A number of companies are pushing for alternative approaches to offshore development that seek to access marginal reservoirs. Their differing and unique ideas call for a departure from the usual playbook, but share a common goal of slashing capital costs. Eight of the world’s 10 longest wells have been drilled by ExxonMobil as operator of the Sakhalin-1 project in Russia.
This paper describes a new approach to evaluating the effectiveness of the rotary-steerable-system (RSS) steering mechanism on wellbore tortuosity in horizontal wells. This paper demonstrates a work flow to determine optimal lateral lengths and trajectories in the Midland Basin by studying the effect of the lateral length and trajectory on well production. With the arrival and development of rotary steerable systems in the late 1990s, the industry thought that drilling a perfectly smooth and controlled trajectory would not be an issue. Range Resources' drilling head talks about how the company went from drilling the shortest laterals in the Marcellus to the longest and why. The Apollonia tight-gas chalk play is located in the Abu Gharadig Basin in the Western Desert of Egypt.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Eni started production from the Nené Marine field, which sits in the Marine XII block in 28 m of water, 17 km offshore the Republic of the Congo. The first phase of the field produces from the Djeno pre-salt formation, 2.5 km below the ocean floor at a rate of 7,500 BOEPD. Future development will take place in several stages and will involve the installation of more production platforms and the drilling of at least 30 wells. Eni (65%) is the operator with partners New Age (25%), and Société Nationale des Pétroles du Congo (10%). The well's primary target is the Bunian structure: a four-way, fault-bounded anticline, which was defined by a 3D seismic survey. It will be drilled to a total depth of 1682 m.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Shell's new natural gas discoveries in Egypt are estimated in initial quantities at about 500 Bcf with more reserves possible, said Aidan Murphy, chairman and managing director of Shell Egypt. The discoveries, in a concession area of north Alam El-Shawish in the country's western desert, could yield 10% to 15% of the total production of Badr el-Din Petroleum Company, the 50/50 joint venture of Shell and Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation that is expected to manage the operations. Eni reported that the Laarich East-1 oil well in Tunisia has a delivery capacity of approximately 2,000 B/D. Spudded in June, the well discovered hydrocarbons in Silurian and Ordovician sandstones while reaching a final depth of 13,487 ft. The well has now been connected to production. The company continues to drill Tunisian exploration prospects that have been identified on 3D seismic surveys.
The drilling records of Extreme Reservoir Contacts (ERC) like Extended Reached Drilling (ERD) and Multi-Lateral wells(ML) continue to be broken. From the initial limit of MD 10,000ft to now almost 50,000 ft with extended reach depths and from dual-lateral to quad-laterals’ with 40,000-50,000ft reservoir contact. Completions rule of engaging with this type of wells continues to play ‘catch-up'. As a result, getting the full potential out of these extreme wells with limited completions options had always been a challenge. Recent innovation in "wireless electric connect/disconnect" technology combined with all electric integrated intelligent completions architecture has addressed these challenges. The well completion design is an all electrical system that provides a multi trip connect/disconnect system enabling seamless communication between upper and lower completions enabling permanent downhole monitoring and control, at the sand face. The highlight of this digital edge solution and deployment architecture enables completions to deploy in ERC wells meeting targeted drilled depths and achieving reservoir goals. The digital enablement provides real time downhole data for permanent production logging and zonal well testing capability while producing. Production and reservoir management is at finger tips of the end user.
A new innovative down hole electric telemetry enabled data transmission and power to be distributed across multiple sensors like pressure, temperature, water cut and electric flow control valve. Run on a single electrical cable, this digital completion technology with its induction coupling capability continue to complete record-drilling wells and makes today's completions limitations a history. It is now a reality for fully-digitalized Intelligent Completions solution, which can support any well type scenarios; multi-zones, horizontals, multi-laterals and extended reached drilling (ERD), including subsea completions. Each zone can be equipped with a permanent downhole infinite position valve-control, flowmeter, water-cut sensor and/or pressure/temperature gauges. This allows real-time reservoir measurement and supports ‘Dial A Rate’ flow control. Conventional flow control valves depend on hydraulic actuation system, although the technology has worked for decades, it has some inherent limitations such as need for multiple control lines limiting the number of zones, maximum depth of deployment as well the response time of hydraulic systems for very long completions. Electric valves are free from these limitations by design and provides lot more flexibility in the hands of the completion engineer. The multiple sensors measurement and data integration is achieved with a single surveillance, monitoring, diagnostics and valve-optimization production software to ensure real time data streaming, management and bringing insights to production and reservoir engineers for production optimization through remote valve control.
