This course discusses the fundamental sand control considerations involved in completing a well and introduces the various sand control techniques commonly used across the industry, including standalone screens, gravel packs, high rate water packs and frac-packs. It requires only a basic understanding of oilfield operations and is intended for drilling, completion and production personnel with some sand control experience who are looking to gain a better understanding of each technique’s advantages, limitations and application window for use in their upcoming completions.
The Educational Day workshop, which took place in conjunction with MEOS 2013, was the very first group event where the Bahraini YPs participated in introducing high school students and teachers to the different petroleum industry disciplines. Bahraini YP members effectively contributed to MEOS by assisting the Education Day Steering Committee conduct several educational tasks. The YPs conducted presentations, sharing their personal experiences in the oil and gas industry, assisted attendees in carrying out simple experiments to introduce basic petroleum engineering concepts, held question-and-answer and team-building activities, and led student groups tours of the exhibition associated with MEOS 2013. Recognition certificates were distributed for those who effectively participated in the educational day event. Young professionals spread knowledge about the oil and gas industry and its significance to Bahrain's prosperity.
Even though coring of rocks is the best way to characterize reservoir and source rocks geologically and petrophysically, this method is considered expensive, having a relatively high cost per foot. Alternatively, side-wall cores and cuttings are widely used in reservoir characterization at a relatively low cost. However, this method has limitations related to cuttings bad physical conditions, size, mixed lithological and mineralogical characteristics which make the commonly used conventional evaluation methods not applicable. This study introduces a robust combination of digital and conventional core analysis methods to overcome these limitations and characterize reservoir and shale cuttings derived from two hydrocarbon-bearing formations in New Zealand.
Initially, all cuttings from both formations were screened based on their cutting sizes and later based on the visually observed textures using the stereomicroscope. This helped in selecting representative cuttings for the main identified textures. These cuttings were CT imaged at a resolution ranging from 40 to 4 microns/voxel resolution in order to confirm their rock textures and sedimentary structures for better characterization results. Next, mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and petrographical analysis were conducted on all selected cuttings with different rock textures in order to understand the pore types, textural variations, diagenetic overprints and mineralogy of the cuttings samples. Then, they were scanned at optimum resolutions using Micro CT and 3D FIB-SEM microscopies. Finally, all acquired images were segmented digitally and 3D rock volumes were created. These volumes were used in computing porosity, permeability, formation factor resistivity (FRF) and poroperm trends digitally using numerical simulation techniques.
Conventional and digital rock analysis showed that the cuttings derived from the reservoir interval are composed of an argillaceous sandstone with a very good computed porosity (18% up to 31%) and permeability (30 to 200 mD). On the other hand, the cuttings derived from the shale source rock interval, which were predominately composed of clay minerals, have a computed porosity of 12% to 13% (mainly inorganic pores) and an absolute permeability in the range of 0.5 to 4 Micro-Darcy. The digital poroperm trend analysis identified distinct poroperm trends for each formation which helped in understanding their petrophysical aspects.
This integration between conventional and digital methods provided better geological and petrophysical understanding of both formations using a limited number of cuttings, less cost and time.
Ismail, Ahmed (ADNOC ONSHORE) | Hazem, Yasser (ADNOC ONSHORE) | Al Obaidi, Mazna Naji (ADNOC ONSHORE) | Bogachev, Kirill (Rock Flow Dynamics) | Gusarov, Evgenii (Rock Flow Dynamics) | Shelepov, Konstantin (Rock Flow Dynamics) | Kuzevanov, Maksim (Rock Flow Dynamics)
This paper proposes an assisted history matching (AHM) and uncertainty analysis workflow that was applied to facilitate the history matching of a giant carbonate reservoir in Middle East. The objective was to identify and quantify reservoir uncertainties and assess their impact on the field performance. In addition, to create a sufficient number of realizations to allow combinations of all uncertainties to capture a combined effect.
A real field case is represented by a consistent workflow that iteratively updates the ranges and number of reservoir uncertainties constrained by the actual measurements. The process has the following steps: definition of global uncertainty, sensitivity analysis, exclusion of less influential parameters, experimental design, revision of uncertainty matrix, and run optimization algorithms. The approach was firstly implemented at a global level and then continued to a regional level. The primary objective function is consisted of oil and water production mismatches, and the plan is to upgrade the objective function to include more parameters for further model HM enhancements.
Initially, the workflow was based on five uncertainty parameters. Ten sensitivity analysis cases were performed and tornado chart analysis suggested excluding some parameters that have less impact on the match quality, hence the objective function. Next, experimental design using Latin Hypercube was performed which allows seeing a combined effect of uncertainty parameters. During several experimental design iterations, the uncertainty parameter matrix was revised and a total number of uncertainty parameters was increased from 5 to 17. Finally, a total number of 260 experimental cases were completed, however, no good history match case was obtained. Therefore, a transition from the global level to a regional level was performed. The most sensitive identified uncertainties at global level were absolute permeability, vertical permeability anisotropy, pore volume and fault transmissibility. At the regional level, additional permeability multipliers for well regions were added to the uncertainty matrix. After that, a good quality matched cases were obtained.
