The Educational Day workshop, which took place in conjunction with MEOS 2013, was the very first group event where the Bahraini YPs participated in introducing high school students and teachers to the different petroleum industry disciplines. Bahraini YP members effectively contributed to MEOS by assisting the Education Day Steering Committee conduct several educational tasks. The YPs conducted presentations, sharing their personal experiences in the oil and gas industry, assisted attendees in carrying out simple experiments to introduce basic petroleum engineering concepts, held question-and-answer and team-building activities, and led student groups tours of the exhibition associated with MEOS 2013. Recognition certificates were distributed for those who effectively participated in the educational day event. Young professionals spread knowledge about the oil and gas industry and its significance to Bahrain's prosperity.
Green fields today mostly can be regarded as marginal fields and successfully developed. It covers the complete assessment of the oil and gas recovery potential from reservoir structure and formation evaluation, oil and gas reserve mapping, their uncertainties and risks management, feasible reservoir fluid depletion approaches, and to the construction of integrated production systems for cost effective development of the green fields. Depth conversion of time interpretations is a basic skill set for interpreters. There is no single methodology that is optimal for all cases. Next, appropriate depth methods will be presented. Depth imaging should be considered an integral component of interpretation. If the results derived from depth imaging are intended to mitigate risk, the interpreter must actively guide the process.
Moving their directional drillers into their Houston real-time remote operations centers has improved drilling efficiency for two of the top shale producers. This paper presents a factory-model approach to improving CT drillout performance that has been used successfully for more than 3 years and has become standard practice. The oil industry is currently undergoing a technological transformation that will add value, improve processes, and reduce cost. Future drilling engineers will have knowledge of robotics, automation, and organizational efficiency, which is highly appealing for recruitment. This paper describes challenges faced in a company’s first deepwater asset in Malaysia and the methods used to overcome these issues in the planning stage.
The Burgan field is an oil field situated in the desert of southeastern Kuwait. Burgan field can also refer to the Greater Burgan--a group of three closely spaced fields, which includes Burgan field itself as well as the much smaller Magwa and Ahmadi fields. Greater Burgan is the world's largest sandstone oil field, and the second largest overall, after Ghawar. The Greater Burgan field includes two smaller fields the Magwa and the Ahmadi. Chief Executive of the Kuwait Oil Company reported that Burgan produced half of Kuwait's oil.
The objective of this work is to characterize the fault system and its impact on Mishrif reservoir capacity in the West Quran oil field. Determination and modelling of these faults are crucial to evaluate and understanding fluid flow of both oil and water injection in terms of distribution and the movement. In addition to define the structure away from the well control and understanding the evolution of West Qurna arch over geologic time.
In order to achieve the aim of the work and the structural analysis, a step wise approach was undertaken. Primarily, intensive seismic interpretation and building of structure maps were carried out across the high resolution of 3D-seismic survey with focusing on the main producing Mishrif reservoir of the field. Also, seismic attributes volumes provided a good information about the distribution and geometry of faults in Mishrif reservoir. The next step, it constructs 3-D fault model which will be later merged into the developed 3D geological model. West Qurna/1 oil field situated within the Zubair Subzone, and it is structurally a part of large anticline towards the north. The observation of seismically derived faults near Mishrif reservoir indicated en-echelon faults which refer to strike-slip tectonics along with extensional faults. The statistic of Mishrif interval faulting indicates a big number faults striking north-south along western wedge of anticline. The seismic interpretation, in combination with seismic attributes volumes, deliver a valuable structural framework which in turns used to build a better geological model.
In this paper, the work demonstrates a better understanding for the perspectives on the seismic characterization of the structural framework in the Mishrif reservoir, and also for similar heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs. Further, this work will ultimately lead to improve reservoir management practises in terms of production performance and water flooding plan.
This paper presents the traditional methods of hydrate mitigation used in the NKJ fields and the way in which a transient model was initially built and continuously improved. In thermal enhanced oil recovery there is one big ingredient: steam. A new startup from Germany believes it has found the oil industry’s cheapest way to make it. This study provides technical analysis of the viability of enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) processes; the results indicate the potential for significant improvement in recovery efficiency over continued waterflooding. The first multilateral well in a North Kuwait field has been drilled recently.
