The characterization of the clastic Zubair reservoir is challenging because of the high lamination and the oil properties change making the conventional saturation technique uncertain. A new workflow has been recently established in the newly appraised wells which has involved advanced petrophysical measurements along with the fluid sampling. The new technique has led to identify new HC layers that were overlooked by the previous techniques, thus adding more reserves to the KOC asset.
Because of the high lamination of clastic Zubair formation and the change of the oil properties, the dielectric dispersion measurement was integrated along with the diffusion-based NMR to identify new oil zones that has been initially masked by the resistivity-based approach. The new approach has also provided details on the oil movability and the characterization of its property. As the newly identified layers were identified for the 1st time across the field, the fluid sampling was conducted to confirm the new findings.
The advent of a new logging technology from a multi-frequency dielectric technique deployed over the formation has independently pinned down the HC pays over the Zubair interval, including a new zone below the water column. The zone was initially identified as heavy Tar zone. The advanced diffusion-based NMR was thus conducted and integrated with Dielectrics which has demonstrated the movability of HC using the diffusion-based NMR approach over the newly identified zone. A fluid sampling was later performed which has confirmed the new finding. The new identified zone was initially overlooked by the previous interpretation and extensive modeling over the entire field. The seal mechanism was also explained by taking advantage of the high-resolution dielectric dispersion measurement (mainly the low frequency), which has been also supported by the Images interpretation. This new approach has added an incremental oil storage over the field.
Electrofacies identification is a crucial procedure in reservoir characterization especially in the lack of lithofacies measurements from core analysis. Electrofacies classification is essential to improve permeability-porosity relationships in non-cored intervals. Flow Zone Indicator (FZI) is a conventional procedure for rock types classification whereas Clustering Analysis has been recently used as unsupervised machine learning technique to group a set of data objects into clusters with no predefined classes. In this paper, clustering analysis and flow zone indicator were adopted for the electrofacies characterization on a dataset obtained from incorporate of conventional core analysis and CPI logs (Effective Porosity, Water saturation and Shale volume) of three wells in the upper shale member/Zubair formation in Luhais oil field southern Iraq.
The FZI attains reservoir quality evaluation through hydraulic flow unit and kozeny-carman equation, which correlates between permeability, porosity, pore throat, pore geometry and tortuosity factor. The reservoir intervals of similar or convergent range of FZI values belong to a single hydraulic flow unit and reflect the geological attributes of texture and mineralogy therefore they represent specific rock type. In clustering analysis, two approaches were adopted for electrofacies identification: k-mean and Ward's Hierarchical clustering method. These three techniques were implemented by the use of R language, which is a powerful statistical programming tool. The prepared R codes in this research can be utilized in any reservoir characterization process to define the different electrofacies
The results of this research showed two implemented techniques have identified three key electrofacies with different levels of accuracy and approaches while four rock types have been predicted from the third technique. The k-mean clustering analysis was the most accurate method where each predicted electrofacies reflects the same vertical distribution of the lithofacies in the reservoir. On the other hand, the Ward's Hierarchical electrofacies prediction represents specific petrophysical properties with minor differences from real lithofacies distribution in the reservoir. Finally, electrofacies identification through the FZI technique has similar ranges of FZI values with specific porosity and permeability values. FZI technique showed difficulty in defining lithofacies boundaries within the reservoir and predicted four rock types.
Centeno, Manuel (Schlumberger) | Krikor, Ara (Schlumberger) | Herrera, Delimar Cristobal (Schlumberger) | Sanderson, Martin (Schlumberger) | Carasco, Anant (Schlumberger) | Dundin, Alexander (Schlumberger) | Salaheldin, Ahmed (Schlumberger) | Jokhi, Ayomarz (Schlumberger) | Ibrahim, Sameh (Schlumberger) | Wehaidah, Talal (Kuwait Oil Company)
The complexity of drilling highly deviated wells in Kuwait drives the need for step changing in the well construction mindset, where severe to complete loss of circulation in Shuaiba formation significantly deteriorate the shale layers in Wara and Burgan formations leading to uncontrolled wellbore stability events. Casing while drilling (CWD) and two-stage cementing with a light density cement slurry were introduced as a technology system to drill the highly deviated complex wells through unstable and highly fractured formations. Fit for purpose engineering processes, advanced software solutions, a tailored bit and a bottom hole assembly dynamically simulated for drilling stability and directional tendency behavior were designed. A special light density cement slurry with high compressive strength was also designed to tackle the lost circulation issues when cementing the casing string. The paper will describe how the technologies can work as one system to solve complicated wellbore problems and address the problematic challenges of drilling unstable shales and fractured formations in the same section of the wellbore. This strategy enabled a significant time saving compared to drilling the section conventionally, removing Non-Productive Time (NPT) resulting from additional trips, cement plugs, stuck pipe, and subsequent sidetracks.
