Raghunathan, Murali (ADNOC - Al Dhafra Petroleum Company) | Alkhatib, Mohamad (ADNOC - Al Dhafra Petroleum Company) | Al Ali, Abdulla Ali (ADNOC - Al Dhafra Petroleum Company) | Mukhtar, Muhammad (ADNOC - Al Dhafra Petroleum Company) | Doucette, Neil (ADNOC - Al Dhafra Petroleum Company)
A novel workflow was developed to select an optimal field development plan (FDP) which accounts for a number of associated uncertainties for an oil Greenfield concession that has a limited number of wells, production data and information. The FDP was revisited and updated to address the additional data acquired during the field delineation phase. The study in Ref-1 demonstrates the comprehensive uncertainty analysis performed and the resulting optimized FDP. The FDP was developed to minimize the economic risk and uncertainty. Further field delineation activities have revealed a north and south extensions with an increase in hydrocarbon accumulation by 115%. A reservoir dynamic model was updated because of the increase in HC and input data from 17 wells. A workflow has been created with a suitable development option to consider the recently appraised areas, which are: - Updated saturation height functions (SHFs) which improve the match between newly drilled wells and water saturations logs - Updated reservoir models which were based on well tests and new analytical interpretations - History matching well test data with new acquisition data - Optimized field development options, that cover additional areas - Inputs to reservoir surveillance plan Be implementing following an extensive analysis the most robust development concept was selected and will now in the field.
Multi-rock type cores can be characterized by complex higher order connectivity relationships within an agglomerated petrophysical system. A solution that relates multiphase flow simulation in cores to time-lapse seismic properties in order to examine closed-loop 4D integration is performed at a high level on a plug. While a 4D workflow is not explicitly examined in this work, the requisite petro-elastic modeling (PEM) method based on a simulation-driven interpretation of the Gassmann equation is described and a comparison is made with its empirically derived counterpart. This work illustrates that a simulation-driven petro-elastic modeling approach can be used to generate time-dependent saturated rock properties consistent with seismic attribute description at the plug and core scales. The results demonstrate the simulation-driven approach, of a petro-elastic model embedded in a reservoir simulator, as an alternative to relating pressure and saturation from reservoir simulator-to-seismic-derived properties using a priori empirically based correlations. The method discussed in this paper maintains appreciable continuity with the results of empirically based petro-elastic methods but demonstrates differences commensurate with principal fluid differentiation capability inherent to reservoir simulator-derived data and observed time-lapse seismic response. The significance of applied multi-porosity relationships is further realized upon examination of the time-dependent petro-elastic model results.
The identification of the fluid fill history is a necessity for the development strategy of any field, in particular in the Middle East where tectonic history is often reported to affect fluid distribution and contacts in many fields. The fluid fill concept for a low permeability carbonate field has been re-evaluated and modified from a tilted contact interpretation with imbibition of the deepest unit to a field-wide flat contact and primary drainage saturation distribution. The oil volumes in the reservoir under study are sensitive to minor changes in the structure and fluid fill due to the relatively low structural dip and low permeability transitional nature of the reservoir. The paper highlights the importance of removing preconceptions in data analysis and ensuring consistency on interpretations between different available data sources. It also demonstrates how data quality could completely change the fluid fill concept.
The three main reservoir units of the Lower Shuaiba A, Lower Shuaiba B and Kharaib have been charged from two oil migration events. Structural changes post the first primary drainage are revealed by regional seismic images of the shallower horizons. Due to the rock low permeability, the water saturations are above irreducible value and the whole interval is in the "transition zone". Kharaib unit was believed to be imbibed by the aquifer after charge and was not developed. Three possible fluid fill scenarios were investigated: a) tilted contact due to structural changes post-charge, b) imbibition of the deeper interval, c) primary drainage with field-wide flat contact related to the second pulse of charge. Each scenario impacts the development of the three units positively or negatively. Water saturation logs vs. True Vertical Depth plots were the main diagnostic tool used to rule out fluid fill scenarios. The plots were used to recognise lateral changes of the saturation profile and investigate imbibition signatures. Production data were also used to cross check the expected fluid fill scenario. The resistivity tools’ types and mud resistivities were examined.
This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders.
Green fields today mostly can be regarded as marginal fields and successfully developed. It covers the complete assessment of the oil and gas recovery potential from reservoir structure and formation evaluation, oil and gas reserve mapping, their uncertainties and risks management, feasible reservoir fluid depletion approaches, and to the construction of integrated production systems for cost effective development of the green fields. Depth conversion of time interpretations is a basic skill set for interpreters. There is no single methodology that is optimal for all cases. Next, appropriate depth methods will be presented. Depth imaging should be considered an integral component of interpretation. If the results derived from depth imaging are intended to mitigate risk, the interpreter must actively guide the process.
Decisions in E&P ventures are affected by Bias, Blindness, and Illusions (BBI) which permeate our analyses, interpretations and decisions. This one-day course examines the influence of these cognitive pitfalls and presents techniques that can be used to mitigate their impact. Bias refers to errors in thinking whereby interpretations and judgments are drawn in an illogical fashion. Blindness is the condition where we fail to see an unexpected event in plain sight. Illusions refer to misleading beliefs based on a false impression of reality.
The mainly Cenomanian Shilaif formation of Abu Dhabi (UAE) is currently explored and appraised for its shale oil and shale gas potential. The objective is to assess the hydrocarbons resources, the spatial variability of rock and fluid properties as well as highlighting sweet-spots.
The exploration efforts started in 2014, conducting some multidisciplinary regional depositional and petroleum system studies complemented with exploration wells and the acquisition of comprehensive suites of logs, cores and pressured (sidewall) cores.
