Africa (Sub-Sahara) Eni started production from the Nené Marine field, which sits in the Marine XII block in 28 m of water, 17 km offshore the Republic of the Congo. The first phase of the field produces from the Djeno pre-salt formation, 2.5 km below the ocean floor at a rate of 7,500 BOEPD. Future development will take place in several stages and will involve the installation of more production platforms and the drilling of at least 30 wells. Eni (65%) is the operator with partners New Age (25%), and Société Nationale des Pétroles du Congo (10%). The well's primary target is the Bunian structure: a four-way, fault-bounded anticline, which was defined by a 3D seismic survey. It will be drilled to a total depth of 1682 m.
Kazakhstan has a world class endowment of petroleum resources including some of the world’s most fascinating and challenging super giants. With a large base of mature assets and the development of the Kashagan field, it is a good time to look for resources that will drive and sustain production levels for future generations. The oil and gas industry has a history of building reserves through frontier exploration, near-field exploration, and building reserves in existing reservoirs, through better definition of the reservoir and application of advanced technologies. All of these opportunities are present in the Republic of Kazakhstan: there is the enigmatic deep carbonate resource which is the focus of the ambitious Eurasia project; the further definition and development of Kazakhstan’s supergiants which can make large additions to their proven reserves; opportunities for nearfield exploration building upon existing infrastructure; and a large base of older producing fields which can be sustained through improved/enhanced oil recovery and new business approaches. The effort to add reserves in all of these areas is key to bringing on future production over the short, medium and long term.
Eight of the world's 10 longest wells have been drilled by ExxonMobil as operator of the Sakhalin-1 project in Russia. Components and drilling tools involved in the well design are evaluated and redesigned throughout the program to maximize penetration rate and reduce flat time. Drillstring-torque capacity was recognized as a limiter for increasing penetration rate and for reaching total measured depth capability. The operator consequently sought an alternative drillpipe connection with higher torque capacity. The Sakhalin-1 project comprises the Chayvo, Odoptu, and Arkutun Dagi fields off the east coast of Sakhalin Island, Russian Federation.
Jan, Briers (Shell Global Solutions International BV) | Keat-Choon, Goh (Shell Global Solutions International BV) | Ann, Sniekers (Shell Global Solutions International BV) | Dave, Schotanus (Shell Global Solutions International BV) | John, Hofland (Shell Global Solutions International BV) | David, Adun (Shell Global Solutions International BV)
On the tenth anniversary of the first Intelligent Energy Conference held in 2006, it is appropriate to look back at some of the technologies introduced at the time, and report out on how these have been progressed. This paper discusses one of the technologies: the use of data driven models for well rate estimation, to support and enable real-time surveillance and optimization.
In the early 2000s real-time data from oil and gas fields became available in abundance on engineering central office desktops via process data historians and wide area / global communications networks. A key challenge to production management, then, as now, was: "What are the wells producing?" The April 2006 SPE Paper 99963 introduced data driven modelling for continuous well production surveillance leveraging on the suddenly abundant and often very revealing PI data.
Today, ten years later, a stream of success stories on the use real time well rate estimates based on data driven models continue to be reported, and these tools are seen as best practice in many different operational scenarios. This paper reviews the key concepts introduced in 2006, and extensions and applications of the technology to various aspects of production surveillance and optimization. As with all innovations, the most challenging elements in the journey have been related to people and processes. The paper discusses these issues in relation to the important role played by technology integration themes such as Smart Fields.
Recently there have been delivered and designed new icebreakers, icebreaking shuttle tankers, container vessels and LNG carriers. Many of these vessel concepts are relying on podded propulsion system. Azipod propulsion has been selected to many of these vessels as it provides excellent ice performance for the vessel, good torque characteristics for the propeller and there already exists proven track record of ice operations. Currently the demand for even bigger icebreaking vessels with higher capacity is increasing. Due to increasing market need ABB Marine have further developed Azipod propulsion concept to meet the demands of arctic ice classes and power requirements of more than 15 000 kW per thruster unit. This paper will give an overview of 25 year of development of azimuth podded propulsion, Azipod, for icebreaking vessels and introduce latest breakthrough projects in arctic shipping.
