Approximately 20% of all oilwells in the world use a beam pump to raise crude oil to the surface. The proper maintenance of these pumps is thus an important issue in oilfield operations. We wish to know, preferably before the failure, what is wrong with the pump. Maintenance issues on the downhole part of a beam pump can be reliably diagnosed from a plot of the displacement and load on the traveling valve; a diagram known as a dynamometer card. We demonstrate in this paper that this analysis can be fully automated using machine learning techniques that teach themselves to recognize various classes of damage in advance of the failure. We use a dataset of of 35292 sample cards drawn from 299 beam pumps in the Bahrain oilfield. We can detect 11 different damage classes from each other and from the normal class with an accuracy of 99.9%. This high accuracy makes it possible to automatically diagnose beam pumps in realtime and for the maintenance crew to focus on fixing pumps instead of monitoring them, which increases overall oil yield and decreases environmental impact.
The Educational Day workshop, which took place in conjunction with MEOS 2013, was the very first group event where the Bahraini YPs participated in introducing high school students and teachers to the different petroleum industry disciplines. Bahraini YP members effectively contributed to MEOS by assisting the Education Day Steering Committee conduct several educational tasks. The YPs conducted presentations, sharing their personal experiences in the oil and gas industry, assisted attendees in carrying out simple experiments to introduce basic petroleum engineering concepts, held question-and-answer and team-building activities, and led student groups tours of the exhibition associated with MEOS 2013. Recognition certificates were distributed for those who effectively participated in the educational day event. Young professionals spread knowledge about the oil and gas industry and its significance to Bahrain's prosperity.
The SPE Bangalore Section was one of five winners of the 2013 SPE Section Award for Outstanding Young Professional Activity. A key reason for this honor is the active participation of YPs in overall Section activities. Over the last year, the YP Committee, in particular, clearly outlined and shared its objectives to increase involvement of existing members, while building new bridges for future members to participate in the Section. This was achieved by establishing effective communication channels to reach out both to existing and to prospective members of the Section. A crisp and simple newsletter sent to SPE members via email broadcasts, SPE membership booths, and a rejuvenated website were keys to achieving membership growth and motivating existing members to volunteer for the SPE Bangalore Section.
This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders.
Decisions in E&P ventures are affected by Bias, Blindness, and Illusions (BBI) which permeate our analyses, interpretations and decisions. This one-day course examines the influence of these cognitive pitfalls and presents techniques that can be used to mitigate their impact. Bias refers to errors in thinking whereby interpretations and judgments are drawn in an illogical fashion. Blindness is the condition where we fail to see an unexpected event in plain sight. Illusions refer to misleading beliefs based on a false impression of reality.
A variety of gases can and have been used for immiscible gas displacement, with lean hydrocarbon gas used for most applications to date. Historically, immiscible gas injection was first used for reservoir pressure maintenance. The first such projects were initiated in the 1930s and used lean hydrocarbon gas (e.g., Oklahoma City field and Cunningham pool in the US and Bahrain field in Bahrain). Over the decades, a considerable number of immiscible gas injection projects have been undertaken, some with excellent results and others with poor performance. This page discusses gas injection into oil reservoirs to increase oil recovery by immiscible displacement.
The Jurassic age Hanifa and Tuwaiq Mountain Formations are regionally established source rocks that charged majority of the oil fields in the region. These formations are comprised of dark carbonate mudrocks with high organic richness and dominantly calcite mineralogy. Several studies were conducted regionally to evaluate the potential of these Jurassic intervals as an unconventional play.
In April 2018, The Kingdom of Bahrain announced the discovery of a major unconventional resource in Khalij Al Bahrain basin following the production of light oil from Tuwaiq Mountain Formation. These results confirmed the viability of the Jurassic source intervals as an Unconventional asset. However, the nature and the location of the resource present a number of operational challenges in a region where development of unconventional resources is at its infancy. This instigates the need to address and tackle these challenges through innovative approaches to enable the effective appraisal and subsequently development of the asset.
This publication introduces the emerging unconventional play in Khalij Al Bahrain basin and discusses the adopted strategies to appraise and develop the asset. The areas for optimization considered include well design, drilling and completion, facilities and shallow offshore/onshore logistics.
The Hanifa and Tuwaiq Mountain formations are Jurassic in age (Figure 1) and consist of a mixed section of dark organic rich limestone beds. These formations are regionally established as the principle source rock that charged majority of the overlying Jurassic reservoirs in the region, and in Bahrain, the cretaceous reservoirs as well. These source rocks are the main targets of the recently discovered Khalij Al Bahrain (KAB) basin in Bahrain with initial resource estimates indicating potentially up to 80 billion barrels of unconventional oil and 14 trillion cubic feet of gas in place.
Location and Geological Settings
KAB basin is located in the eastern part of the Arabian basin straddling the area towards the east of Saudi Arabia, west of Qatar Arch and south of the Zagros fold belts. Majority of the basin today falls within the land bound shallow waters around the main island of Bahrain. Major fields in the area include Awali, Dukhan and Abu Safah which are likely to have been sourced from these Jurassic source rocks (Figure 2). KAB basin also lies in close proximity to the Jafurah basin which is a significant Jurassic unconventional play in Saudi Arabia targeting the same formations .
