Quintero, Fernando (ADNOC Onshore) | Ahmad Hussain, Mushtaq (ADNOC Onshore) | Al Reyami, Mazin (ADNOC Onshore) | Al Nuaimi, Mouza Ali (ADNOC Onshore) | Al Dhanhani, Omar Ahmed (ADNOC Onshore) | Pham Dang Le, Khoa (Schlumberger) | Abdulmohsen Abed Mohammed Al Yafie, Mohammed (Schlumberger)
Pad Drilling Concept was developed to increase and sustain the production rate one of the UAE Brownfield Onshore Oilfield (BO) from four different reservoirs. The surface facilities of the field will accommodate total of 80Mbd and technical rate of 96Mbd.
The project scope was redefined in 2016 to enhance the overall project's cost and further study on newly developed reservoir (Reservoir "A"). The project came into execution since January 2018 and so far, 100 plus wells drilled successfully. Therefore, to accommodate the required number of wells based on the company production target ahead of time, the planning stage represented as per 2018-2022 business plan is maintained with first oil in Q1 2020.
The Full Field Development Plan (FFDP) is to deliver a total of 210 wells to sustain the production rate beyond 2024. Thus, the selected scheme for the FFDP which is planned to be artificially lifted is based on water injection and water alternating gas injection (WAG).
The Key aspects of the project are: Partial development of Reservoir "A" Sensitive environmental area Brownfield development in Simultaneous Operations (SIMOPS) conditions. Directional Drilling trajectory and anticollision constrains.
Partial development of Reservoir "A"
Sensitive environmental area
Brownfield development in Simultaneous Operations (SIMOPS) conditions.
Directional Drilling trajectory and anticollision constrains.
Critical success factors for this project are: Integrated Project Management Team with dedicated full time resources Appointment and selection of competent Engineering contractor to develop the facilities within the target time. Timely approval and implementation of project's milestone.
Integrated Project Management Team with dedicated full time resources
Appointment and selection of competent Engineering contractor to develop the facilities within the target time.
Timely approval and implementation of project's milestone.
Thus, the benefits from the project for this Field are: Optimized Field Development Plan; Prevent congestions & access constraints; Standardization of HSE & Operations; Economical Surface Facilities Management. Rig days and cost saving. Sweep Efficiency of the reservoir. Early completion / production of project.
Optimized Field Development Plan;
Prevent congestions & access constraints;
Standardization of HSE & Operations;
Economical Surface Facilities Management.
Rig days and cost saving.
Sweep Efficiency of the reservoir.
Early completion / production of project.
For the first time in the region, a multistage fracturing completion technology that enables simultaneous fracturing and controlled sand production was successfully installed. After the fracturing operation was conducted through frac ports in multiple zones, coiled tubing (CT) intervention was needed to shift the frac ports closed and then open the production sleeves located within the sand screens. It was necessary to use the appropriate shifting tools and utilize the downhole parameters to ensure the shifting operation success.
CT was first utilized to mill the frac balls and associated seats after the fracturing operation, and this was followed by CT intervention to close the frac ports and open the sand control production sleeve. CT providing real-time downhole parameters was utilized during the shifting operation as its downhole weight provided the ability to apply required surface forces to shift the respective well accessories. Additional benefits were gained by utilizing the depth correction and obtaining the required differential pressure across the shifting tool in real-time ensuring tool functionality at optimum parameters.
The success of the innovative multistage completion operability depended on the successful implementation of shifting operations to close the frac ports and open the production sleeves with sand screens. Therefore, it was very important to select and deploy the appropriate shifting tools that can be trusted to actuate each of the respective well accessories. A series of yard tests were conducted to understand the hydraulically operated shifting tools. After the successful yard tests, during the design phase, each of the shifting operation steps were elaborated with the respective contingencies, and it was confirmed that the CT equipment utilized for the job can provide the required surface and downhole weights.
The hydraulically activated shifting tools operation during the actual CT intervention was optimized using the CT by providing real-time downhole measurements of depth correction, tension, compression and pressures. The downhole measurements helped in repeating the shifting step as needed and helped in confirming that the respective well accessory is shifted. During the intervention, two frac ports were shifted close. Whereas, there were two production sleeves with screens shifted open.
