The Burgan field is an oil field situated in the desert of southeastern Kuwait. Burgan field can also refer to the Greater Burgan--a group of three closely spaced fields, which includes Burgan field itself as well as the much smaller Magwa and Ahmadi fields. Greater Burgan is the world's largest sandstone oil field, and the second largest overall, after Ghawar. The Greater Burgan field includes two smaller fields the Magwa and the Ahmadi. Chief Executive of the Kuwait Oil Company reported that Burgan produced half of Kuwait's oil.
The objective of this work is to characterize the fault system and its impact on Mishrif reservoir capacity in the West Quran oil field. Determination and modelling of these faults are crucial to evaluate and understanding fluid flow of both oil and water injection in terms of distribution and the movement. In addition to define the structure away from the well control and understanding the evolution of West Qurna arch over geologic time.
In order to achieve the aim of the work and the structural analysis, a step wise approach was undertaken. Primarily, intensive seismic interpretation and building of structure maps were carried out across the high resolution of 3D-seismic survey with focusing on the main producing Mishrif reservoir of the field. Also, seismic attributes volumes provided a good information about the distribution and geometry of faults in Mishrif reservoir. The next step, it constructs 3-D fault model which will be later merged into the developed 3D geological model. West Qurna/1 oil field situated within the Zubair Subzone, and it is structurally a part of large anticline towards the north. The observation of seismically derived faults near Mishrif reservoir indicated en-echelon faults which refer to strike-slip tectonics along with extensional faults. The statistic of Mishrif interval faulting indicates a big number faults striking north-south along western wedge of anticline. The seismic interpretation, in combination with seismic attributes volumes, deliver a valuable structural framework which in turns used to build a better geological model.
In this paper, the work demonstrates a better understanding for the perspectives on the seismic characterization of the structural framework in the Mishrif reservoir, and also for similar heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs. Further, this work will ultimately lead to improve reservoir management practises in terms of production performance and water flooding plan.
Ayyad, Hazim (Schlumberger) | Dashti, Bashaiyer (Kuwait Oil Company) | AL-Nabhan, Abdulrazzaq (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Ajmi, Afrah (Kuwait Oil Company) | Khan, Badruzaman (Kuwait Oil Company) | Sassi, Khaled (Schlumberger) | Liang, Lin (Schlumberger) | Nagaraj, Guru (Schlumberger)
In Umm Niqa field, Lower Fars (LF) is a shallow, unconsolidated, sour heavy oil and low-pressure sand reservoir. During the current appraisal and exploratory phases, oil production forecasts based on reservoir simulation models were observed to be significantly higher than actual production. Furthermore, unexpected early water breakthrough and the rapid increase in the water cut added more complexity to the reservoir production. This paper will focus on how these challenges were addressed with a unique workflow.
If the reservoir is producing more than one phase, then relative permeability determination becomes essential for the production forecast as well as production optimization to delay the water breakthrough. Due to the unconsolidated nature of LF reservoir, it was challenging to perform coring operation in this environment. In the few cases where cores were obtained, it was almost impossible to perform the relative permeability analysis on the core plugs. Therefore, there was a need to obtain this information by exploring other technique or methodology. Hence in-situ relative permeability technique was implemented in three different wells.
To address the relative permeability determination challenge, an innovative approach was implemented in three different wells. This approach determines the relative permeability at downhole conditions by utilizing the fluids clean-up and sampling data during the wireline downhole formation testing as well as some advanced petrophysical measurements such as the array resistivity, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and the dielectric dispersion. The data obtained were used as inputs for a multi-physics integrated workflow, which inverts for the relative permeability curves based on the modified Brooks-Corey model.
In this paper, it will be demonstrated how the relative permeability results obtained from this technique in these three wells were applied to update the reservoir simulation models. The production forecasts were found to be significantly improved and close to the actual production figures. The early water breakthrough is better anticipated; therefore, the production rate can be adjusted to delay it and maximize the oil recovery. This method provides an alternative and efficient way to derive the relative permeability curves when it is challenging to obtain from the conventional core analysis techniques. This helped to better understand the number of wells required to be drilled to achieve the planned production target.
This paper adds to the literature unique case studies where relative permeability determination is required, however, not possible to be obtained through conventional industry techniques such as core analysis due to a highly unconsolidated formation. Hence, an innovative workflow was adopted to measure the relative permeability at downhole conditions.
