Al-Maqtari, Ameen N. (SAFER E&D Operations Company) | Saleh, Ahmed A. (SAFER E&D Operations Company) | Al-Haygana, Adel (SAFER E&D Operations Company) | Al-Adashi, Jaber (SAFER E&D Operations Company) | Alogily, Abdulkhalek (SAFER E&D Operations Company) | Warren, Cassandra (Schlumberger) | Mavridou, Evangelia (Schlumberger) | Schoellkopf, Noelle (Schlumberger) | Sheyh Husein, Sami (Schlumberger) | Ahmad, Ammar (Schlumberger) | Baig, Zeeshan (Schlumberger) | Teumahji, Nimuno Achu (Schlumberger) | Thiakalingam, Surenthar (Schlumberger) | Khan, Waqar (Schlumberger) | Masurek, Nicole (Schlumberger) | Andres Sanchez Torres, Carlos (Schlumberger)
A 3D petroleum systems model (PSM) of Block 18 in the Sab'atayn basin, onshore western Yemen, was constructed to evaluate the untapped oil and gas potential of the Upper Jurassic Madbi formation. 3D PSM techniques were used to analyze petroleum generation for conventional reservoirs and the petroleum saturations retained in the source rock for the unconventional system. Block 18 has several proven petroleum systems and producing oil and gas fields. The principal source rocks are within the Madbi Formation, which comprises two units, the Lam and the Meem members. Both contain transgressive organically rich "hot" shales with total organic carbon (TOC) of 8 to 10%; these are located stratigraphically at the base of each member. Additional organic-rich intervals within the Lam and Meem are less-effective source rocks, with lower TOC values.
The PSM consisted of 17 depositional events and 2 hiatuses. To accurately replicate geochemical and stratigraphic variations, the Lam and Meem members were further divided into sublayers. The model was calibrated to present-day porosity, permeability, and pressure data, and it incorporated vertical and lateral lithofacies and organic facies variations. Further calibrations used observed maturities (vitrinite reflectance and pyrolysis Tmax) and present-day temperatures and considered laterally variable heat flow from the Early Jurassic to the Late Miocene. Finally, petrophysical analyses from wells provided calculated hydrocarbon saturations, which were used to calibrate the saturation output from the model. The model satisfactorily reproduces the distribution of the main gas and oil fields and discoveries in the study area and is aligned with well test data.
Maturity results indicate that the upper Lam intervals currently sit within the main to early oil window but are immature at the edges of Block 18 (based on the Sweeney and Burnham Easy R0% kinetics). The lowest Lam unit enters the wet gas window in the center of the block. The underlying Meem member ranges from wet gas to early oil window maturity. Like the Lam, the Meem remains immature along the edges of Block 18. However, in the south of the block, the richest source rocks within the Meem are mainly in the oil window. The degree of transformation of the Meem and Lam varies throughout the members. The model predicts that, at present, the lowest part of the Meem, containing the greatest TOC, has 90% of its kerogen transformed into hydrocarbons.
The model confirms that the Madbi formation is a promising unconventional shale reservoir with a high quantity of hydrocarbons retained within it. Despite the higher quantity of hydrocarbons retained in the upper Meem, in terms of liquid and vapor hydrocarbons predicted in this model, the lower Lam is the most-prospective conventional tight sand reservoir, and the Meem has very small potential as tight sand reservoirs. This study provided a novel application of 3D PSM technology to assess new unconventional as well as conventional plays in this frontier area.
This challenging reservoir characterization case study is defined by the interaction between two reservoirs with different production mechanisms: a fractured basement reservoir and an overlying sandstone reservoir. The existing static geologic concept has been significantly enhanced by integrating pressure data from a unique three-year shut-in period to aid modeling of fractured reservoir connectivity. Previously, the seismic dataset was predominantly used to model the fault and fracture network and guide well planning. In the current approach, the full field data set, including all drilling parameters and new reservoir surveillance data were integrated to address uncertainty in the connected hydrocarbon volume and the relative importance of each production mechanism. The result is a reservoir management tool with which to test re-development concepts and effectively manage pressure decline and increasing gas/oil ratio (GOR) and water production.
To achieve a fully integrated history matched model, the first step was to make a thorough review of the existing detailed seismic interpretation, vintage production logging tool runs (PLT's), wireline logs (including borehole image logs (BHI)) and drilling data to find a causal link between hydraulically conductive fractures and well production behavior. In parallel, a material balance exercise was run to incorporate the new pressure data acquired during the field's shut-in period. The results of the material balance analysis were combined with seismic and well data to define the distribution of connected fractures across the field. Additionally, the material balance analysis was used to determine the connected hydrocarbon volume, the distribution of initial oil in-place and the relative hydrocarbon contribution from each production mechanism.
