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PETRONAS FLNG SATU (PFLNG1) is a floating liquefied natural gas facility producing 1.2 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG, on a facility that is 365m long, and 60m wide, making it among the largest offshore facility ever built. The PFLNG1 project is the first of its kind in the world and is the first deployment of PETRONASâ€™ Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) technology, consolidating the traditional offshore to onshore LNG infrastructure into a single facility. This will see a giant floating facility capable of extracting, liquefying and storing LNG at sea, before it is exported to customers around the globe. The FLNG journey has come a long way since 2006, with many technological options explored to monetise and unlock the potential of small and stranded gas fields. Moving an LNG production to an offshore setting poses a demanding set of challenges â€“ as every element of a conventional LNG facility needs to fit into an area roughly one quarter the size in the open seas whilst maintaining safety and increased flexibility to LNG production and delivery. The keynote address describes the breakthrough features of PFLNG1 â€“ the worldâ€™s first floating LNG facility; and the pioneering innovation that it brings to the LNG industry.
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Hou, Xinxin (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Yang, Jin (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Yin, Qishuai (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Liu, Hexing (CNOOC China Limited, Zhanjiang Branch) | Chen, Haodong (CNOOC China Limited, Zhanjiang Branch) | Zheng, Jinlong (CNOOC China Limited, Zhanjiang Branch) | Wang, Junxiang (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Cao, Bohan (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Zhao, Xin (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Hao, Mingxuan (China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Liu, Xun (China University of Petroleum-Beijing)
Lost circulation is one of the frequent challenges encountered in the well drilling and completion process, which can not only increase well construction time and operational cost but also pose great risk to the formation. However, choosing the most useful treatments may still be a problem due to the complexity of the drilling and geological condition.
In this paper, machine-learning algorithms and big data technology are employed to mine and analyze drilling data of wells in South China Sea where lost circulation is severe. Geological characteristics, drilling fluids property parameters and operational drilling parameters are both considered. Moreover, an artificial neural network is employed to conduct supervised learning. The four metrics: accuracy, precision, f1 score and recall are used to evaluate the model. The trained artificial neural network model is employed to predict the lost circulation risks.
To train and test the proposed model, drilling operation parameters, geological parameters and drilling property parameters are collected for lost circulation events for 50 drilled wells over past two years in South China Sea. The trained model is excellent with the most important evaluation metrics, attaining an accuracy up to 92%, with f1 score, recall and precision up to 89% similarly. This suggests that the model have a good generalization ability and can be applied to other fields. Data analysis through an artificial neural network is carried out to develop a lost circulation prediction system model. This methodology can predict six lost circulation risks, each is defined according to drilling mud loss rate.
This is one of the first attempts to predict lost circulation using data-analytics and artificial intelligence. The proposed intelligent lost circulation prediction method can assist the drilling engineer to choose the optimal drilling parameters prior to drilling and avoid lost circulation events.
Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research)
Lost circulation is a major problem in drilling operations. As the drilling environment is getting more complicated nowadays, the problem of lost circulation can lead to a significant additional non-productive time (NPT). The objective of this work is to provide in-depth insights into probability and cost analyses of the current lost circulation materials and treatments used around the world. This is the second part (Part 2) of the state-of-the-art lost circulation materials and treatment, the other part (Part 1) focuses on the trends and uses.
Lost circulation data of more than 2000 wells drilled worldwide were gathered from many sources such as daily drilling reports, final well reports, technical reports, petroleum literature, etc. The treatment data were classified based on the type of loss as treatments for partial, severe, and complete loss. Descriptive data analytics and visualization tools were used to analyze the data. A dashboard was created to help to analyze the data.
The results of this work revealed that there are simply two criteria to be used in the decision-making process to choose the best lost circulation treatment. The first one is that the treatment has to have a high probability of success, and the other criterion is that the treatment has to have a relatively reasonable cost based on the type of loss. In different words, optimization has to be conducted to choose treatments based on the type of loss. However, some treatments with a high probability of success may have a low number of usage which might be the reason behind the high probability of success. Thus, careful attention should be given for the number of uses of each treatment when calculating the probability. On the other hand, some treatments have a low probability of success and high cost, which indicates that the high cost does not always correlate with a high probability of success. In addition, the type of loss will play a major rule in selecting the treatments since some treatments are too expensive to be applied for partial loss as an example, and usually, other options are available.
In short, this study will provide clear insights into the cost and probability of the state-of-the-art lost circulation treatments and materials used in the oil and gas industry. The recommendations provided by this study can be utilized to make better future decisions to treat lost circulation.
Ruiz, Fernando (ADNOC Onshore) | Hebish, Ayman (ADNOC Onshore) | Negoi, Adrian (ADNOC Onshore) | Al Hendi, Mohammed (ADNOC Onshore) | Hamdy, Ibrahim (ADNOC Onshore) | Nunez, Ygnacio (ADNOC Onshore) | Mandal, Vivekananda (ADNOC Onshore) | Al Samahi, Musabbeh (ADNOC Onshore) | Al Hadidy, Khaled (ADNOC Onshore) | Al Awadhi, Eman (ADNOC HQ) | El Yossef, Bassem (ADNOC HQ) | Coscia, Marco (ADNOC HQ)
This paper has the recommended procedures to be carried out in each phase: Surface, Intermediate I and II, horizontal and completion with frac string, for Unconventional Appraisal HP/HT wells across Deyab formations in Abu Dhabi (UAE), as well as the technology to be used and avoid, to drill the wells saving time and money helping to make a rentable project.