Burgan Marrat, a deep carbonate reservoir was transferred from exploration to development team for an accelerated production of the newly discovered oil. This multi-billion barrel reservoir is spread over 450 km2, has more than 40 faults, 8 compartments with large variation in oil-water contact and reservoir/fluid characteristics. The objective of this work is to understand the key uncertainties and quantify their impact on the reservoir offtake rate and oil recovery by conducting uncertainty assessment.
An interdisciplinary team identified the key uncertainty parameters expected to have significant impact on the reservoir development. The range and probability distribution law for each parameter was set considering the uncertainties due to limited measurements or variation in interpretations. A Response Surface Model (RSM) was created to evaluate the uncertainties by using a base dynamic model and applying an appropriate experimental design, which allowed to efficiently study the uncertainty space with a feasible number of simulations. Using the RSM, the primary effects and interaction between parameters were quantified to rank the uncertainties based on their impact on field production.
Key uncertainty parameters were identified including eight OWCs, six fault transmissibilities, horizontal and vertical permeability multipliers, and porosity multiplier. Latin Hypercube was found to be the appropriate Experimental Design for the study considering 17 parameters and the need of building a reliable RSM that includes interactions between them. The design recommended 155 simulation cases, which were prepared and submitted automatically by the software.
Multi-time Responses were analyzed qualitatively to identify the top 5 uncertainties having material impact on field production over 20 years considering 6 existing wells and 30 new well locations. The RSM quantitative evaluation showed three parameters (OWC2, OWC4 and OWC1) having a total effect on the response higher than 10%; followed by PERMX and OWC3 with less than 5%. The other 12 parameters have total effects less than 2%, and the interactions effect is less than 0.5% for any interaction between two parameters. Contrary to the intuition, none of the faults proved impact on the reservoir production.
The results prove very useful to make a right development and appraisal strategy in early life of the reservoir. The new well locations can be ranked and prioritized to optimize the development and effectively appraise the areas with high risks.
Uncertainty assessment has value throughout the life of the reservoir. However, this study indicates that its application in early life of the reservoir can bring immense value. An uncertainty analysis on the reservoir production helps in decision-making regarding the number of wells and their locations to reach a target production by managing the risks.
Ayyad, Hazim (Schlumberger) | Dashti, Bashaiyer (Kuwait Oil Company) | AL-Nabhan, Abdulrazzaq (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Ajmi, Afrah (Kuwait Oil Company) | Khan, Badruzaman (Kuwait Oil Company) | Sassi, Khaled (Schlumberger) | Liang, Lin (Schlumberger) | Nagaraj, Guru (Schlumberger)
In Umm Niqa field, Lower Fars (LF) is a shallow, unconsolidated, sour heavy oil and low-pressure sand reservoir. During the current appraisal and exploratory phases, oil production forecasts based on reservoir simulation models were observed to be significantly higher than actual production. Furthermore, unexpected early water breakthrough and the rapid increase in the water cut added more complexity to the reservoir production. This paper will focus on how these challenges were addressed with a unique workflow.
If the reservoir is producing more than one phase, then relative permeability determination becomes essential for the production forecast as well as production optimization to delay the water breakthrough. Due to the unconsolidated nature of LF reservoir, it was challenging to perform coring operation in this environment. In the few cases where cores were obtained, it was almost impossible to perform the relative permeability analysis on the core plugs. Therefore, there was a need to obtain this information by exploring other technique or methodology. Hence in-situ relative permeability technique was implemented in three different wells.
To address the relative permeability determination challenge, an innovative approach was implemented in three different wells. This approach determines the relative permeability at downhole conditions by utilizing the fluids clean-up and sampling data during the wireline downhole formation testing as well as some advanced petrophysical measurements such as the array resistivity, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and the dielectric dispersion. The data obtained were used as inputs for a multi-physics integrated workflow, which inverts for the relative permeability curves based on the modified Brooks-Corey model.
In this paper, it will be demonstrated how the relative permeability results obtained from this technique in these three wells were applied to update the reservoir simulation models. The production forecasts were found to be significantly improved and close to the actual production figures. The early water breakthrough is better anticipated; therefore, the production rate can be adjusted to delay it and maximize the oil recovery. This method provides an alternative and efficient way to derive the relative permeability curves when it is challenging to obtain from the conventional core analysis techniques. This helped to better understand the number of wells required to be drilled to achieve the planned production target.
This paper adds to the literature unique case studies where relative permeability determination is required, however, not possible to be obtained through conventional industry techniques such as core analysis due to a highly unconsolidated formation. Hence, an innovative workflow was adopted to measure the relative permeability at downhole conditions.