This course discusses the fundamental sand control considerations involved in completing a well and introduces the various sand control techniques commonly used across the industry, including standalone screens, gravel packs, high rate water packs and frac-packs. It requires only a basic understanding of oilfield operations and is intended for drilling, completion and production personnel with some sand control experience who are looking to gain a better understanding of each technique’s advantages, limitations and application window for use in their upcoming completions.
Without regulation pertaining to the use and discharge of surfactant for offshore enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process in Malaysia, we adopted the guidelines from OSPAR (Oslo Paris Convention) that governs the use and discharge of offshore chemicals in the North Sea Region. In OSPAR, the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model is being used to assess the risk of offshore chemicals to the marine environment. CHARM prescribes the Predicted Environment Concentration:Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PEC:PNEC) approach which ratio determines the hazard quotient (HQ) in order to rank the chemical by colour banding. Our surfactant formulation achieved a HQ of 2.16 or Silver colour banding with the stipulation that the volume of the discharged produced water is twice the volume of chemical solution (squeeze) injected. Nevertheless, in providing more certainty and confidence for both operators and local regulators to allow for overboard discharge of our flow-back surfactant formulation, we conducted a comprehensive produced water dilution modelling called DREAM (Dose-related Risk and Effect Assessment Model). The model calculates the Environmental Impact Factor (EIF) of each component of the chemical in the discharged produced water. Similar to CHARM, the DREAM uses the PEC:PNEC approach, but its PEC input parameters include environmental influences such as weather profile, current, etc. and incorporates a slick model. Its output is a quantation of the risks to the receiving environment, called the Environmental Impact Factor (EIF); where EIF is more than 1, the impact to the environment is significant. We simulated the chemical fate of individual component of the formulation with the scenario whereby the produced water is not treated prior to discharge. The time-averaged EIFs were more than 1 across all weather windows, indicating the discharge of untreated chemical-containing produced water is likely to have a localized environmental impact. We used both CHARM and DREAM as decision support tools for effective management of operational discharges from offshore projects. Limitations and recommendations from DREAM simulation results in the context of our EOR application are discussed.
Telok is a gasfield development in the Malay basin offshore Terengganu, Malaysia. This paper discusses the program learnings and operational improvements captured while completing eight new wells in 2012 and 2013. The primary reservoirs targeted in the field require sand control, specifically frac-pack technology, because of high fines content. Telok field is a faulted, east/west-trending anticline in the Formation A reservoir. The major reservoir in Telok is Formation A sands, containing dry nonassociated gas (NAG).
Hashim, Naqzatul Shima (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Oruganti, Bhargava Ram (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Yeomans, Hugh Gordon (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Hong, Chong Weng (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Mudaliar, Kokulananda (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Goidescu, Nicoleta Mihaela (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Redzual, Nur Zatil Hulwan (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.)
Field A is located offshore Peninsular Malaysia. Initially a gas field, it was established as one of the largest oil fields in Malay Basin following the drilling of appraisal wells from 2005-2009. Based on the discovery of oil, a phase 1 Field Development Plan was developed, which focused on oil production from A & B reservoirs in the main blocks of the field. This was accomplished by drilling 10 wells from an EPS (Early Production System). All the wells were drilled, completed and placed on production as per FDP, and a field production profile is currently being developed, which will be utilized for full field development in the near future.
Upon completion of the successful drilling campaign, a new static model was developed, which utilized data available from the various exploration, appraisal and recent development drilling campaigns. Building the static model for this field proved to be a challenging task due to reasons highlighted below:
1.Thinly laminated reservoir/non-reservoir sequences and uncertain stratigraphic boundaries
2.Shallow gas clouds in the crestal area of the field masking the seismic response in the central area
3.Thick coal sequences in B reservoir masking the reliability of seismic attributes
4.Poor distribution of exploration, appraisal and development wells across the field with no data in between the clustered wells
The data from geology, sedimentology, geophysics, petrophysics and reservoir engineering was integrated to build a robust static model that is being simulated by reservoir engineering as part of the full field FDP. A significant amount of core was taken during the various drilling campaigns and the team was able to utilize this in order to construct a depositional facies model for the 2 main reservoirs. Lithofacies, rock types and porosity/permeability associations were developed, properties were upscaled into the static model with an average thickness of 0.5m in order to capture vertical heterogeneity, and 3D facies was distributed using various standard modeling techniques.
These methods captured the geology well, explaining the stratigraphic boundaries and different fluid contacts observed in various parts of the field. The new geological model and the volumetric assessment improved history matching and predicting future reservoir performance.
Field A is located about 170 km northeast of Kerteh, Terengganu offshore Peninsular Malaysia. It is an East-West elongated anticlinal structure (30km x 15km), with four-way dip closure, several normal faults and a Northeast-Southwest trending central graben. Based on the positive results achieved from the EPS drilling program Management has challenged the Team to deliver Full Field Development in 4 years. Due to the reservoir complexities the Team has found this schedule quite challenging.