Baruah, Nabajit (Oil & Natural Gas Corporation) | Mandal, Dipak (Oil & Natural Gas Corporation) | Jena, Smita Swarupa (Oil & Natural Gas Corporation) | Sahu, Sunil Kumar (Oil & Natural Gas Corporation)
This paper examines the prospect of Gas Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) process in improving recovery from a sandstone reservoir by injecting produced gas back into the crestal part of the reservoir. Besides recovery improvement, immiscible gas injection ensures near Zero Flaring strategy. The process has been found to be ideal in reservoirs with high permeability and reasonable dip to maximize oil production wherever a sufficient gas source exists. Based on the study, gas injection is recommended at the crestal part of the reservoir under study at the rate equivalent to the produced gas to maintain pressure, arrest gas cap shrinkage and improve recovery.
For mature oil fields with complicated reservoir architecture, reservoir surveillance is key to track reservoir performance. Reservoir surveillance may include various monitoring tools from complicated horizontal production logging tools down to regular well tests. One of the main surveillance methods is running formation pressure measurement tools such as Formation Pressure Testers (FPT) or as historically known to the industry, Repeated Formation Tester (RFT). This paper describes the use of this important tool integrated with production data to understand reservoir production and depletion behavior and hence support the Bahrain Field development plan.
A study was conducted on the Ostracod and Magwa reservoirs; complicated carbonate reservoirs in the Bahrain Field. The Ostracod Zone is a sequence of inter-bedded limestone and shale in the upper Rumaila formation of the middle Cretaceous Wasia group. It is over 200 feet thick and consists of three main units: B0, B1, and B2. The Magwa reservoir is the lower member of the Rumaila Formation. It is 120 feet thick and conformably underlies the Ostracod reservoir. It consists of three main units: M1, M2, and M3.
The main objectives of this study are:
Evaluating pressure depletion from the initial reservoir pressure for each unit in both reservoirs, which defined the existence of flow barriers in this inter-bedded complicated carbonate. Evaluating the relationship between pressure depletion in each unit and the spacing between offset wells to the FPT location. Evaluating the Ostracod/Magwa pressure depletion per unit with time. Linking the pressure depletion to the cumulative production from the area offset by the FPT data.
Evaluating pressure depletion from the initial reservoir pressure for each unit in both reservoirs, which defined the existence of flow barriers in this inter-bedded complicated carbonate.
Evaluating the relationship between pressure depletion in each unit and the spacing between offset wells to the FPT location.
Evaluating the Ostracod/Magwa pressure depletion per unit with time.
Linking the pressure depletion to the cumulative production from the area offset by the FPT data.
The results of this study helped define the depletion risk on the future infill opportunities in such complicated reservoirs. It also helped in locating highly depleted units and determining the optimal locations for the new infill wells.
The Light Oil Steam Flood (LOSF) is proposed to increase the recovery from Mauddud reservoir in Bahrain Field. Mauddud has been on gas injection since 1938, yet residual oil saturation is still high in the gas cap due to its oil wettability. Several core lab studies were conducted confirming the high oil saturation in the gas cap. Steam flood core lab experiments were conducted recently and confirmed the residual oil saturation could reach to less than 10%. The thermal pilot project in Mauddud has gone through the following stages: The first pilot started in 2013 and operated for 2.5 years: It has one horizontal well in the gas cap, one vertical producer, four vertical injectors with three Temperature Observation Wells (TOWs) clustered around one of the injectors. First pilot performance was assessed and confirmed in reducing the residual oil in the gas cap by distillation and wettability alteration. Second pilot was designed and initiated in 2016 to assess the economic viability for full field expansion.
The first pilot started in 2013 and operated for 2.5 years: It has one horizontal well in the gas cap, one vertical producer, four vertical injectors with three Temperature Observation Wells (TOWs) clustered around one of the injectors.
First pilot performance was assessed and confirmed in reducing the residual oil in the gas cap by distillation and wettability alteration.
Second pilot was designed and initiated in 2016 to assess the economic viability for full field expansion.
Throughout these stages, production monitoring, logging, core studies and simulation studies have been carried to understand the LOSF mechanisms to increase Mauddud recovery from the gas cap.
This paper presents the evolution of pilot design concepts and simulation of the thermal recovery in Mauddud. It also study and assess the well configurations and pilot operating strategies designed for the thermal pilots. A sector model was constructed and calibrated, then used to select a well concept for the LOSF pilots. Seventeen different pilot concepts were considered during the selection process. The well configuration and operating strategies were driven to observe a quicker steam response in the first pilot. A number of sensitivities were conducted to develop a better understanding of the effects of the various reservoir factors.
A comprehensive study was then carried out to recommend a phase development approach for full-scale field development and establish a methodology for a full-field LOSF forecast. Full Field compositional model was built in thermal reservoir simulator and was then successfully history matched with seven components equations of state (EOS). A phased development approach was then proposed for full-scale field development. The initial development will focus on the mid-dip areas with higher remaining oil saturations and a thicker oil column. After establishing production in the mid-dip flanks, development could proceed to the crestal areas, which have lower oil saturations and would likely result in higher steam/oil ratios (SORs).