Due to the information received of the zone was scarce, in addition the first well in the area (offset well and taken as a reference) had many operational problems. The operations during drilling the next three wells in PAD # 1 were recorded, analyzed and optimized, resulting in a learning catalog for the area, saving a considered quantity of rig days with a huge impact in the budget and the most important, the exposure of the crews/people at the location was minimized to this hazard environment.
The PAD# 1 has 03 horizontal wells, the design is Heavy Casing Design, where each phase has its characteristics to be drilled and cased. The reservoir consists of 03 cl early identified formations: Jubaila, Hanifa and Tuwaiq Mountain into the range from ± 12330 ft. TVD to ± 12900 ft. TVD. Reaching the targets with horizontal wells from 16,000 ft. MD to 17,500 ft. MD.
After analyzing each section and getting the recommendations from different service companies and specialist, the changes were implemented in the next well regarding drilling fluid MW, BHA's design, bit type & design, wiper trips, slurries, trajectories, etc. taking as result drilling wells more complicate d without operational issues, in deepest formation, drilling more than 1000 ft. MD and 600 ft. TVD, and saving 3.25 MM$ and 15.2 days per well
The PAD # 1 in Deyab field, is the pioneer for the initial development of fracking in UAE. There hasn't had a drilling procedure in detail to reach the target without having issues. This new concession has been already of interest to be developed in conjunction with the National Company, so create a Drilling Learning Catalogue as add value at the moment to handover the wells is a must.
Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Alwani, Mustafa A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Mutar, Rusul A. (Ministry of Communications and Technology, Iraq) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research)
One of the major problems facing the oil and gas industry is the problem of lost circulation. Millions of dollars are spent every year to treat this problem. Lost circulation can be occurred due to high permeability, natural fractures, induced fractures, or caves and vugs. Many major oilfields in the world are susceptible to lost circulation while drilling troublesome formations. The aim of this work is to understand the current trends and uses of lost circulation treatments worldwide. This work will be the first part which only focuses on the trends and uses. The other part (Part 2) will be focusing on probability and cost analyses.
Lost circulation treatments data were collected from more than 2000 wells around the world. Various sources were utilized to gather data such as daily drilling reports, technical reports, petroleum literature, etc. The data were clustered based on the type of loss (e.g. partial, severe, and complete), the reason for lost circulation, and the location where the treatments applied. An interactive dashboard was created to better understand the trends and uses of the lost circulation treatments worldwide. The created dashboard is adaptive for the user's preference and can be utilized easily.
The results showed that the pill of LCM treatments was the highest treatments used to treat partial loss worldwide with a good probability of success. While the high concentration acid soluble LCM treatment showed the highest use among other treatment to treat severe loss with a good probability of success. Moreover, cement plug + high viscosity (HV) mud treatment had the highest uses to treat complete loss with an acceptable probability of success. In addition, cement plug was the leading treatment used to treat partial, severe, and complete loss with a good probability of success. Nonetheless, it is not a usual practice to use cement plug to combat partial loss since there are other cheaper alternative treatments. Finally, this work will give clear insights into the current trends and uses of lost circulation treatments worldwide.
For the first time in the region, a multistage fracturing completion technology that enables simultaneous fracturing and controlled sand production was successfully installed. After the fracturing operation was conducted through frac ports in multiple zones, coiled tubing (CT) intervention was needed to shift the frac ports closed and then open the production sleeves located within the sand screens. It was necessary to use the appropriate shifting tools and utilize the downhole parameters to ensure the shifting operation success.
CT was first utilized to mill the frac balls and associated seats after the fracturing operation, and this was followed by CT intervention to close the frac ports and open the sand control production sleeve. CT providing real-time downhole parameters was utilized during the shifting operation as its downhole weight provided the ability to apply required surface forces to shift the respective well accessories. Additional benefits were gained by utilizing the depth correction and obtaining the required differential pressure across the shifting tool in real-time ensuring tool functionality at optimum parameters.
The success of the innovative multistage completion operability depended on the successful implementation of shifting operations to close the frac ports and open the production sleeves with sand screens. Therefore, it was very important to select and deploy the appropriate shifting tools that can be trusted to actuate each of the respective well accessories. A series of yard tests were conducted to understand the hydraulically operated shifting tools. After the successful yard tests, during the design phase, each of the shifting operation steps were elaborated with the respective contingencies, and it was confirmed that the CT equipment utilized for the job can provide the required surface and downhole weights.
The hydraulically activated shifting tools operation during the actual CT intervention was optimized using the CT by providing real-time downhole measurements of depth correction, tension, compression and pressures. The downhole measurements helped in repeating the shifting step as needed and helped in confirming that the respective well accessory is shifted. During the intervention, two frac ports were shifted close. Whereas, there were two production sleeves with screens shifted open.