The use of the two different hydraulically activated shifting tools during the shifting operations for the first successful multistage fracturing with sand control completion system will be detailed. The paper also describes the full benefits of monitoring downhole parameters during shifting operations enabling the tools to operate at optimum conditions and ensuring the shifting is conducted successfully.
Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Alwani, Mustafa A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Mutar, Rusul A. (Ministry of Communications and Technology, Iraq) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research)
One of the major problems facing the oil and gas industry is the problem of lost circulation. Millions of dollars are spent every year to treat this problem. Lost circulation can be occurred due to high permeability, natural fractures, induced fractures, or caves and vugs. Many major oilfields in the world are susceptible to lost circulation while drilling troublesome formations. The aim of this work is to understand the current trends and uses of lost circulation treatments worldwide. This work will be the first part which only focuses on the trends and uses. The other part (Part 2) will be focusing on probability and cost analyses.
Lost circulation treatments data were collected from more than 2000 wells around the world. Various sources were utilized to gather data such as daily drilling reports, technical reports, petroleum literature, etc. The data were clustered based on the type of loss (e.g. partial, severe, and complete), the reason for lost circulation, and the location where the treatments applied. An interactive dashboard was created to better understand the trends and uses of the lost circulation treatments worldwide. The created dashboard is adaptive for the user's preference and can be utilized easily.
The results showed that the pill of LCM treatments was the highest treatments used to treat partial loss worldwide with a good probability of success. While the high concentration acid soluble LCM treatment showed the highest use among other treatment to treat severe loss with a good probability of success. Moreover, cement plug + high viscosity (HV) mud treatment had the highest uses to treat complete loss with an acceptable probability of success. In addition, cement plug was the leading treatment used to treat partial, severe, and complete loss with a good probability of success. Nonetheless, it is not a usual practice to use cement plug to combat partial loss since there are other cheaper alternative treatments. Finally, this work will give clear insights into the current trends and uses of lost circulation treatments worldwide.
Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Alwani, Mustafa A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Lian, David (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
Flow rate (Q) affects many drilling operations and parameters such as equivalent circulation density (ECD), hoisting and lowering the drillstring, and breaking gel strength during circulation. The aim of this work is to understand the relationship between ECD and Q based on flow regimes (e.g. laminar, transitional, and turbulent) to avoid or at least minimize the unwanted consequence during drilling practice.
Field data from over 2000 wells drilled in Iraq were collected and analyzed to identify the physical relationship between flow regimes and ECD to enhance the drilling rates. After visualizing the whole dataset, a decision was made to break down the data into three parts based on flow regimes (e.g. laminar, transitional, and turbulent). Descriptive data mining techniques were utilized to establish the relationship between flow regimes and ECD. By achieving better control of ECD in the well, not only faster and cheaper operations are possible, but also safety will be improved.
Previous studies and literature showed that flow regimes can tremendously affect ECD. Many studies have been conducted to understand the relationship between Q and ECD. Nevertheless, the consideration of flow regimes was not implemented in these studies. Inconsistency in the literature results was identified, some concluded the relationship between Q and ECD to be direct, and others showed it to be inverse. Thus, this paper will eliminate this discrepancy in the literature, and it will show that the flow regimes have a pivotal role in the relationship between Q and ECD.
The results of this paper showed that if the flow regime is laminar, the relationship between ECD and Q is inverse. However, in transitional and turbulent flow regimes, the relationship between ECD and Q is direct. That is because, in the laminar flow regime, the cutting will fall out of suspension due to low Q, which will cause a cutting bed to be built and decreases ECD. As Q increases (entering the transitional and turbulent flows) the cutting bed will be eroded, and most of the cuttings will be suspended in the fluid which will increase ECD.
This study examines and expands the understanding between how the characteristics of flow regimes affect ECD. Additionally, this paper will eliminate the discrepancy in the literature about this relationship between ECD and Q.
Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Alwani, Mustafa A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Lian, David (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute For Scientific Research)
It is not easy to obtain an optimal hole cleaning for the drilling operation because of the complicated relationship between the drilling parameters influencing hole cleaning. The two viscosity components (e.g. plastic viscosity (PV) and yield point (YP)) and the flow rate (Q) are essential parameters for effective hole cleaning. Thus, understanding the relationship between those parameters will contribute to efficient hole cleaning. The aim of this paper is to explore those relationships to provide optimal hole cleaning.