The field is covered by multi-azimuth 3D seismic and 43 vertical to highly deviated development wells, providing significant static and dynamic data for characterizing the distribution of connected fractures. Despite this high quality, diverse and field-wide dataset, prior modeling iterations struggled to sufficiently describe the production behavior seen at the well level. This has resulted in a major challenge to predicting the production behavior of new development wells and planning for reservoir management challenges. Capturing the complex interaction between production variables (including lithology, matrix versus fracture network, geomechanical stresses, reservoir damage and pressure depletion) at a field level instead of at an individual well level resulted in a unified static and dynamic model that reconciles all scales of observation.
This oilfield represents a unique reservoir characterization opportunity. The result is a key example of how iterative, integrated geological and engineering driven reservoir modeling can be used to inform the development in a complex, mature field. This case study provides an excellent analogue for the reservoir characterization of other fractured Basement fields and/or Basement-cover reservoir couplet fields in the early to late phases of their development.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Oil was discovered at the Ekales-1 wildcat well located in Block 13T in northern Kenya. The well has a potential net pay of between 197 and 322 ft in the Auwerwer and Upper Lokone sandstone formations. Tullow (50%) operates 13T with partner Africa Oil (50%). The Mzia-3 appraisal well in Block 1 off Tanzania encountered a combined total of 183 ft of net pay in the Lower and Middle sands and confirmed reservoir quality in line with that seen in the Mzia-1 and Mzia-2 wells. Asia Pacific The Luba-1 offshore well on Brunei Block L was spudded. The well will evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the Triple Junction structure. Serinus has a 90% interest in Block L, through indirect wholly owned subsidiaries Kulczyk Oil Brunei (40%) and AED SEA (operator, 50%).
In the Sab'atayn Basin of Yemen hydrocarbons were generated from pre-salt Upper Jurassic source rocks during the Cenozoic and the salt provides the ultimate seal for the pre-salt and intra-salt traps. Therefore the proper understanding of salt tectonics is critical for ongoing hydrocarbon exploration efforts in the Sab'atayn Basin.
A variety of distinct salt tectonic features are present in the Sab'atayn Basin. Based on the regional interpretation of 2D seismic and locally available 3D seismic reflection data calibrated by exploration wells in the central part of the basin, an Upper Jurassic evaporite formation ("salt" from this point on) produced numerous salt rollers, pillows, reactive, flip-flop, active and falling diapirs.
Due to regional extension, halokinetics began by formation of salt rollers, as soon as the early Cretaceous, within just a few million years after the deposition of the Tithonian Sab'atayn Formation. The salt locally formed salt pillows which evolved to salt diapirs and diapiric salt walls as the result of renewed extension in the basin. As the result of a prominent extensional episode at the end of the Cretaceous most of the diapiric walls in the basin are controlled by large normal faults on their updip flanks. Some of the diapiric walls even evolved into falling diapirs due to ongoing extension
As the Sab'atayn Formation has typically several massive salt intervals in it, it defines post-, intra- and pre-salt play types in the basin. However, other than just providing traps and seals in the basin, salt tectonics is also very important for source rock maturation in the basin. As there are many salt diapirs in the study area, their cooling effect on the the pre-salt hydrocarbon kitchens appears to be quite significant, based on our preliminary basin modelling efforts.
This paper presents the workflow and the results of integration of seismic, well and production data on Habban Field to optimize well locations.
Habban Field is located in the Jurassic Marib-Al Jawf-Shabwah basin of Yemen (Block S2). Development targets in Habban Field are fractured Precambrian Basement, Kohlan and Shuqra formations (Middle Jurassic).
Main challenges faced in the Field are Basement heterogeneity, fracture distribution and their connectivity, lateral variation of Kohlan Formation and the overlying salt diapirs/walls hampering the seismic imaging. The difference between a good and a dry well is whether it is encountering main fracture corridors or not. Fracture corridors (along the faults) have limited lateral extent and due to overlying salt diapirs well trajectory optimization is very challenging. Reflection pattern in the Basement is quite chaotic. Therefore, it was important to come up with a workflow to image faults within the Basement so that highly deviated to horizontal wells can be drilled to enhance production and optimize recovery.
In order to address these challenges, wide azimuth 3D seismic was acquired and processed in different azimuths. The study has been conducted using 3D seismic dataset and derived seismic attributes combined with information from thirty one wells including image and production log interpretation. The workflow highlighted the value of G&G integration to better outline uncertainty and to mitigate risks during well locations and trajectory planning. In this contest structural attributes (i.e. Ant-Tracking) have been crucial in order to define and identify the faults zones for optimizing horizontal wells targeting multiple fracture zones.
On the other hand integration of G&G and production data highlights the limitation in defining a one-to-one correlation between seismic, well and production information mainly due to reservoir complexity and scale resolution.