The use of the two different hydraulically activated shifting tools during the shifting operations for the first successful multistage fracturing with sand control completion system will be detailed. The paper also describes the full benefits of monitoring downhole parameters during shifting operations enabling the tools to operate at optimum conditions and ensuring the shifting is conducted successfully.
Quintero, Fernando (ADNOC Onshore) | Ahmad Hussain, Mushtaq (ADNOC Onshore) | Al Reyami, Mazin (ADNOC Onshore) | Al Nuaimi, Mouza Ali (ADNOC Onshore) | Al Dhanhani, Omar Ahmed (ADNOC Onshore) | Pham Dang Le, Khoa (Schlumberger) | Abdulmohsen Abed Mohammed Al Yafie, Mohammed (Schlumberger)
Pad Drilling Concept was developed to increase and sustain the production rate one of the UAE Brownfield Onshore Oilfield (BO) from four different reservoirs. The surface facilities of the field will accommodate total of 80Mbd and technical rate of 96Mbd. The project scope was redefined in 2016 to enhance the overall project's cost and further study on newly developed reservoir (Reservoir "A"). The project came into execution since January 2018 and so far, 100 plus wells drilled successfully. Therefore, to accommodate the required number of wells based on the company production target ahead of time, the planning stage represented as per 2018-2022 business plan is maintained with first oil in Q1 2020. The Full Field Development Plan (FFDP) is to deliver a total of 210 wells to sustain the production rate beyond 2024. Thus, the selected scheme for the FFDP which is planned to be artificially lifted is based on water injection and water alternating gas injection (WAG).
Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Alwani, Mustafa A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkhamis, Mohammed M. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research)
Recently, artificial intelligence has gain popularity in the drilling industry since more wells are drilled in hostile environments. One of the most difficult problems have been encountering the drilling operation is the problem of lost circulation. The complexity of the lost circulation problem is due to the interaction between the parameters that are causing this issue. The aim of this work is to create artificial intelligence models to predict lost circulation, equivalent circulation density (ECD), and rate of pentation (ROP) prior to drilling for naturally fractured formations.
Lost circulation events from 500 wells were collected and analyzed to comprehend the impact of each drilling parameter on lost circulation. The data were cleaned and outliers were removed. Partial least square (PLS), a supervised machine learning algorithm, was utilized to create three models to estimate mud losses, ECD, and ROP before drilling. The models went through a cross-validation process to validate them. In addition, the models were tested with new data that were not used in the process of creating the models.
The results showed that the three models can predict mud losses, ECD, and ROP within a reasonable margin of error. Testing the models with new data of 30 wells drilled showed that the models' predictions closely track the actual values from the real data. Moreover, the new models were compared with previously developed models for naturally fractured formations. The new models showed better predictions for the actual values than the previously developed models, suggesting the ability of the new models to predict mud losses, ECD, and ROP within an acceptable error. In addition, a 10% sensitivity analysis was conducted for all models to quantify and understand the effect of each parameter on every model. Mud weight (MW) had the highest impact on the ECD and mud losses models revealing that in order to minimize mud losses and ECD, the first action should be trying to use as low MW as possible. On the other hand, weight on bit (WOB) showed the highest positive influence on the ROP model and total flow area (TFA) of the nozzles showed the highest negative impact on the ROP model. Thus, the models developed in this study can be used to regulate the drilling parameters to minimize mud losses.
The methodology used in this study to develop estimation models for mud losses, ECD, and ROP can be applied to create predictive models in other formations if the required data are available.
Al-Alwani, Mustafa A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Britt, Larry K. (NSI Fracturing) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Attar, Atheer M. (Enterprise Products) | Alkhamis, Mohammed M. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute For Scientific Research)
Big data has become a major topic in many industries. Most recently, the oil and gas industry adopted a special interest in data science as a result of the increasing availability of public domains and commercial databases. Utilizing and processing such data can help in making better future decisions. The aim of this work is to provide an example and demonstrate methodologies on how to collect and utilize big data to help in making better future decisions in the oils and gas industry.
After reading a good number of papers and books about the applications of data analysis in the oil and gas industry, in addition to other industries, and given that data analysis is the area of expertise of the authors, this paper was written to demonstrate real examples of data processing and validation workflows. This work is intended to cover the gaps in the literature were many of the publications only discuss the importance of data-driven analytics.
This paper provides an overview of the diverse and bulk data generating sources in the oil and gas industry, starting from the exploration phase to the end of the lifecycle of the well. It provides an example of utilizing a public domain database (FracFocus) and demonstrates a step by step workflow on how to collect and process the data based on the objective of the analytics. Two real examples of descriptive and predictive analytics are also demonstrated in this paper to show the power of having a diverse and multiple resources databases. A framework of data validation and preparation is also shown to illustrate data quality checks combined with best practices of data cleansing and outlier detection methodologies.
This paper provides a clear methodology on how to successfully apply data analysis which can serve as a guide for some future data analysis applications in the oil and gas industry.