Thinly Laminated Reservoir Sections
This is a classic issue for many fields, including Field A. The thinly laminated reservoir/non-reservoir sections are seen in conventional cores and have thicknesses below or slightly above electric log resolution (5 to 90 cm). Also, the lateral heterogeneity of these thin laminated reservoirs and their discontinuities across the field makes it more difficult and challenging to capture in the static model. Coals developed within these laminated sands act as vertical barriers while sealing normal faults act as horizontal barriers for oil to move. (Figure 1).
Malay Basin is a relatively matured basin which has undergone exploration and production for more than three decades, mainly from stratigraphic units of Miocene to Late Oligocene. The matured nature of the basin has driven PETRONAS to evaluate the remaining deep play potentials.
DD is a deep prospect below D Field. Several pre-drill risks were identified during prospect maturation namely, high temperature (450F), high pressure (11000 psi) and poor reservoir quality with low porosity (6% to 12%) and low permeability of <1 mD. PCSB however decided to drill DD-1 due to its large four way dip closure (approximately 250 km2), volume in-place and potential to open up other deep plays.
DD-1 is PETRONAS’ first Ultra High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) well, located in southern Malay Basin to evaluate gas in Group M (Early Oligocene age). It penetrated Group M in D Field and reached its final TD at 4350 m TVDSS. It recorded temperature and pressure of 488oF and 13900 psi respectively. DD-1 proved that the petroleum system is working for the deep play by intersecting several gas bearing sandstone units namely M20, M30, M60 and M70 (C1-nC5, total gas 5% to 13%). Reservoir effectiveness is the major issue - low porosities (3% to 8%) and extremely low permeability (0.0025mD). Well testing over M20 flowed gas to surface and was flared, however the testing was deemed inconclusive. The HPHT nature of the well also presented operational challenges such as drilling within narrow mud weight and fracture gradient margin and the availability of suitable HPHT logging tools.
Well results indicated that Group M was gas bearing; however at this stage is not commercially recoverable. The deep play potential remains to be commercially exploited but better understanding of natural fracture networks and the utilising of advanced technology will be required.
DD-1 well is located approximately 236 kilometers northeast of Kemaman Supply Base (KSB), in water depth of 75 meters offshore Peninsular Malaysia (Figure 1). The prospect basically lies below the existing D Field which is currently being produced from the shallower Group I, J, K and L reservoirs.
The primary objective of the proposed DD-1 is to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the Group M sandstones which are within a structural four-way dip closure, the first ever well to test Group M in D Field. DD-1 is PETRONAS’ first Ultra High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) well; it was spudded on 01 March 2013 and after five months of drilling campaign, it successfully reached final TD at 4388 m MDDF on 18 July 2013. It experienced high temperature and high pressure of 488oF and 13900 psi at final TD.
As Malaysia’s basins mature, we laid clear strategies to arrest reserves and production decline. Among others, it involved unlocking our stranded resources, designing innovative contracts, developing marginal fields, seating our assets, and intensifying our exploration efforts. That approach resulted in strong performance in 2013. Petronas’ production rates have crossed more than 2 million BOEPD, with about two-thirds of this contributed by fields in Malaysia. We have also had significant gas discoveries in east Malaysia, allowing our gas reserves to hit above the 100 Tcf mark, and are currently managing 100 active production sharing contracts with various international and local companies.
The first Offshore Technology Conference Asia exceeded attendance expectations while providing in-depth panel and technical sessions on the increasingly important Asian energy sector as well as other globally significant upstream trends and technology applications. The conference was held from 25 to 28 March in Kuala Lumpur. Dato' Sri Mohd Najib Tun Haji Abdul Razak, cited the importance of the Asia Pacific region in future global energy activity during his keynote address at the official opening of the first OTC Asia. He was joined at the opening ceremony by YBhg Tan Sri Dato' Shamsul Azhar Abbas, chairman of the OTC Asia Advisory Committee and group chief executive officer (CEO) of Petronas, and Edward Stokes of Chevron, chairman of the OTC Board of Directors. "These are exciting times for the Asian oil and gas industry, and that is why it is apt that the first OTC Asia is being held in Malaysia," he said. "Asia is a continent with a voracious appetite for energy," he said, noting the region's projected 2.5% annual growth in consumption and the fact that Asia will account for more than 60% of total global energy demand in 2030. The region's rising consumption is not being met as local hydrocarbon supplies are in decline and some countries that once were exporters of energy are now importers. "The easy oil is indeed gone," presenting challenges, but also opportunities, for the oil and gas industry, the prime minister said. "We are embarking on a new era of innovation" to help unlock new resources in hard-to-reach places, he said. "We are going further and deeper both literally and with the technology we use." Malaysia has "the perfect mix of ingredients to be a regional energy hub," the prime minister said, because of its The inaugural OTC Asia attracted 25,100 attendees from 88 countries, exceeding initial expectations. "Based on the positive feedback that we have received from speakers, delegates, and visitors on the conference sessions as well as the interactive exhibition floor, OTC Asia 2014 has been an absolute success," Edward Stokes, chairman of the OTC Board of Directors, said at the conference's closing session.