The first Young Exploration and Production Professionals (YEPPs) meeting involving YEPPs from throughout the Middle East was held in November in Doha, Qatar, during the SPE International Petroleum Technology Conference. This was the first meeting where YEPPs got to meet face to face and discuss their newly formed YEPP sections and the challenges they are facing. Participants also planned an Education Day and a 2006 YEPP workshop. The YEPP meeting was attended by Ali Al-Muftah (Bapco), Hani Al-Khalifa (Saudi Aramco), Nael Sadek (Lufkin), Rana Rassipour (Canadian Nexen), and Razik Shaikh (Dubai Petroleum Co.), and it was chaired by Tony Thomas of Schlumberger. The meeting kicked off with Sadek of the Egypt Section discussing the progress made by YEPPs in Egypt and highlighting some of the obstacles such as finding time to meet regularly and getting financial support.
Being the largest conference for SPE members, the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (ATCE) offers a great opportunity for members to give back to the community that graciously hosts the conference for the week. SPE launched a new initiative called SPE Cares at the ATCE recently held in Dubai. As part of the launch of the program, the SPE Cares Work Group organized a "Give a Ghaf" tree planting event, with more than 70 volunteers representing 16 countries participating. The event aimed to preserve the Ghaf tree, a tree species indigenous to the UAE, Oman, and Saudi Arabia. It is a drought-tolerant, evergreen tree that can survive harsh desert environments.
The Yibal Khuff/Sudair reservoirs were discovered in 1977. The field contains both Non-Associated Gas in the Sudair & Lower Khuff reservoirs and Associated Gas with oil rims in the Upper Khuff reservoirs. The Upper and Lower Khuff hydrocarbons contain 2–3% H2S and 4–6% CO2, whereas the Sudair gas contain 1–1.5% CO2 and less than 50 ppm H2S. The Field Development Plan (FDP), a multibillion dollar sour development project, was completed in 2011 proposing a total of 47 wells, 34 dedicated horizontal/vertical wells for oil rim production and 13 commingled vertical/deviated gas wells, and the construction of new sour surface facilities with a gas production capacity of 6 MMm3/day.
FDP execution started in 2016 while the details of field start-up, scheduled a few years later, were still being planned. As part of this planning, it was noticed that a number of pre-drilled wells required perforation and clean-up before facility startup. Due to the time necessary to prepare all the pre-drilled wells, pre-production wellbore cross-flow was expected to occur in wells located in the West block of the field. A dedicated subsurface team was assigned in 2017 to evaluate and mitigate the potential risks associated with this expected cross-flow through the wellbore resulting from the pressure difference between the Lower Khuff and Upper Khuff layers.
This paper covers the integrated approach that the team followed to address the expected cross-flow issue, including: Basis for pre-production cross- flow The quantification of the cross-flow using analytical and numerical simulation methods The assessment of the impact of cross-flow on process safety and the environment (i.e. drilling risks with potential blow out of sour gas) and social responsibility (i.e. production capacity and ultimate recovery losses resulting in lower benefits to the community) The identification and assessment of solutions to stop/reduce the cross-flow The implementation of a robust and feasible mitigation plan
Basis for pre-production cross- flow
The quantification of the cross-flow using analytical and numerical simulation methods
The assessment of the impact of cross-flow on process safety and the environment (i.e. drilling risks with potential blow out of sour gas) and social responsibility (i.e. production capacity and ultimate recovery losses resulting in lower benefits to the community)
The identification and assessment of solutions to stop/reduce the cross-flow
The implementation of a robust and feasible mitigation plan
The conducted study demonstrated that the impact of cross-flow at well level would be severe. The cross-flow rate could reach up to 25-137 Km3/day/well, while the field level cross-flow rate could reach up to 400 Km3/day. The oil rate capacity reduction in the West Block wells could reach 20-30% at start-up, resulting in a total only 1% oil ultimate recovery loss at field level since the West block contribution is small to total production and West block wells are constrained. The study also showed that the casing design is adequate and drilling risks are manageable even in case of cross-flow. Out of several solutions identified to stop/reduce cross-flow, phasing perforation was considered the most robust and feasible option.
This paper presents the novel approach of a collaborative study that resulted in improved safety and reduced environmental risks and potential ultimate recovery losses. It also presents the methodologies used to allow the Assessment and Mitigation of Pre-Production Cross-flow and evaluation of the best option to mitigate the cross-flow in order to minimize the impact of cross-flow at minimum cost, well interventions and impact on well deliverable.