Ahmadi Reservoir is one of the Reservoirs producing in the Bahrain Field. It has been producing for more than eighty years. Ahmadi is a tight carbonate Reservoir that belongs to the Wasia Cretaceous group. It consists of two main limestone units which are AA and AB. Like most Carbonates in the Middle East, Ahmadi production is dominated by secondary permeability which means that the reservoir has a dual exponential type Curve. Dual exponential in Ahmadi means a high flush initial production period and then a longer period of stabilized production.
Because of this behaviour, using conventional methods to monitor reservoir performance could be misleading. Hence, a new parameter was created to make sure that reservoir performance monitoring accounts for production in a more representive way. This parameter was called Normalized Production Index.
Normalized Production Index has been used to analyse reservoir performance in Ahmadi Reservoir as it accounts for both the flush rate and the stabilized production rate of wells. This parameter helps monitor and observe reservoir performance as it effectively identifies low and high productive areas, and hence leads to better decisions during reservoir development planning.
In this study, a Normalized Production Index of more than 246 wells was considered. These wells vary in area, dip direction, trajectory, and Horizontal length. The objective was to determine the most effective way of these to maximise production in Ahmadi.
Based on the analysis done using Normalized Production Index, it was found that the average oil production for horizontal wells is more than double that of a vertical/directional well. It was also found that wells oriented in an up-dip direction of the structure are performing better than wells oriented in a down-dip direction of the structure in some areas. These conclusions were considered in managing the reservoir. Some actions were taken based on these conclusions and resulted in positive performance, which verified the effectiveness of the Normalized Production Index.
The sandstone facies of Wara formation designated as Ac zone in the Bahrain Field belongs to the Wasia group of the Middle Cretaceous age.
The reservoir has been characterized in three distinct geographical areas of sand distribution based on varied depositional systems, resulting in sands with differing orientation, texture and thickness. The reservoir varies in thickness between 5 and 60 ft and is composed of a series of discontinuous high porosity, high permeability sandstone lenses, sealed above and below by thick competent marine shales.
This paper addresses the variability of the reservoir and the connectivity with the underlying Mauddud reservoir which consequently determined the drive mechanisms.
The original oil in place of Wara sandstone was calculated deterministically using a 3D geological model and incorporated both Geophysical and Petrophysical models. Initial water saturation was calculated from capillary pressure data with net sand cut offs applied. The discontinuity of the sands has resulted in individual sand bodies with variable oil water contacts. Thinner sand bars and channels in the northern area of the Bahrain Field produce by depletion drive. Juxtaposition with the underlying Mauddud reservoir occurring across the faults allows communication with Mauddud gas cap in the Central area which results in the gas drive. Water drive is the main mechanism in the South channel.
Recent log data acquired from new wells has improved our knowledge of this reservoir and explains the different oil-water contacts with the varying drive mechanisms. This improved understanding has resulted in a new development strategy to maximize recovery with infill drilling and possibly Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).
Tuba is tight carbonate reservoir and one of largest Upcoming Reservoirs in North Kuwait Sabriyah field and subdivided to three main reservoir units (upper, middle and lower). Tuba, though discovered in the 60's, is still relatively under-exploited presently with only ±10 active oil producer wells with very low total production rate compared to other major reservoirs in same field. High reservoir heterogeneity, tightness, and poor fluid properties necessitate the application of fracturing stimulation technology to maximize Conductivity and hence recovery enhancement. Recent technologies in multistage acid Fracturing executed successfully covering multiple layers as first time ever in one of existing two Tuba horizontal wells.
The well under study is highly deviated, completed as barefoot in the Upper Tuba reservoir, intersecting multiple sub-layers. Following the positive results of acid fracturing treatments in offset Tuba's vertical wells, the candidate well was selected for first multistage acid fracturing in horizontal wells, to setup the reservoir development plan ensuring high production potential with most cost-effective drilling and completion strategies. Rig-less 5-Stages Acid Fracture treatment was executed in flawless operation. Many technical and operational challenges were faced (Geo-mechanics, stages selection and design, cementing 7in liner) and properly handled within integrated teams with lessons learned are to be considered in next designs and executions. Initial post multistage acid Frack short term production showed productivity improvement by approximately 5 folds of pre-stimulation production. The well showed high decline in production rate within the first one-year production post fracturing stimulation. However, analysis showed that the decline mainly was caused by reservoir depletion rather than fracture conductivity deterioration. The well is under close monitoring for stabilization (rate and pressure). Horizontal PLT is planned to evaluate inflow profile from individual layers to improve next designs.