Field scale and complexity were the main drive to implement AHM workflow. In a giant carbonate reservoir with long history and complex geology, a classical history matching method with unique solution cannot assure an accurate model predictability. The key advantages of this approach were the facilitating of the HM process and reducing of the total calculation time.
Al-Azmi, Mejbel Saad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Otaibi, Fahad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Kumar, Joshi Girija (Kuwait Oil Company) | Tiwary, Devendra (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Ashwak, Samar (Kuwait Oil Company) | Dzhaykiev, Bekdaulet (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Shinde, Neha (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Hardman, Douglas (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Noueihed, Rabih (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Gadkari, Shreerang (Baker Hughes, a GE Company)
The complex nature of the reservoir dictated comprehensive formation evaluation logging that was typically done on wireline. The high angle designed for maximum reservoir exposure, high temperature, high pressure (HTHP), differential reservoir pressure and wellbore stability challenges necessitated a new approach to overall formation evaluation. The paper outlines Formation Evaluation strategy that reduced risk, increased efficiency and saved money, while ensuring high quality data collection, integration and interpretation.
After review of all risks, a decision to utilize Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) for wellbore stability, Logging While Drilling (LWD) to replace wireline and Advanced Mudlogging Services was implemented. The Formation Evaluation team utilized LWD resistivity, neutron, density and nuclear magnetic resonance logs supplemented with x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and advanced mud gas analysis to ensure comprehensive analysis. The paper outlines workflows and procedures necessary to ensure all data from LWD, XRF, XRD and mud gas are integrated properly for the analysis.
Effects of Managed Pressure Drilling on mud gas interpretation as well as cuttings and mud gas depth matching are addressed. Depth matching of all data, mud gasses, cuttings and logs are critical for detailed and accurate analysis and techniques are discussed that ensure consistent results. Complex mineralogy due to digenesis and effect of LWD logs are evident and only reconciled by detailed XRF and XRD data. The effects of some conductive mineralogy are so dramatic as to infer tool function compromise. The ability to determine acceptable tool response from tool failures eliminates unnecessary trips and leads to efficient operations. The final result of the above data collection, QC and processing resulted in a comprehensive formation evaluation interpretation of high confidence.
Finally, conclusions and recommendations are summarized to provide guidelines in Formation Evaluation in similar challenging highly deviated, HTHP, complex reservoir environments on land and offshore.
This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders.
This paper discusses the first multilateral well with a Level-4 junction combined with an inflow-control device (ICD) planned, designed, and drilled in the Upper Burgan reservoir of Raudhatain field, north Kuwait. Several designs for autonomous inflow-control devices (AICDs) are available. The comparative properties and abilities of these designs are the focus of this paper. As part of a project that involves the use of four artificial islands to drill and complete more than 300 extended-reach-drilling (ERD) wells in a giant offshore oil field, several completion designs have been piloted for brownfield development.
Multilateral wells with smart completions controlled by different flow-control technologies offer great operational flexibility, with each lateral able to be operated and optimized independently. The use of intelligent software is on the rise in the industry and it is changing how engineers approach problems. A series of articles explores the potential benefits and limitations of this emerging area of data science. This paper discusses the first multilateral well with a Level-4 junction combined with an inflow-control device (ICD) planned, designed, and drilled in the Upper Burgan reservoir of Raudhatain field, north Kuwait.
The objective of this study was to look at factors that can affect a temperature log and steps that can be taken to improve temperature-measurement accuracy. This paper covers the staged field-development methodology, including analysis and evaluation of various development concepts, that enabled the company to optimize both completion design and artificial-lift selection, reducing downtime and lowering operating costs by nearly 50%. The First Eocene is a multibillion-barrel heavy-oil carbonate reservoir in the Wafra field, located in the Partitioned Zone between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. After more than 60 years of primary production, expected recovery is low and provides a good target for enhanced-oil-recovery processes.
The operator piloted a new well-completion design combining inflow-control valves (ICVs) in the shallow reservoir and inflow-control devices (ICDs) in the deeper reservoir, both deployed in a water-injector well for the first time in the company’s experience. This paper discusses the first deployment of an ICD system combined with an OBC system for a workover operation in a mature producer well in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. With the objective of increasing its production to 4.0 million BOPD, the Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is developing its fields with optimum technology solutions. This paper discusses the first multilateral well with a Level-4 junction combined with an inflow-control device (ICD) planned, designed, and drilled in the Upper Burgan reservoir of Raudhatain field, north Kuwait. Work conducted in the Surmont field of Alberta, Canada, provided an excellent starting point to optimize flow-control improvements to the SAGD process.