This digital solution of Intelligent Completions technology can finally claim that completions is no longer the limiting factor, effective reservoir management with intelligent completions can follow wherever the drill bit can go. It has been deployed worldwide from the Middle East to the open Sea in Pacific to enable zonal production-control and reservoir management. Its borderless completions architectures and standardization of modular system is the answer for Digital Oilfield and Data driven continual production optimization and reservoir management without intervention.
For the first time in Completions history, extended drilling records are matched with completing the entire well to Measured Depth (MD) with fully digitized solution of multi-zone measurements, infinite-control valves and real time data enabled production optimization system.
Drilling ultra-extended-reach (ultra-ERD) wellbores has redefined industry standards. Operators and service companies must fully assess the accompanying risks to maximize the overall productivity of an asset. New drilling technologies, such as improved drilling fluid design and geomechanics analyses, allow wellbores to be drilled to the lateral displacement of greater than 13 km. This requires improved absolute wellbore positioning, in conjunction with reduced uncertainties. When developing these drilling technologies, the economics must be considered so as not to exponentially increase the cost per barrel of oil. The increase in infill drilling of nearby offset wellbores requires developing improved methods that reduce wellbore position uncertainty when placing the wellbore in the reservoir, in addition to avoiding collisions.
The proposed geomagnetic referencing technique is suitable for the application to the Sakhalin-1 project in eastern Russia. Here there is a predominance of ultra-ERD wellbores coupled with considerable knowledge of the varying depth of the basement rock structure. This paper presents a process used for creating a geomagnetic crustal field model that can be updated to the actual survey location with the date and time for real-time application. This process can also be used in the reprocessing of legacy measurement-while-drilling (MWD) data. The application of this process significantly improves wellbore position accuracy. The ability to have a greater understanding of the overall geomagnetic field, along with enhanced techniques in multistation algorithm processing, removes the effects of drillstring and the cross-axial interference due to mud shielding effects. Additional benefits of this application include reduced wellbore tortuosity for planned wells, improved anticollision separation factors, and improved torque and drag profiles.
This new geomagnetic model, updated to the actual survey location, date, and time and incorporating realistic uncertainty determinations based on basement rock depth analysis, has resulted in a 50% improvement in the overall ellipse of uncertainty (EOU) when compared with previous definitive surveys, in addition to an accurate bottomhole location. Incorporating these advanced techniques reduces position uncertainty that improves overall 3D wellbore positioning. Other studies, such as a disturbance field study, evaluate the effects of the magnetospheric ring current, auroral electrojets, and secondary induced fields, and was conducted by analyzing the magnetic observatory data from the same magnetic latitude to quantify the maximum and minimum declination variations during a magnetic storm.
The paper presents the results of a multiparametric analysis of the helium saturation zone after its injection into a porous gas reservoir, the dynamics of its content in a withdrawn gas mixture and the helium recovery factor (target parameters). The calculations are performed on a three-dimensional composite hydrodynamic sector model of a homogeneous anisotropic reservoir of a virtual gas deposit. Based on the results obtained, the geological and technological factors are ranked according to the absolute value of the change of target parameters when the input parameters change. The dynamics of the influence of geological and technological factors on the target parameters is described concerning different withdrawn gas volume from the initial reserves. The identified relationships can be useful for planning of the experimental helium injection and the placement of exploitation wells at underground helium storage.