Despite the close results yilded from the multistage acid fracturing in two horizontal wells compared to the results from 7 vertical wells, it is still early to evaluate stimulation potential of horizontal against vertical wells. It needs more production history and more wells to evaluate long term sustainability.
Water-flooding is planned to support reservoir development and enhancing stimulation sustainability and by turn recovery factory. First pilot water flooding injector well was commissioned in early 2018, but comprehensive waterflooding analysis is not finalized yet.
The initial positive results of first multistage acid fracturing in Tuba reservoir had key contribution to setup Development strategy for the entire TUBA reservoir to expand drilling horizontal wells and complete it with initial multistage fract (MSF) stimulation to maximize reservoir exposure and enhance reservoior productivity that will contribute significantly to the NK production target. Two more horizontal wells were drilled and completed with MSF in late 2018 with initial encouraging enhanced productivity results during cleaning and lifting but were not put yet on production for more comprehensive analysis. ation to improve initial productivity.
The Bahrain Field is characterized by large lateral and vertical variations in fluid properties, with oil gravity ranging between −9 and 80 °API. The lower API crudes are encountered mostly on the structural flanks and within the upper reservoir units, while the highest API crudes are condensates from deeper formations such as Hith and Arab. The deepest reservoir is the gas-bearing Khuff. It has 50 °API condensate and forms a separate fluid type from the rest of the Bahrain Field.
The objective of this paper is to derive a single compositional predictor for the entire range of crude gravities. Excluded from this unified model are bitumens from Aruma and Khuff condensates, which are compositionally different. One outcome of this study was to predict the reservoir fluid as a function of well test Gas Oil Ratio (GOR) and API gravity by mathematical recombination of averaged data from abundant well tests across the Bahrain Field. A strong trend of methane fraction in the reservoir fluid versus saturation pressure has been observed, and thus it has been possible to construct the recombined reservoir fluid and then predict saturation pressures, Formation Volume Fraction (FVF), and viscosity. This fluid model was used to initialize compositional models for gas plant evaluations, miscible flood evaluations, and to determine the maximum GOR at which saturation pressure equals reservoir pressure. Another outcome of the unified fluid model was to construct a reservoir fluid composition given a target saturation pressure and API. This information is used to construct representative fluids for laboratory synthesis of crudes and gas for live oil experiments.
As part of the process, a number of quality checks were constructed to determine if the fluid encountered is in range of historic produced crudes (e.g. contamination by air or lift gas) and enable construction of fluids for reservoir simulation.
Al-Obaidli, Asmaa (KOC) | Al-Nasheet, Anwar (KOC) | Snasiri, Fatemah (KOC) | Al-Shammari, Obaid (KOC) | Al-Shammari, Asrar (KOC) | Sinha, Satyendra (KOC) | Amjad, Yaser Muhammad (Schlumberger) | Gonzalez, Doris (BP) | Gonzalez, Fabio (BP)
The Magwa-Marrat field started production early 1984 with an initial reservoir pressure of 9,600 psia Thirtysix (36) producer wells have been drilled until now. By 1999, when the field had accumulated 92 MMSTB of produced oil and the reservoir pressure had declined to 8000 psia, the field was shut-in until late 2003 due to concerns on asphaltene deposition in the reservoir that could cause irreversible damage and total recovery losses. The field was restarted in 2003 an it has been in production since then. By April 2018 the field had produced 220 MMSTBO, with the average reservoir pressure declined to 6,400 psia. As crude oil has been produced and the energy of the reservoir has depleted, the equilibrium of its fluid components has been disturbed and asphaltenes have precipitated out of the liquid phase and deposited in the production tubing. There is a concern that the reservoir will encounter asphaltene problems as the reservoir pressure drops further. The objective of this manuscript is to present the process to understand the reservoir fluids behavior as it relates to asphaltenes issues and develop a work frame to recognize and mitigate the risk of plugging the reservoir rock due to asphaltenes deposition with the end purpose of maximizing recovery while producing at the maximum field potential Data acquired during more than 30 years have been integrated and analyzed including 22 AOP measurements using gravimetric and solid detection system techniques, 17 PVT lab reports, 1 core-flooding study and 1 permeability/wettability study. Despite the wide range of AOP measured in different labs, it was possible to determine that the AOP for the Magwa-Marrat fluid is 5,600 500 psia and the saturation pressure is 3,200 200 psia. Results of this fluids review study indicates that it might be possible to deplete the reservoir pressure below the AOP while producing at high rates.
