields that have been described in the SPE and Soc. of Professional Well Log Analysts (SPWLA) technical literature. These case studies cover some of the complications that occur when making net-pay, porosity, and water saturation (Sw) calculations. Prudhoe Bay is the largest oil and gas field in North America with more than 20 billion bbl of original oil in place (OOIP) and an overlying 30 Tscf gas cap. In the course of this determination, an extensive field coring program was conducted, which resulted in more than 25 oil-based mud (OBM) cores being cut in all areas of the field and some conventional water-based mud (WBM) and bland-mud cores in other wells. The background geologic understanding of the major reservoir, the Ivishak or Sadlerochit, and various technical studies have been presented in a number of technical papers.
Shale plays are anisotropic in terms of their reservoir quality which gets reflected in their productivity. Reservoir qualities like organic richness, thermal maturity, hydrocarbon saturation, the volume of clay, brittleness and pressure affect the productivity of the shale plays. In general, the volume of clay has a negative relationship whereas other parameters listed above have a positive relationship with production. In our study area, we found the deepest wells despite having better rock quality; do not perform like nearby shallower wells. The objective of this study is to understand the not so obvious reason behind underperformance of these deepest wells.
Since the wells are located at a deeper depth and the reservoir temperature is high (90 to 135°C), so we studied the area from clay diagenesis and fluid expansion perspective. We have reviewed the imprints of clay diagenesis with the help of XRD data and core integrated multi min processed wireline logs. We observed an increasing trend of illite, chlorite towards the deeper part of the reservoir along with a decreasing trend of smectite in the same direction which indicates a higher degree of clay diagenesis. Fluid expansion study is carried out with the help of total organic carbon and hydrocarbon saturation. This study indicated a higher degree of fluid expansion (TOC to hydrocarbon generation) in the deepest part.
Subsequently, 1D pore pressure, stress and rock mechanical modeling is carried out to evaluate the effect of a higher degree of diagenesis and fluid expansion on geomechanical parameters (pore pressure, stress and brittleness). 1D modeling reveals that the deeper wells have abnormal pressure, stress and low brittleness, which is primarily due to extra pressure contribution from fluid expansion and clay diagenesis apart from the compaction disequilibrium process. This abnormal stress and reduction in brittlness likely to have created challenges for the applied hydrofrac job in the deepest part resulting to narrow frac geometry. Comparison of hydraulic fracture modeling between a shallow and the deepest wells reveal that the hydraulic fracture geometry in the deepest well is narrower than the shallower well. So we came to the conclusion that the deepest wells are underperforming than the shallower wells despite of their better rock quality due to ineffective fracturing and comparatively narrower fracture geometry.
The impact of clay diagenesis and fluid expansion in shale productivity has not been studied widely. Though many authors have extensively studied the impact of clay diagenesis on permeability and pore pressure, the integration of shale well production is rarely attempted. This work will help the operators to better analyze and understand their shale reservoir from clay diagenesis and fluid expansion point of view before planning the hydrofrac jobs.
Arisandy, Mellinda (PETRONAS Carigali Indonesia Operations) | Mazied, Miftah (PETRONAS Carigali Indonesia Operations) | Putra, Bayu P (PETRONAS Carigali Indonesia Operations) | Yogapurana, Erik (PETRONAS Carigali Indonesia Operations) | B Mohd Idris, Jamin Jamil (PETRONAS Carigali Indonesia Operations) | Darmawan, Hendra I. (PETRONAS Carigali Kuala Lumpur)
This paper describes geochemistry analysis, hydrocarbon charge and entrapment model for prolific "MA" Block in the West Natuna Basin. Even though the area is currently at a mature exploration stage, the behaviour of hydrocarbon distribution in the area is still poorly understood and the link between discovered hydrocarbon and possible kitchens is still unknown. This study is an attempt to understand hydrocarbon expulsion, charging and entrapment in "MA" Block to de-risk further exploration efforts.