The identification of the fluid fill history is a necessity for the development strategy of any field, in particular in the Middle East where tectonic history is often reported to affect fluid distribution and contacts in many fields. The fluid fill concept for a low permeability carbonate field has been re-evaluated and modified from a tilted contact interpretation with imbibition of the deepest unit to a field-wide flat contact and primary drainage saturation distribution. The oil volumes in the reservoir under study are sensitive to minor changes in the structure and fluid fill due to the relatively low structural dip and low permeability transitional nature of the reservoir. The paper highlights the importance of removing preconceptions in data analysis and ensuring consistency on interpretations between different available data sources. It also demonstrates how data quality could completely change the fluid fill concept.
The three main reservoir units of the Lower Shuaiba A, Lower Shuaiba B and Kharaib have been charged from two oil migration events. Structural changes post the first primary drainage are revealed by regional seismic images of the shallower horizons. Due to the rock low permeability, the water saturations are above irreducible value and the whole interval is in the "transition zone". Kharaib unit was believed to be imbibed by the aquifer after charge and was not developed. Three possible fluid fill scenarios were investigated: a) tilted contact due to structural changes post-charge, b) imbibition of the deeper interval, c) primary drainage with field-wide flat contact related to the second pulse of charge. Each scenario impacts the development of the three units positively or negatively. Water saturation logs vs. True Vertical Depth plots were the main diagnostic tool used to rule out fluid fill scenarios. The plots were used to recognise lateral changes of the saturation profile and investigate imbibition signatures. Production data were also used to cross check the expected fluid fill scenario. The resistivity tools’ types and mud resistivities were examined.
This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders.
The objective of this study was to look at factors that can affect a temperature log and steps that can be taken to improve temperature-measurement accuracy. This paper covers the staged field-development methodology, including analysis and evaluation of various development concepts, that enabled the company to optimize both completion design and artificial-lift selection, reducing downtime and lowering operating costs by nearly 50%. The First Eocene is a multibillion-barrel heavy-oil carbonate reservoir in the Wafra field, located in the Partitioned Zone between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. After more than 60 years of primary production, expected recovery is low and provides a good target for enhanced-oil-recovery processes.
A thermal asset in Oman is characterized by a large-scale steam-drive/cyclic-steam-soak development project, underpinned by extensive data gathering. This paper covers the staged field-development methodology, including analysis and evaluation of various development concepts, that enabled the company to optimize both completion design and artificial-lift selection, reducing downtime and lowering operating costs by nearly 50%. In this paper, the authors describe a project to design, field trial, and qualify an alternative solution for real-time monitoring of the oil rim in carbonate reservoirs that overcomes these disadvantages. By racking up exploration agreements in the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Bahrain, Eni took a big step forward in its pledge to tap into the Middle East’s vast swaths of highly prospective oil and gas acreage. Seismic stimulation, achievable with the implementation of a single tool, requires significantly lower investments than gas, thermal, and chemical injection methods, with minimal environmental impact.
Polymer flooding in sensitive areas can require the transport of polymer fluids over long distances. Conventional wisdom limits transport distance or degradation occurs. This paper argues that critical velocity, not distance, is the controlling factor. Polymer flooding has been used to enhance the production of oil from mature fields in Oman. This article discusses the trial of several approaches to improve the treatment of water produced from these fields.
This paper introduces a new core-analysis work flow for determining resistivity index (RI), formation factor (FF), and other petrophysical properties directly from an as-received (AR) set of core samples. In this paper, the authors discuss the characterization process for GR tools and how they behave in boreholes different from the one used in the University of Houston (UH) GR characterization pit. This paper discusses a study undertaken to gain better understanding of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characteristics of volcanic reservoirs with different lithologies. Formation evaluation drew special attention at the 2019 International Petroleum Technology Conference Education Week in Beijing, 24–28 March 2019. The student team that worked on Integrated Formation Evaluation for Resources Exploration and Reservoir Delineation won the first-place award. The first subsea multiphase boosting system was installed in 1994. Since then, it has grown into a technology with a global track record. A new enabling technology known as electrically heat-traced flowline (EHTF) will be used to enable system startup and shutdown and to maintain production fluids outside of the hydrate envelope during steady-state operation. This study incorporates previous learnings, as well as globally collected data, to develop a strategy that can be used to help implement an industry-specific mental health program. The value of hidden-danger data stored in text can be revealed through an approach that can help sort and interpret information in an ordered way not used previously in safety management. This paper highlights the results of a test campaign for a tool designed to predict the short-term trends of energy-efficiency indices and optimal management of a production plant. This paper presents the recent expansion of UNFC guidance to cover social and environmental effects and the further transformation of the system to make it a valuable tool in resource management for governments and businesses.