Exploration and production of hydrocarbon resources in the offshore Russian Arctic are challenged by a harsh environment including the presence of sea ice, icebergs, permafrost, low temperatures and extended periods of darkness. Remoteness, accessibility, logistics and limited infrastructure make activities even more challenging. A combination of advanced technologies and flawless execution are required to successfully develop Russian Arctic oil and natural gas resources safely and economically.
The location of the initial exploration opportunity will determine the type of drilling rig required. Depending on the water depth, a bottom-founded structure or a floating drilling system with appropriate ice defense/ice management will be utilized to conduct drilling. The large demands imposed by ice loading are handled differently by each system – a bottom-founded structure must be sized to provide sufficient capacity to resist the imposed demands whereas floating systems must incorporate both equipment and operational practices to facilitate more frequent well suspension and vessel disconnection.
In some areas, the ice-free season can be long enough to allow the use of conventional offshore drilling rigs with ice defense systems for exploration drilling. However, in many areas, the ice-free season is so short that vessels will need some degree of ice capability in order to safely and economically meet exploration drilling targets. Furthermore, economic development drilling of a large number of wells will require that the ability to safely drill year-round be developed.
If exploration drilling is successful, the ultimate selection of the production concept will also be driven by water depth and ice conditions in addition to other design factors. Remote subsea technology will be an enabler for continuous production under the ice in deepwater.
This paper will illustrate the required integration across a suite of technologies to enable safe and reliable operations in support of offshore Russian Arctic exploration and production. Technical advancements and ongoing research will also be highlighted with a focus on the importance of conducting and incorporating the learnings of Russian Arctic field programs.
Description: The Sakhalin-1 project, operated by Exxon Neftegas Ltd., is located offshore Sakhalin Island in remote Eastern Russia and includes three oil and gas fields – Chayvo, Odoptu and Arkutun Dagi. The drilling and completion related technical and operating challenges of the Sakhalin-1 project are many. The project has relied heavily on Extended Reach Drilling (ERD) and robust completion technologies to simplify the operations, maximize capital efficiency, and minimize the environmental footprint.
ERD operations at Sakhalin-1 have required a balanced engineering / operational approach – built upon a thorough understanding of the physical complexities, the insight to provide robust technical solutions, and the operational expertise to implement them efficiently, safely and without environmental incident. Up-front identification of technical and operational limiters of the well plan is critical. Once limiters are identified, engineered solutions are designed, tested and implemented. Technology, innovation and the transfer of knowledge into the operation are critical success factors. This process requires an innovative engineering and support structure with deep technical capabilities that is also conducive to the creation and implementation of new techniques.
Undergirding the project is a basic set of operating principles that includes safety, protection of the environment, maintaining the highest standards of business controls, and compliance with applicable laws and regulations.
Efficiently drilling and developing resources while redefining the ERD envelope at Sakhalin-1 requires a solid understanding of the physics involved, and the insight to identify and employ innovative technologies with careful attention to up-front engineering and operational detail. This paper will highlight some of these challenges as well as describe some of the innovative techniques and technologies that have unlocked the Sakhalin-1 resources.
Garfield, Tim (ExxonMobil) | Streltsov, Tim (Rosneft) | Erratt, Duncan (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co.) | Kissling, Randy (ExxonMobil Development Co.) | Abreu, Vitor (ExxonMobil Exploration Co.) | Goulding, Frank (ExxonMobil Production Co.)
In the last decades, many discoveries and field developments have been made in deepwater plays around the globe. Important lessons learned in more mature areas like the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico – have been applied to more recent ventures worldwide. This presentation highlights technical learnings that supported success in these plays and application opportunities in Russia.
In West Africa, over 22 billion oil-equivalent barrels were discovered in deepwater reservoirs in less than 20 years. This exploration success was due to the presence of robust petroleum systems, high quality reservoirs and efficient technology development and application. The Congo Basin and Niger Delta deepwater play areas were identified as active, oil-prone hydrocarbon systems and reservoir-prone long before any discoveries were made; under-scoring the importance of regional analysis. In these basins, companies entering the correct areas early captured most of the value. Exploration success rates were highest where 3D seismic was used and hydrocarbons could be directly detected. Many deepwater exploration discoveries have significant reservoir and trap complexity. With long construction lead times and high capital costs, early and accurate subsurface models are needed to deliver profitable deepwater developments. Subsurface characterizations leveraging highquality 3D seismic, more accurately predict reservoir and seal architecture. Fundamental understanding of deepwater depositional processes is a key enabler, especially when supported by an active research program.