Several localized inverted half-grabens were identified through seismic interpretation. Nearby wells were then selected in evaluating source rock quality and maturity. In order to determine hydrocarbon expulsion model, 1D-3D burial history and thermal maturity models were constructed using integration of source rock and fluids geochemistry, temperature, seismic, and well data. Hydrocarbon charge and entrapment models were then simulated using 3D basin modeling software and calibrated with existing proven accumulation to produce a risked understanding of hydrocarbon distribution in the study area.
This study suggests that the most possible source rocks are the Late Eocene and Oligocene shales of Lama Formation and Lower Gabus Formations. Both source rocks are indicated by type I & type III kerogen. Lama source rock was confined in the initial grabens and post mature in deep paleo-grabens. This study confirmed that charging is derived from four (4) kitchen areas: Anoa, Gajah, Kakap, and Kambing grabens. The oil samples from "MA" Block indicated lacustrine facies. Rock geochemistry analysis portrayed oil-prone and gas-prone source rock.
In general, hydrocarbon was migrated from the southeastern area (Kambing graben) and southwestern area (Gajah graben). Hydrocarbon was later on accumulated in the nearest structural entrapments (anticlines). In the deep grabens (Kakap and Kambing), the hydrocarbon expulsion was starting as early as 37 Ma and 31 Ma, respectively, while in shallow graben (Anoa) the expulsion was starting at 29 Ma. The earliest structural trap commenced at 21 Ma, aligned with the initial compressional regime that was affecting the West Natuna Basin. Notable accumulative erosion in Miocene was nearly 1000 m at inverted structures, by which partly removed regional seal and reduced reservoir effectiveness. Significant yet-to-find hydrocarbon is predicted to be concentrated in the Anoa, Kakap, and Northeast Kambing area.
Radzuan, Nurul Asyikin M. (PETRONAS) | Salleh, Nurfarah Izwana (PETRONAS) | Chandrakant, Ashvin Avalani (PETRONAS) | Rusman, Liyana (PETRONAS) | Zamanuri, Kautsar (PETRONAS) | Bakar, Azfar Israa Abu (PETRONAS) | Yip, Pui Mun (PETRONAS) | Jamaluddin, M. Helmi (PETRONAS) | Ghonim, Elsayed Ouda (PETRONAS) | Nambiar, Vijay (Novomet) | Alexander, Euan (Artificial Lift Solutions)
Following the first pilot success of the truly rigless 3-1/2" tubing cable deployed ESP (TTESP-CD in offshore field of Sarawak Basin, PETRONAS has taken steps to further advance in the technology development and application through more replications within Sarawak and Malay Basin. PETRONAS had been looking into a strong business case for the TTESP-CD technology for a wider application throughout Malaysia region by looking at fields with strong/moderate water drive and low bubble point pressure besides having other limitations on the platform including the facilities reliability issues. TTESP-CD are to be applied widely in Malaysia with more flexibilities in design and improvement towards the subsurface equipment, installation equipment and procedures. With the challenges in the existing completion and production requirement for replications, based on the lesson learnt from the pilot implementation, multiple improvements to the system have been done including; 1) A High Rate Slim Pump with Flexible Application 2) Alignment Tool for Cable Hanger Orientation. With this in place, more opportunities identified for the candidate selection which improve the installation philosophy specifically in dual string applications and enhance the efficiency in installation procedures. Case studies of TTESP-CD replications in Malay & Sarawak Basin for Field T, Field B and Field P presenting the best case for TTESP-CD application with improvement to design, equipment and application. These will bring additional value to PETRONAS with estimated production gain of 1.5 KBD and up to 1.2 MMSTB reserves to be monetized with additional value saving of up to RM 6 Mill. Besides the subsurface challenges, aging offshore assets brings a lot of challenges, especially on the space availability, structural integrity, power availability and distribution, instrumentation and data transmission. This requires an integrated approach from multiple disciplines in delivering the studies as per required within the targeted timeframe.