Beheiry, Karim (Halliburton) | Al Mulaifi, Mohammed (Kuwait Oil Company) | Sekhri, Anish (Kuwait Oil Company) | Farhi, Nadir (Halliburton) | Nouh, Walid (Halliburton) | Abdel Naby, Ahmed (Halliburton) | Marafi, Abdullah (Kuwait Oil Company) | Shatta, Atef (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Ali, Hussain (Kuwait Oil Company)
The 12-1/4-in. directional application is one of the most challenging applications in North Kuwait. The section requires drilling from the Mutriba (Santonian) to Burgan (Albina) formations through highly interbedded, high-compressive-strength carbonates (limestone and dolomite), sandstones, and shales. In recent years, Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) has tested many different bit designs in an attempt to minimize stick/slip vibrations and maximize the rate of penetration (ROP). This paper presents the technology used to nearly eliminate stick/slip vibrations, leading to a field record (and a consistent performance) for this application, as well as the process used to develop the technology.
The interval was drilled using a rotary steerable system (RSS) to maximize wellbore quality and to provide consistent build-up rates (BUR) required. Parameters run in this application are often limited because stick/slip becomes uncontrollable when transitioning through the many formation types. In addition, reactive and stressed caving shales are regularly observed in the Ahmadi and Wara formations drilled during the interval. Special care is needed to mitigate these drilling challenges and to successfully drill the interval with low stick/slip vibrations and high ROP.
Using proprietary state-of-the-art design and analysis technologies, a new polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit was designed for use specifically with RSS tools to minimize the vibrations. The solution required a thorough offset analysis before the interval that was presented using the design process. The design process enabled the presentation of a driller's roadmap to be used in conjunction with the new bit to enable a benchmark ROP to be achieved.
The use of the newly designed PDC bit produced minimal torsional vibrations, enabling a 62% increase in ROP over the field average. This increased ROP resulted in a savings of USD 90,000, reducing the cost per foot by 33%, as compared to the field average. The bit also came out in excellent condition, enabling future use in similar applications for KOC.
A regional study of the Burgan formation has been carried out over the North Kuwait Fields to understand the variation in depositional environment, oil occurrence and control of trapping mechanism on the quality of oil. The Burgan Formation in North Kuwait comprises fluvial, deltaic and marine sediments deposited during the Lower Albian period in response to global changes in sea level. There is a systematic gradation of depositional environments in Burgan during this period. Oil entrapment in this formation shows regional variation. Both stratigraphic and structural controls on oil accumulation are dominant in the region. The oil quality becomes heavier towards North and has a strong structural control. Significant volume of inplace oil has been estimated during this study which would be pursued for commercial exploitation of this deep heavy oil reservoir.
Burgan clastic sedimentation over Shuaiba carbonates was initiated by a regional fall in sealevel and establishment of a deltaic setting. Reservoir facies include mouth bars and distributary channels along with non-reservoir facies of interdistributary bay and shallow marine environments. After a significant hiatus, the braided channel systems with massive amalgamated sand bodies were established in response to significant fall in seal level. Subsequently a significant marker in form of a marine and shoreface sand with associated marine shale was deposited with a rise in sea level. Estuarine channels and bay shales were deposited above this surface. The upper part of Lower Burgan has transgressive sand bodies. The Middle Burgan is dominated by marine shale and shoreface sand deposits in response to further rise in sea level. The Upper part of Burgan is mainly comprising estuarine channel sands and interdistributary bay deposits. In a regional context, the sedimentation pattern shows increasing marine influence to East-Northeast directions.
The oil quality in Burgan is intricately related to the structure and trapping mechanisms. A post Mishrif time tilt in structure has resulted in a deeper relict oil water contact in Lower Burgan towards West of Sabiriyah. In the area towards North of Raudhatain structure, the fluid contact shows significant tilt towards North with a rising structure. The doubly plunging anticlines of Raudhatain and Sabiriyah structures have lighter oil in Burgan formation in a structural trap. Further north of Raudhatain, the oil is heavy although there is lateral reservoir continuity. Significant faults have been mapped in this area. The structure is shallower towards North with progressively deeper fluid contact in Lower Burgan. Origin of heavy oil appears be due to significant spilling of lighter oil along faults and upstructure migration due to structural tilting and transtensional deformation.
Significant accumulation of heavy oil has been established in Basal Burgan, Lower Burgan and Upper Burgan Formations. Heavy oil inflow in form of testing and sampling is seen in 12 wells. Aggressive plans are in place to map the oil quality and to formulate a long term exploitation strategy.