Understanding rock properties and how they react under various types of stress is important to development of a geomechanical model before drilling. Some major geomechanical rock properties are described below. To first order, most rocks obey the laws of linear elasticity. In other words, the stress required to cause a given strain, or normalized length change (Δlk /ll), is linearly related to the magnitude of the deformation and proportional to the stiffnesses (or moduli), Mijkl. Furthermore, the strain response occurs instantaneously as soon as the stress is applied, and it is reversible--that is, after removal of a load, the material will be in the same state as it was before the load was applied.
Ghawar / Al-Ghawār /الغوار is an oil field located in Al-Ahsa Governorate, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. It measures 280 by 30 km (174 by 19 mi), it is by far the largest conventional oil field in the world. It is entirely owned and operated by Saudi Aramco, the state run Saudi oil company. Blue wells are waterflood injectors, red are production wells. In April 2010, Saad al-Treiki, Vice-President for Operations at Aramco, stated, in a news conference reported in Saudi media, that over 65 billion barrels (10.3 km3) have been produced from the field since 1951.
At the 2017 SPE Oilfield Chemistry Conference, an assistant professor from Heriot-Watt University discusses the optimization of squeeze treatments delivered by diving support vessels. This paper describes a novel method of chemical dosage based on time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) that allows a simple, accurate, and efficient quantification of chemicals below parts-per-million ranges, even for double (scale/scale, scale/corrosion) quantification. Rigless coiled-tubing-unit (CTU) interventions can be effective in returning to production wells that have lost electrical-submersible-pump (ESP) efficiency because of organic, inorganic, or mixed scale deposits. The gas-producing carbonate zones of the Ghawar field in eastern Saudi Arabia have been affected by extensive iron sulfide (FeS) scale deposition, reducing overall gas production and increasing risks during well interventions. Two alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP) floods became operational in the Taber area of Alberta, Canada, in 2006 and 2008.
This paper describes a coreflooding program performed with sandpacks at different permeabilities, water qualities, and injection conditions. Produced water has been an albatross around the neck of operators for a long time. Efforts to solve its challenges have been extensive and continue to evolve. These efforts can have a strong effect on the profitability of an operation. This paper aims to provide an introduction to the early management of downhole produced water in strong waterdrive reservoirs using inverted electrical-submersible-pump (ESP) technology.
An oil and gas startup has attracted the business with a major operator thanks to its ability to forecast whether production-enhancing chemicals will work as advertised. The evolution of horizontal drilling and multistage completions has changed matrix stimulation from the “more acid, better result” belief to effective lateral distribution and deeper penetration with less acid. Researchers at the University of Calgary have developed a solid pellet that can transport bitumen and heavy oil by railcar instead of pipelines. With multistage operations becoming the industry norm, operators need easily deployable diversion technologies that will protect previously stimulated perforations and enable addition of new ones. This paper reviews several aspects of the use of in-stage diversion.
The basic objective of this course is to introduce the overview and concept of production optimisation, using nodal analysis as a tool in production optimisation and enhancement. The participants are exposed to the analysis of various elements that help in production system starting from reservoir to surface processing facilities and their effect on the performance of the total production system. Depth conversion of time interpretations is a basic skill set for interpreters. There is no single methodology that is optimal for all cases. Next, appropriate depth methods will be presented. Depth imaging should be considered an integral component of interpretation. If the results derived from depth imaging are intended to mitigate risk, the interpreter must actively guide the process.
The Science and Technology of Water Management in Upstream Operations Course Description This course provides a fundamental understanding of water treating with a specific focus on upstream production and processing operations. It presents the fundamental mechanisms behind various water treating equipment and processes and gives practical experience from dozens of water treating facilities from around the globe for improved equipment performance. Throughout the course, field experiences, practical issues, and performance of equipment is analyzed and explained in terms of chemistry and engineering principles. The scientific aspects of water treating are presented in a practical down-to-earth manner that can be understood with little prior study, and can be immediately implemented in the field. Topics: Characterization of oil/water/gas for water treating Produced Water Non-produced Fluids Facility drainage systems Flow back fluids Equipment description, selection, performance, and challenges Process engineering and process line-ups Chemical treating Operations – sampling, monitoring, and surveillance Water-flooding, Injectivity Decline, Remediation Process Troubleshooting, Total System Approach Water treatment for fracturing operations As indicated by these topics, the full project life cycle is covered from concept selection to front end engineering, detailed design, operation, and trouble shooting.
The complete paper describes a recent directional coiled-tubing drilling (DCTD) job completed for an independent operator in the Appalachian Basin. Plug-and-abandonment (P&A) operations can be expensive, leading to negative net present value. Historically, P&A operations in the North Sea—estimated to hold some 3,000 wells of declining production—were performed with either drilling or workover rigs. When a new horizontal well in Asia was incapable of unassisted flow, coiled tubing (CT) was selected for the perforation and stimulation intervention. Mechanical isolation was required to ensure that the stimulation fluids entered only the new zones.