Mohd Ali, Siti Syareena (PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd) | Teng, Kevin Ging Ern (PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd) | A Jalil, M Azran (PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd) | Sedaralit, M Faizal (PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd) | Trianto, Adi (PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd) | Wan Sagar, Siti Fatimah Sarah (PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd)
The scope of the geomechanical study is to investigate the risk associated with different reservoir depletion strategies and to numerically simulate the geomechanical response of the reservoir rocks. The study focused on the large karstic distribution of the reservoir for the prediction of the best drilling direction and optimum well trajectories, and also to model the pore collapse behavior observed in the high porosity carbonate which will result in surface subsidence and impact the platform facilities placement.
A methodological risk evaluation approach based on numerical simulations with stringent experimental programme has been applied to the field study. The regional geological understanding and operational experience of the nearby fields have been considered for the study via extensive assessment of constitutive models relating to pore collapse. Advanced 4D geomechanical simulations were carried out to incorporate the seismic-based karstic models and to strengthen understanding of the pore collapse phenomena during reservoir depletion. The obtained prediction results were compared to nearby fields and subsequently use for wells, facilities planning and engineering considerations.
The results obtained in the study identified a few key outcomes which are being considered for detailed surface engineering design and well planning. The results have impacted the decision to place the location of the platform away from the center of the seabed subsidence bowl. The predicted reservoir compaction and subsidence described the rate and the magnitude of the subsidence which are use to design the height of the platform to mitigate potential damage induced by wave deck shearing. In addition, the distribution of karst has been mapped through seismic imaging and incorporated in the geomechanical modelling. The results are also used to determine the hazard of the weak zones in each formation and high stress anisotropy regions which are to be avoided for future well placement and to be used for well trajectory optimization. Key findings of the geomechanical-related risk have been identified and considered in the field development plan. Consequently, a Risk Ranking Criteria incorporating the results of advanced simulations and rock testing programme have been developed based on comprehensive weightage and the technical categories.
The paper offers a detailed insight on the geomechanical risk evaluation obtained using 4D finite element coupled reservoir geomechanical simulations. The study addressed the challenging development of a highly karstified limestone reservoir by offering valuable inputs for the well design and facility engineering through prediction of reservoir compaction and seabed subsidence, best drilling direction and optimum well trajectories. This will avoid potential geomechanical related hazards and ensure adequate operational safety levels.
In today's fast paced and challenging oil industry, the need of faster evaluation studies for quick generation of field development plan (FDP) is becoming more crucial to remain competitive. Field's geological and structural complexity, uncertainty of production data adds to the challenges. Traditional approach of building dynamic mesh models carrying out numerical simulation to history match, then predict has always remained time consuming in large mature fields.
The ‘B’ field in Peninsular Malaysia is a mature clastic with stacked reservoirs having a huge gas cap with moderate aquifer. Significant production over last 30+ years led to uneven movement of the gas cap and also of the edge aquifer leading to possibility of bypassed oil. The updated dynamic model could not match the preferential gas cap movement, thus failed to match the high GOR of downdip wells and also unable to match high watercut of certain updip wells. To identify the areas of bypassed oil thus is a significant challenge with the current dynamic model. New engineering tools of polygon balancing, material balance, normalized EUR bubbles were used with the 3D static model volume and the facies understanding. The uncertainties and risks were also identified and clear measurable methods were proposed to address the uncertainties and reduce the risks. Very detailed decision tree with clear data gathering plan to drill successive optimum wells have been planned during the campaign.
This paper details the new engineering tools used to delineate and quantify the bypassed oil in these huge clastic reservoir with preferential gas and water movement, unable to be history matched by the dynamic model. It explains the engineering methods applied to identify and quantify the 10 infill wells proposed for the development campaign. To reduce risks, this paper would also explain the blind testing that was carried out on for this new reservoir engineering analysis tool by deriving the infill potentials of the previous campaign (4 years back) by the same method.
The paper details how robust technical development plans were generated having infill well locations and reserve determination. This paper will also demonstrate the classic "Do-Learn-Adapt" strategy through its infill wells prioritization & ranking, subsurface de-risking analysis, data acquisition and mitigations plans.