Later in production life, 4D (time-lapse) seismic, integrated with field surveillance data and history-matched reservoir models have been instrumental in identifying un-swept hydrocarbons and in-fill or re-development opportunies, resulting in increased hydrocarbon recovery.
In Russia, Sakhalin Island and the Black Sea are areas with established and emerging deepwater exploration and development opportunities. Application of key learnings from a broad global experience base will aid exploration and help ensure profitable deepwater developments.
The processes for finding, developing and producing oil and gas from deepwater reservoirs are different from other reservoir types in significant ways. First, often the environment in which these reservoirs form is the same in which they occur today – very deep water. There are many challenges associated with economic development of petroleum resources located in deep water. Robust risk and mitigation plans are needed due to the high cost environment and limited capability to recover from or drill out of subsurface “surprises”. A second significant difference is that many deepwater clastic reservoirs, from slope channel to basin floor fan deposits, tend to have very complex reservoir and seal architecture which can be manifested during development and production by significant issues with reservoir connectivity and compartmentalization. Higher levels of geologic definition are often required.
Demand for oil and gas continues to grow and, although there is no physical shortage, it is getting harder to access and produce. This has driven the industry to operate at the frontiers, from the Arctic to deepwater to unconventionals. Each poses unique challenges, such as temperature, depth, pressure, remoteness, ice, geological formation, fluid type, and local environment. The industry needs to address these challenges whilst improving safety, increasing energy efficiency and driving towards a more sustainable future.
Innovation takes many forms, from policy through to scientific invention, and can originate both within and outside of our industry. In terms of science, the more fundamental in nature, the more widespread its potential impact.
Major waves of scientific innovation are impacting our industry today, with information technology being perhaps the most mature, such as the use of peta-flop scale computing in seismic imaging, and advanced materials being perhaps the least mature, but with significant potential.
That is why BP has recently committed $100m to establish the BP International Centre for Advanced Materials (ICAM), in partnership with world-leading universities. The ability to measure and manipulate matter at the molecular scale allows us to create materials that have completely different capabilities. The ICAM’s initial research will focus on structural materials, functional materials and membranes, which have enormous potential to improve integrity and cost efficiency, for example through the use of self-healing materials.
The ICAM has been designed using the lessons learned from BP’s other research collaborations with universities, for example the BP Institute for Multi-Phase Flow at Cambridge in the UK, and the Energy Biosciences Institute in California and Illinois in the USA.
This model of innovation recognises the increasingly global nature of research and development, and enables the industry to move quickly to capitalise on scientific discoveries.
Description of the Paper
Seven of the world’s ten longest wells by reach and measured depth have been drilled by ExxonMobil as operator of the Sakhalin-1 project in Russia. Drilled from shore by one of the largest and most powerful land rigs in the industry, wells extend horizontally under the sea floor approximately 11 kilometers (7 miles). Using the Operator’s redesign methodology, post well reviews are conducted after each well is drilled and completed to identify the key limiters to drilling performance. All components and drilling tools involved in the well design are evaluated and re-designed throughout the drilling program to maximize penetration rate and reduce flat time. This paper will provide an overview of how drill string torque capacity became a limiter to increasing penetration rate and kept the Operator from extending their total measured depth capability. This limiter necessitated that the operator seek an alternate drill pipe connection with higher torque capacity. The design of the new drill pipe connection and results to date from field implementation will be presented.
The drilling tubular connection evolution described in this paper highlights the need for continuous technology development to further increase the Extended Reach Drilling (ERD) envelope.
Results, Observations and Conclusions:
Utilizing an evolutionary connection design allowed interchangeability with existing drill pipe, accessories, and tools while providing 26 percent more torque capacity. Comparative fatigue testing demonstrates that the design will provide equal or better fatigue life when compared to the existing connection even while operating at a higher stress level. Deployed for approximately one year, initial field performance of the new connection has allowed the Operator to drill with higher continuous drilling torque while maintaining compatibility between the new and old drill pipe connections.
Significance of Subject Matter:
ERD has become a commonly used technique to economically access reserves using existing infrastructure. A key ERD drilling challenge is the large amount of friction imposed by the wellbore on the drill string that results in high torque. Technologies that increase overall system torque capacity allow the Operator to drill farther and access more reserves.