Descriptive data analytics was conducted for data of more than 2000 wells drilled in Southern Iraq. The data were first cleansed and outliers were removed using visual inspection and box plots. The Pearson correlation (PC), a widely used method to measure the linear relationship between two parameters, was utilized to access the relationships between PV and Q, YP and Q, and YP/PV and Q. Moreover, a 10% sensitivity analysis was escorted to quantify and comprehend those relationships.
The PCs were calculated to be 0.5, 0.076, and 0.22 for the relationships between YP, PV, and YP/PV with Q, respectively. YP had the highest direct relationship with Q, while PV had the lowest. When the YP increases, a sufficient Q has to be provided to initiate the flow and maintain the mud cycle. In addition, to prevent large solid particles from settling due to the slip velocity, sufficient annular and particle velocities have to be achieved. After initiating the flow, an increase in flow rate to overcome resistance due to PV will not be significant. Therefore, YP has more effect on Q than PV. To maximize hole cleaning, thickening ratio (YP/PV) should be increased. This requires an increase in flow rate, which can be quantified by using the sensitivity analysis provided to achieve the required Q for any increase in YP/PV.
PETRONAS FLNG SATU (PFLNG1) is a floating liquefied natural gas facility producing 1.2 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG, on a facility that is 365m long, and 60m wide, making it among the largest offshore facility ever built. The PFLNG1 project is the first of its kind in the world and is the first deployment of PETRONASâ€™ Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) technology, consolidating the traditional offshore to onshore LNG infrastructure into a single facility. This will see a giant floating facility capable of extracting, liquefying and storing LNG at sea, before it is exported to customers around the globe. The FLNG journey has come a long way since 2006, with many technological options explored to monetise and unlock the potential of small and stranded gas fields. Moving an LNG production to an offshore setting poses a demanding set of challenges â€“ as every element of a conventional LNG facility needs to fit into an area roughly one quarter the size in the open seas whilst maintaining safety and increased flexibility to LNG production and delivery. The keynote address describes the breakthrough features of PFLNG1 â€“ the worldâ€™s first floating LNG facility; and the pioneering innovation that it brings to the LNG industry.
Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkhamis, Mohammed M. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Mutar, Rusul A. (Ministry of Communications and Technology)
Lost circulation is a complicated problem to be predicted with conventional statistical tools. As the drilling environment is getting more complicated nowadays, more advanced techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) are required to help to estimate mud losses prior to drilling. The aim of this work is to estimate mud losses for induced fractures formations prior to drilling to assist the drilling personnel in preparing remedies for this problem prior to entering the losses zone. Once the severity of losses is known, the key drilling parameters can be adjusted to avoid or at least mitigate losses as a proactive approach.
Lost circulation data were extracted from over 1500 wells drilled worldwide. The data were divided into three sets; training, validation, and testing datasets. 60% of the data are used for training, 20% for validation, and 20% for testing. Any ANN consists of the following layers, the input layer, hidden layer(s), and the output layer. A determination of the optimum number of hidden layers and the number of neurons in each hidden layer is required to have the best estimation, this is done using the mean square of error (MSE). A supervised ANNs was created for induced fractures formations. A decision was made to have one hidden layer in the network with ten neurons in the hidden layer. Since there are many training algorithms to choose from, it was necessary to choose the best algorithm for this specific data set. Ten different training algorithms were tested, the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm was chosen since it gave the lowest MSE and it had the highest R-squared. The final results showed that the supervised ANN has the ability to predict lost circulation with an overall R-squared of 0.925 for induced fractures formations. This is a very good estimation that will help the drilling personnel prepare remedies before entering the losses zone as well as adjusting the key drilling parameters to avoid or at least mitigate losses as a proactive approach. This ANN can be used globally for any induced fractures formations that are suffering from the lost circulation problem to estimate mud losses.
As the demand for energy increases, the drilling process is becoming more challenging. Thus, more advanced tools such as ANNs are required to better tackle these problems. The ANN built in this paper can be adapted to commercial software that predicts lost circulation for any induced fractures formations globally.
Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Amer, Ahmed S. (Newpark Technology Center/ Newpark Drilling Fluids)
Equivalent circulation density (ECD) management is a key factor for the successfulness of the drilling operations, especially when dealing with narrow mud-weight windows. Poor management of ECD can result in unsafe and/or inefficient drilling as well as an increase in drilling cost due to associated nonproductive time (NPT). Different parameters can affect the ECD directly or indirectly including, but not limited to, wellbore geometry, cuttings, hole cleaning efficiency, flow rate, and rheological properties of the drilling fluid. However, the magnitude of the effect of each parameter is not well understood. In this paper, a comprehensive statistical analysis using the correlation coefficient was conducted using real field data to investigate the effect of three controllable factors - solid contents (SC), yield point (Yp), and plastic viscosity (PV) - on ECD.
Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Flori, Ralph E. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alsaba, Mortadha T. (Australian College of Kuwait) | Amer, Ahmed S. (Newpark Technology Center/ Newpark Drilling Fluids) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research)
Lost circulation is a unique challenge unlike other factors contributing to non-productive time (NPT). Due to the variability in the nature and type of lost circulation prone formations; there is no universal solution to this challenge. This publication presents a new approach to guide the decision-making process of which and when to apply a certain treatment as compared to another. If implemented correctly, a significant reduction in NPT related to lost circulation can be expected. Also, the cost of each treatment, as well as the NPT that is associated with the treatment, were examined in this study. Lost circulation events for three formations which are the Dammam, Hartha, and Shuaiba were gathered from over 1000 wells drilled in Basra oil fields, Iraq using various sources and reports; the treatments were classified by scenario –partial, severe, and complete losses – as well as cost, efficiency, and formation types. This paper is developed based on probabilities, expected monetary value (EMV), and decision tree analysis (DTA) to recommend the best-lost circulation strategy for each type of losses.
This paper utilizes probability and economics in the decision-making process. This is the first study that considers a detailed probability and cost to treat the lost circulation problem. Thousands of treatment scenarios for each type of losses are conducted, and the EMVs for all scenarios are calculated. For each type of losses, the lowest EMV treatment strategy- that is practically applicable in the field and makes sense- is selected to be used to treat each type of losses to minimize NPT and cost. If the losses didn't stop after utilizing the proposed treatment strategies, it is recommended to use liner hanger to isolate the losses zone and then continue drilling. A change in well design is also suggested to help to minimize NPT and cost. In addition, a formalized methodology for responding to losses in the Dammam, Hartha, and Shuaiba formations is established and provided as means of assisting drilling personnel to work through the lost circulation problem in a systematic way.
One challenge in drilling wells in Basra oil fields is the inconsistency of approaches to the lost circulation problem. Therefore, the result of this data analysis provides a path forward for the Basra area lost circulation events and suggests probable methods that can be used in similar formations globally. Additionally, the methodology can be adapted to studying other types of formations and drilling challenges have the same geological properties in any major oil field.
Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Flori, Ralph E. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alsaba, Mortadha T. (Australian College of Kuwait) | Amer, Ahmed S. (Newpark Technology Center/ Newpark Drilling Fluids) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research)
The rate of penetration (ROP) plays a major role in reducing drilling costs, making it an important area of investigation. There are various controllable and uncontrollable factors that affect the ROP, and the variation in these variables affecting the ROP made it a very pivotal drilling parameter that has a significant effect on non-productive time. In this work, sensitivity and statistical analysis were carried out using data from over 1000 wells in Basra oil fields, Iraq. The scope of this work is to determine the effect of rheological properties on ROP, to provide a method for estimating the recommended range for drilling fluid properties based on data mining techniques.
In this work, huge real field data from over 1000 wells drilled in Basra oil fields, Iraq were gathered and analyzed to better understand the characteristics of a drilling fluid that enhance ROP and quantify the impact of each drilling fluid rheological properties on ROP. The data used in this study were collected from mud logging data, daily drilling reports (DDR), and geological information. Statistical and sensitivity analyses were performed in order to identify the relationship between ROP and drilling fluid rheological properties. The correlation coefficient (CC) was utilized to understand the effect of solid content (SC), yield point (Yp), and plastic viscosity (PV) on ROP. The results showed that SC is the most influential rheological property on ROP, then PV and finally Yp. In addition, this work demonstrates how bit hydraulics can be improved by means of modifying the rheological properties rather than adjusting the flow rate or nozzle size.
Large-scale collection and interpretation of field data or in other words "data mining" can be considered as a strong tool in understanding the impact of different parameters on the ROP in order to estimate the recommended range of rheological properties, which will result in improving the ROP.