Lost circulation is one of the main causes of nonproductive time during drilling in Eastern Siberia. In Srednebotuobinskoe oilfield major challenges are related to severely fractured igneous rock intrusion. Drilling through this interval is associated with constant severe to total losses. As a result, drilling velocity may drop below one meter per hour. Significant reduction of drilling time was achieved with application of an innovative fiber based LCM. Current paper describes results of this project.
Curing losses in severely fractured igneous rock formations is challenging. In most cases the fracture width is not known; it can only be predicted. However, this prediction is not always accurate.
An engineered fiber-based kill fluid was used to mitigate this lack of knowledge. Laboratory tests demonstrated ability to plug 1-5 mm fractures. System was applied in two wells in Srednebotuobinskoe oilfield. Fiber based pill was used in a combination with conventional LCMs. Additional operation time reduction was achieved by BHA compatibility. Average velocity of drilling through igneous rock interval was further compared to offset well from the same pad.
Drilling through 140 meters igneous rock interval of the well took around 147 hours. Conventional LCM are sensitive to fracture width. Due to geological complexity of the interval they had limited efficiency. A novel LCM based on soft, short fibers allowed to overcome this problem. It has a dual plugging mechanism. It can bridge across fractures up to 5 mm and form a filtercake on the formation surface, mitigating losses to the fractures network.
Applying this innovative solution in the 225 meters igneous rock interval of the second well (same pad) allowed to reduce drilling time to 119 hours. Thus, drilling became two times faster. Fiber based pill is also compatible with BHA, including telemetry. So additional time was saved on POOH/RIH operations. For the third well on the same pad pill placement strategy was further optimized. So, 135 meters igneous rock interval was completed in 23.5 hours. Drilling became 6 times faster comparing to the first well. Fiber based LCM showed high efficiency for mitigating severe losses in igneous rock intervals of Srednebotuobinskoe oilfield. BHA compatibility allowed to avoid additional POOH/RIH operations, providing extra value. Application of fiber based LCM led to significant acceleration of drilling igneous rock intervals.
The pill was prepared on the well site with equipment available. Compatibility with surface and downhole equipment was also confirmed.
Various successful field applications of fiber-based pills have been reported from various parts of the world. Current work presents first application of an engineered fiber based pill in Srednebotuobinskoe oilfield, Russia. The pill was pumped successfully in 2 wells in igneous rock intervals. Pill was placed through BHA. This solution allowed operator to achieve 6 times reduction of time required to complete the interval.
Kazakhstan has a world class endowment of petroleum resources including some of the world’s most fascinating and challenging super giants. With a large base of mature assets and the development of the Kashagan field, it is a good time to look for resources that will drive and sustain production levels for future generations. The oil and gas industry has a history of building reserves through frontier exploration, near-field exploration, and building reserves in existing reservoirs, through better definition of the reservoir and application of advanced technologies. All of these opportunities are present in the Republic of Kazakhstan: there is the enigmatic deep carbonate resource which is the focus of the ambitious Eurasia project; the further definition and development of Kazakhstan’s supergiants which can make large additions to their proven reserves; opportunities for nearfield exploration building upon existing infrastructure; and a large base of older producing fields which can be sustained through improved/enhanced oil recovery and new business approaches. The effort to add reserves in all of these areas is key to bringing on future production over the short, medium and long term.
Before his Vice-Minister position at the Ministry of Oil and Gas, Magzum Mirzagaliyev has been Vice-Chairman of the Board for Innovative Development and Service Projects at KazMunaiGas national oil and gas company of Kazakhstan. In the period of 2011-2012 he was Managing Director of KazMunaiGas. Previously, he was Director General of TenizService. He started his career as a drilling fluid engineer in MI Drilling Fluids International Company (Schlumberger) at the oil fi elds of Tengiz and West Siberia. Mr Mirzagaliyev was educated at Turan University (1999), Diplomatic Academy (2003), Caspian State University of Technologies and Engineering named after Sh.Yessenov (2010), in 2002-2004 he carried out a traineeship in MI Drilling Fluids based in the USA and Malaysia.