Al-Murayri, Mohammed T. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Kamal, Dawood S. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Khan, Mohammad Y. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Mayyan, Haya E. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Abu Shiekah, Issa (Shell) | Shahin, Gordon T. (Shell) | Shukla, Shunahshep R. (Shell) | Bouwmeester, Ron (Shell) | de Kruijf, Sander (Shell)
An inverted 5-spot Alkaline Surfactant Polymer (ASP) pilot is planned for a giant sandstone reservoir in North Kuwait. Despite the development of a robust lab-optimized ASP formulation at reservoir temperature (90°C) and the execution of a successful Single Well Chemical Tracer Test (SWCTT), the combination of high temperature and divalent ion concentration (∼20,000 ppm) makes the implementation of a successful multi-well ASP pilot very difficult mainly due to the challenge of inorganic carbonate scale. This paper presents some unique challenges in connection with the design of an inverted 5-spot ASP pilot and discusses practical strategies to mitigate them.
Due to the high divalent ion concentration in the formation brine, the design basis for the planned chemical EOR pilot requires pre-flushing the reservoir using softened seawater prior to ASP injection. In the base-case scenario for the pilot, injection and production within the pattern were balanced to target a Voidage Replacement Ratio (VRR) of 1. However, it was realized that such a pre-flush strategy would still present significant carbonate scaling risk at the producers. In view of that, an extended softened-water pre-flush strategy (over-flush) was considered to alleviate the anticipated scaling concerns.
Simulations were carried out to explore various scenarios to work out the optimal over-flush strategy for the pilot to mitigate the potential for scale formation at the producers. It was realized that over-flushing the hot reservoir brine by large volumes of cooler surface water could result in significant cooling of the reservoir prior to ASP injection. This change in reservoir temperature compromises the performance the original lab-optimized formulation that was designed considering a reservoir temperature of 90°C. In view of that, careful re-tuning of the chemical formulation was necessary to make it robust for pilot conditions post softened water over-flushing.
Dahm, Haider H. (University of Misan) | Abbas, Ahmed K. (Iraqi Drilling Company) | Alhumairi, Mohammed A. (University of Misan) | Alsaba, Mortadha (Australian College of Kuwait) | Mohammed, Haider Q. (Basrah Oil Company) | Al-Hamad, Nasser (Schlumberger)
Drilling operations in deep shales are more challenging due to geomechanical problems such as wellbore instability. Neglecting the impact of geomechanical issues may lead to drilling drawbacks such as loss of circulation, wellbore collapse, tight hole while tripping, stuck logging tools, and subsequent fishing, stuck pipe, and sidetracking. The directional dependency (anisotropy) of the rock properties, especially the rock strength, cause variation in the wave velocities. Identifying orientation and degree of the anisotropy and its relationship with geomechanical problems is essential for further field development. In this paper, acoustic data from vertical and deviated wells in Zubair Formation, Southern Iraq were performed to provide insights on the state of stress distribution around the wellbore through the Zubair Formation. In addition, interpreting the flexural dispersion curves as the final result of cross-dipole data processing, the maximum stress direction has been obtained to illustrate the type and source of anisotropy around the borehole in this formation. Using the flexural dispersion curves and the shear wave splitting approaches, the direction and the degree of anisotropy were determined in Zubair formation. Results indicated that drilling operations have altered the state of stress around the wellbore, and the degree of alteration is a function of the magnitude and the direction of the anisotropy. The flexural dispersion curve shows that the upper member of Zubair Formation is strongly anisotropic, whereas a slight anisotropy was mapped within the middle member of the same formation. In addition, shear wave splitting analysis revealed that the stress changes along the direction striking from north to west. Thus, considerable attention should be paid to all 1D-geomechanicsl models that constructed for Zubair Formation given its strong aviation of the magnitude and direction of its strength and elastic properties.
