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Steam generation for the purposes of thermal recovery includes facilities to treat the water (produced water or fresh water), generate the steam, and transport it to the injection wells. A steamflood uses high-quality steam injected into an oil reservoir. The quality of steam is defined as the weight percent of steam in the vapor phase to the total weight of steam. The higher the steam quality, the more heat is carried by this steam. High-quality steam provides heat to reduce oil viscosity, which mobilizes and sweeps the crude to the producing wells.
Saudi Arabia and Kuwait resumed production at the joint Wafra and Khafji oil field in the Neutral Zone between the two countries on 1 July. The production also comes as both countries' additional OPEC cuts ended in June. The Kuwait Oil Ministry said on Twitter the production in the Khafji joint field began again after a month-long hiatus based on the operational plans between the two parties. The restart was also in line with plans announced in June by Saudi Arabia Chevron, which jointly operates the Wafra field with Kuwait Gulf Oil Co. Both countries agreed in December 2019 to begin production at the oil fields after being offline since 2015 because of an operational dispute.
After 4½ years out of service, the massive Wafra oil field is set to resume production soon, and ensuring a smooth restart is no small order. Speaking at a technical session, Ed Colina, an operations advisor at Chevron, outlined the approach the company took to assess its readiness for the task. Located within the Saudi-Kuwaiti Onshore Partitioned Neutral Zone, Wafra is a joint venture of Saudi Arabian Chevron and Kuwait Gulf Oil Company (KGOC). The field was shut down in May 2015 as part of a dispute between the two nations, primarily regarding an extension of the original concession of the field that gave Chevron rights there until 2039; Kuwait claimed it had not been consulted about the deal. Saudi Arabia said at the time that the halt was due to environmental reasons. The Saudi Ministry of Energy and KGOC announced on 24 December 2019 that they had reached an agreement with Kuwait to resume production from Wafra and other fields in the neutral zone, which can reportedly produce as much as 500,000 B/D.
Mentoring is crucial in the development of the oil and gas industry workforce. Through mentoring, lessons learned are transferred to younger professionals while interaction promotes new ideas to get the job done. At a personal level, mentors may ultimately influence career paths. If you would like to discuss the articles in this section, please go to the SPE.org online YP network.--Syahril Amal Al-Awami is a mother of four and one of the few female engineers working for Saudi Aramco.
The First Eocene is a multibillion-barrel heavy-oil carbonate reservoir in the Wafra field, located in the Partitioned Zone (PZ) between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. After more than 60 years of primary production, expected recovery is low and provides a good target for enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) processes. A phased piloting approach has been used to reduce the uncertainties (subsurface and surface) related to application of thermal EOR processes in this field. Wafra is one of four major fields located in the PZ (Figure 1). Because of the low primary oil recovery and large original oil in place of the Wafra Eocene reservoirs, a significant EOR opportunity exists.
After 4½ years out of service, the massive Wafra oil field is set to resume production sometime soon, and ensuring a smooth restart is no small order. Speaking at a technical session during the 2020 International Petroleum Technology Conference (IPTC), Ed Colina, an operations adviser at Chevron, outlined the approach the company took to assess its readiness for the task. Located within the Saudi-Kuwaiti Onshore Partitioned Neutral Zone, Wafra is a joint venture of Saudi Arabian Chevron and Kuwait Gulf Oil Company (KGOC). The field was shut down in May 2015 as part of a dispute between the two nations, primarily regarding an extension of the original concession of the field that gave Chevron rights there until 2039; Kuwait claimed it had not been consulted about the deal. Saudi Arabia said at the time that the halt was due to environmental reasons. The Saudi Ministry of Energy and KGOC announced on 24 December that an agreement had been reached with Kuwait to resume production from Wafra and other fields in the neutral zone, which can reportedly produce as much as 500,000 BOPD.
McDermott International recently celebrated a major milestone with the load-out and installation of the first jacket fully fabricated by the company at its Dammam fabrication yard in Saudi Arabia. The Safaniya 264 jacket is part of McDermott's scope of work with Saudi Aramco. The current scope of work being done at the Dammam yard covers four jackets, eight bridges, more than 70 subsea pipeline spools, and onshore support work. The jacket has been installed in the Safaniya oil field, located 125 mi (200 km) north of Dhahran in the Arabian Gulf, by McDermott's Derrick Barge 32 vessel. The Dammam facility was opened in 2016 to support McDermott's growing Middle East operations, expand its regional capacity, and support Saudi Arabia and key client Saudi Aramco in its localization efforts.
Oil production in the United States (US) increased rapidly in the last decade due to the extensive development of tight-oil resources like Permian, Eagle Ford and Bakken. Most of these resources benefit from being in a source rock or in a close proximity to a source rock and they can be called here source-related tight-oil resources. There are also non-source tight-oil resources, such as the vast tight-carbonate resources in the Middle East. In this paper, a detailed characterization of Middle East non-source tight-oil carbonates is presented and compared to source-related tight-oil resources and their development potential is demonstrated through numerical simulation.
A conceptual 2D commercial simulation model is used to assess the factors affecting the development of non-source tight-oil formations. The model is capable of simulating the effect of key parameters on production from tight naturally fractured reservoirs with vertical and fractured horizontal wells. Improved recovery options, such as waterflooding and gas injection, can also be evaluated under different reservoir characteristics.
Tight-carbonate reservoirs possess the structural characteristics of conventional reservoirs while sharing the low-permeability, natural-fracture, and small-scale heterogeneity attributes of source-related, tight-oil resources. Moreover, they pose their unique challenges such as scale-dependent variability of their properties, sensitivity to acid fluids, the need for improved recovery techniques and complex wetting properties. The simulation results show that these formations are more sensitive to natural fractures compared to high permeability reservoirs and fractured horizontal wells are an essential technology. The viability of improved recovery techniques, such as waterflooding and gas injection, in these formations may be a critical factor for development decisions.
Most of the resource development strategies that are available in the literature are focusing on either conventional high permeability reservoirs or unconventional source-related resources. Due to the success of the technologies used in the US unconventional plays, development potential of the non-source tight-oil formations has emerged as an industry interest. This paper sheds light on the development of another type of oil resource which is abundant in the Middle East and around the world.