The Shilaif formation was deposited in a deeper water intrashelf basin and is time equivalent to the adjacent shallow water higher energy Mishrif formation. Non-eroded Shilaif thicknesses vary from 500 to 900 ft from deep basin to slope respectively. The formation can be subdivided into 3-4 composite sequences each with separate source rocks and clean tight carbonates.
The present day structural configuration is inherited from two related regional compressional events; a) a NW-SE compression responsible for the anticline/syncline, lasting from Late Cenomanian to Early Eocene was created by India's continental drift, b) the late Cretaceous (starting in Turonian) emplacement of the Semail ophiolite from NE direction responsible for loading the continental plate and resulting in the creation of a large scale foreland basin. Reactivation of this NE compression occurred during Late Tertiary.
The resulting structuration created two synclines in the south of Abu Dhabi with maximum maturity of 1.1 Vr (TR 0.65). The foreland basin towards the North East has maturity values reaching the dry gas window. The continuous present day stress from a NE direction combined with high overpressures has a strong geomechanical impact with hmin close to overburden in synclinal areas.
This study aims to present the unconventional resource potential of the Late Albian to Early Turonian basinal sequences in Abu Dhabi.
Insights into the local and regional stratigraphic framework as well as structural controls of the depot-centers are presented.
Fractures can be first-order controls on fluid flow in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Understanding the characteristics of fractures such as their aperture, density, distribution, conductivity, connectivity, etc, is key for reservoir engineering and production analysis.
Well testing plays a key role in the the characterisation of fractured reservoirs, especially. New advances in the Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) have enabled the interpretation of production data in a way where the resulting geological scenarios are in better agreement with fracture patterns observed in outcrop analogues.
Traditionally, Drill Stem Test (DST) data have been the primay source of information for well testing. However, we hypothesise that wireline conveyed tools designed for Interval Pressure Transient Testing (IPTT) could yield a more throrough description of the near-wellbore heterogeneities, including fractures.
Hence, we investigate the applicability of IPTT for characterising fractured reservoirs using detailed numerical simulations models with accurate wellbore representation to generate synthetic IPTT responses that can obtained through a next-generation wireline testing tool called SATURN. We particularly focus on cases where fractures are present in the near-wellbore region but do not intersect the wellbore. The study included parameters such as fracture densities and conductivities, distance between fractures and wellbore and the vertical extension of the fractures across geological beds.
The impact of the different fracture scenarios on the pressure transient tests was recorded as characteristic signatures on diagnostic plots (pressure derivative curves). We have called these curves "IPTT-Geotypes"; they can be used to assist the interpretation process of IPTT responses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time pressure derivative type curves for IPTT in fractured reservoirs are presented in the literature.
A field example of an IPTT case was analysed using the concept of geological well testing. We integrated the information from petrophysical logs and the IPTT-Geotypes to assist the calibration of a reservoir model developed to represent the geological setting of the tested reservoir interval. The results provided a sound interpretation of the reservoir geology and quantitative estimation of the matrix and fracture parameters.
Pola, Jackson (Heriot-Watt University) | Geiger, Sebastian (Heriot-Watt University) | Mackay, Eric (Heriot-Watt University) | Bentley, Mark (Heriot-Watt University) | Maier, Christine (Heriot-Watt University) | Al-Rudaini, Ali (Heriot-Watt University)
We investigate how efficiently oil can be recovered from a carbonate rock during surfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) at the core-scale, particularly when chemical processes change wettability, and analyse how geological heterogeneities, observed at the next larger scale (centimetre to decimetre) impacts the effectiveness of surfactant-based EOR at the inter-well scale.
To quantify how heterogeneity across scales impacts surfactant flooding, we combine laboratory experiments with simulation studies at the core- and inter-well scale. We first analysed a series of surfactant imbibition experiments at different surfactant concentrations (from 0 to 3 wt. %) using reservoir cores from the Wakamuk field, a carbonate reservoir in Indonesia. We then built a 3D simulation model of the laboratory experiment and matched the experimental data to identify the key physical mechanisms (e.g., reduction in interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability alteration) that lead to increased oil recovery. Next, we parametrised the surfactant models using assisted history-matching methods to calibrate the relative permeability and capillary pressure curves as a function of surfactant concentration. These models were then deployed in high-resolution simulations at the inter-well scale. These simulations captured the small-scale geological heterogeneities that are typical for a carbonate reservoir system, e.g., the Shuaiba formation in the Middle East, but are not resolved in field-scale models.
Our core-scale simulations demonstrate a change from co- to counter-current flow in the laboratory experiments and indicate that the resulting increase in oil recovery is due to a combination of IFT reduction, wettability alteration from oil- to water-wet, and capillary pressure restoration; these processes need to be captured adequately at the inter-well scale model. The increase in surfactant concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) (i.e., from 1 to 3 wt. %) triggered the capillary pressure restoration and dominated recovery at the early-time. The changes in relative permeability and capillary curves during the surfactant floods were best modelled using a concentration-based interpolation. There is uncertainty when calibrating surfactant models using laboratory experiments. A key question hence is if geological heterogeneity at the inter-well scale masks these uncertainties.
Results from our high-resolution simulations show that large-scale heterogeneity impacts recovery predictions, but it is the coarsening of the grid, not the upscaling of permeability, that dominates the error in field-scale recovery predictions during surfactant based EOR. Indeed, the error arising from numerical dispersion during grid coarsening can be as large as the error arising when selecting an inaccurately configured surfactant model due to the lack of quality experimental data. Hence appropriate grid refinement, possibly using adaptive grid refinement, needs to be considered when setting up a surfactant based EOR simulation, along with the appropriate configuration of the surfactant model itself.