Abbas, Ahmed K. (Iraqi Drilling Company) | Assi, Amel H. (Baghdad University) | Abbas, Hayder (Missan Oil Company) | Almubarak, Haidar (King Saud University) | Al Saba, Mortadha (Australian College of Kuwait)
The drill bit is the most essential tool in drilling operation and optimum bit selection is one of the main challenges in planning and designing new wells. Conventional bit selections are mostly based on the historical performance of similar bits from offset wells. In addition, it is done by different techniques based on offset well logs. However, these methods are time consuming and they are not dependent on actual drilling parameters. The main objective of this study is to optimize bit selection in order to achieve maximum rate of penetration (ROP). In this work, a model that predicts the ROP was developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) based on 19 input parameters. For the modeling part, a one-dimension mechanical earth model (1D MEM) parameters, drilling fluid properties, and rig- and bit-related parameters, were included as inputs. The optimizing process was then performed to propose the optimum drilling parameters to select the drilling bit that provides the maximum possible ROP. To achieve this, the corresponding mathematical function of the ANNs model was implemented in a procedure using the genetic algorithm (GA) to obtain operating parameters that lead to maximum ROP. The output will propose an optimal bit selection that provides the maximum ROP along with the best drilling parameters. The statistical analysis of the predicted bit types and optimum drilling parameters comparing the actual flied measured values showed a low root mean square error (RMSE), low average absolute percentage error (AAPE), and high correction coefficient (R2). The proposed methodology provides drilling engineers with more choices to determine the best-case scenario for planning and/or drilling future wells. Meanwhile, the newly developed model can be used in optimizing the drilling parameters, maximizing ROP, estimating the drilling time, and eventually reducing the total field development expenses.
Bigoni, Francesco (Eni S.p.A) | Pirrone, Marco (Eni S.p.A) | Trombin, Gianluca (Eni S.p.A) | Vinci, Fabio Francesco (Eni S.p.A) | Raimondi Cominesi, Nicola (ZFOD) | Guglielmelli, Andrea (ZFOD) | Ali Hassan, Al Attwi Maher (ZFOD) | Ibrahim Uatouf, Kubbah Salma (ZFOD) | Bazzana, Michele (Eni Iraq BV) | Viviani, Enea (Eni Iraq BV)
The Mishrif Formation is one of the important carbonate reservoirs in middle, southern Iraq and throughout the Middle East. In southern Iraq, the formation provides the reservoir in oilfields such as Rumaila/West Qurna, Tuba and Zubair. The top of the Mishrif Formation is marked by a regional unconformity: a long period of emersion in Turonian (ab. 4.4 My) regionally occurred boosted by a warm humid climate, associated to heavy rainfall. In Zubair Field, within the Upper interval of Mishrif Formation, there are numerous evidences of karst features responsible of important permeability enhancements in low porosity intervals that are critical for production optimization and reservoir management purposes.
In the first phase, the integration of Multi-rate Production logging and Well Test analysis was very useful to evaluate the permeability values and to highlight the enhanced permeability (largely higher than expected Matrix permeability) intervals related to karst features; Image log analysis, on the same wells, allowed to find out a relationship between karst features and vug densities, making possible to extend the karst features identification also in wells lacking of well test and Production logging information. This approach has allowed to obtain a Karst/No Karst Supervised dataset for about 60 wells.
In the second phase different seismic and geological attributes have been considered in order to investigate possible correlations with karst features. In fact there are some parameters that show somehow a correlation with Karst and/or NoKarst wells: the Spectral Decomposition (specially 10 and 40 Hz volumes), the detection of sink-holes at top Mishrif on the Continuity Cube and its related distance, the sub-seismic Lineaments (obtained from Curvature analysis and subordinately from Continuity), distance from Top Mishrif. In the light of these results, the most meaningful parameters have been used as input data for a Neural Net Process ("Supervised Neural Network") utilizing the Supervised dataset both as a Trained dataset (70%) and as a Verification dataset (30%). A probability 3D Volume of Karst features was finally obtained; the comparison with verification dataset points out an error range around 0.2 that is to say that the rate of success of the probability Volume is about 80%.
The final outcomes of the workflow are karst probability maps that are extremely useful to guide new wells location and trajectory. Actually, two proof of concept case histories have demonstrated the reliability of this approach. The newly drilled wells, with optimized paths according to these prediction-maps, have intercepted the desired karst intervals as per the subsequent image log interpretation, which results have been very valuable in the proper perforation strategy including low porous intervals but characterized by high vuggy density (Karst features). Based on these promising results the ongoing drilling campaign has been optimized accordingly.
Identification of tidal channels fairways is key for predicting behavior of areas at higher risk to water breakthrough or otherwise have a significant impact on the development and monitoring of reservoir performance. However, tidal channels in carbonates are not often easily characterized using conventional seismic attributes. It is important to decipher the complexity of the carbonate tidal channel architecture with integrated multisource data and a variety of approaches.
In this paper, petrological characteristics and petrographic analysis is conducted on well logs and validated carefully using core data. Then, the second step is to compare the carbonate channel systems with modern analogue in Bahama tidal flat and outcrop scales in Wadi Mi'Aidin (Northern Oman). Thereafter, the supervised probabilistic neural network (PNN) and linear regression method were undertaken to detect an additional channel distribution.
The relationship of high porosity with low acoustic impedance appeared mostly in the channel facies which reflects good reservoir quality grainstone channels. Outside these channels, the rock is heavily mud filled by peritidal carbonates and characterized by a high acoustic impedance anomaly with low quality of porosity distribution. The new observation of PNN porosity volume revealed a lateral distribution of the Mishrif carbonate tidal channels in terms of paleocurrent direction and the connectivity. Additionally, the prior information from core data and the geological knowledge indicate a good consistency with classified lithology. These observations implied that Mishrif channels consist of a wide range of lithology and porotype fluctuations due to the impact of depositional environment.
The work enables us to provide a new insight into the distribution of channel bodies, and petrophysical properties with quantification of their influence on dynamic reservoir behavior of the main producing reservoir. This work will not only provide an important guidance to the development and production of this case study, however also deliver an integrated work path for the similar geological and sedimentary environment in the nearby oil fields of Southern Iraq.
SPE, through its Energy4me programme, will present a free one-day energy education workshop for science teachers (grades 8–12). A variety of free instructional materials will be available to take back to the classroom. Educators will receive comprehensive, objective information about the scientific concepts of energy and its importance while discovering the world of oil and natural gas exploration and production. Energy4me is an energy educational public outreach programme that highlights how energy works in our everyday lives and promote information about career opportunities in petroleum engineering and the upstream professions. SPE’s Energy4me programme values the role teachers and energy professionals play in educating young people about the importance of energy.
The objective of this work is to characterize the fault system and its impact on Mishrif reservoir capacity in the West Quran oil field. Determination and modelling of these faults are crucial to evaluate and understanding fluid flow of both oil and water injection in terms of distribution and the movement. In addition to define the structure away from the well control and understanding the evolution of West Qurna arch over geologic time.
In order to achieve the aim of the work and the structural analysis, a step wise approach was undertaken. Primarily, intensive seismic interpretation and building of structure maps were carried out across the high resolution of 3D-seismic survey with focusing on the main producing Mishrif reservoir of the field. Also, seismic attributes volumes provided a good information about the distribution and geometry of faults in Mishrif reservoir. The next step, it constructs 3-D fault model which will be later merged into the developed 3D geological model. West Qurna/1 oil field situated within the Zubair Subzone, and it is structurally a part of large anticline towards the north. The observation of seismically derived faults near Mishrif reservoir indicated en-echelon faults which refer to strike-slip tectonics along with extensional faults. The statistic of Mishrif interval faulting indicates a big number faults striking north-south along western wedge of anticline. The seismic interpretation, in combination with seismic attributes volumes, deliver a valuable structural framework which in turns used to build a better geological model.
In this paper, the work demonstrates a better understanding for the perspectives on the seismic characterization of the structural framework in the Mishrif reservoir, and also for similar heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs. Further, this work will ultimately lead to improve reservoir management practises in terms of production performance and water flooding plan.