After decades of conventional oil production from multi-layered reservoirs of Phisanulok basin in Thailand, the streamlined implementation of hydraulic fracturing following the successful pilot has recently made production from tight resources economically viable. This paper presents the strategic expansion of hydraulic fracturing activities that has evolved to full field implementation for the first time in Thailand. The adopted practices and improved oil production associated with the project ultimately delivers sustainable development of tight oil reservoirs.
The pilot fracturing campaign implemented after years of subsurface and geomechanics studies have been evaluated. The attractive outcome indicates the oil gain almost eight times the Estimated Ultimate Recovery according to decline curve analysis, leading to the asset scheme strategically developed for unlocking tight oil potentials from multi-layered reservoirs by hydraulic fracturing applications. The development strategies including (1) the continual fracturing activities in the proven areas, (2) the implementation in new formations, and (3) the revival of the existing non-productive wells are comprehensively discussed, followed by the fundamental considerations for design and implementation of hydraulic fracturing along the actual process.
As a result, hydraulic fracturing have becomes the key technique serving tight sand development scheme and will be continuously implemented in larger scale to facilitate the target oil production, making the project a dynamic operation. Prudent subsurface management model and deliberate project planning and execution are inevitable. Oil gain was estimated from tight reservoirs mainly in the area where technology has been proven, and from the unproven areas and formations. Available geomechanical model in the proven area has been revisited, and updated to enhance the engineering design of fractures. Additional data acquisition approaches, including acoustic logs, have been proposed to obtain more understanding in unfamiliar areas and formations. Asset drilling schedule and hydraulic fracturing plan have been optimally arranged in a way that the dedicated wells maximize overall asset production. Essentially, the selection of candidate wells becomes the critical part of the project. Many existing wells encountered tight formation, but they are no longer economically viable due to rapid production decline. Based on geological evidences, production data, and well integrity status, the selected candidates were strategically included in the project scope, which also supports idle well restoration program.
Key elements of the hydraulic fracturing project in Thailand from the success of pilot campaign to the first-ever full-scale implementation in effectively and sustainably developing tight, multi-layered reservoirs of Phitsanulok basin are captured. Subsurface management scheme; operation plan and execution; fracture design and treatment technique optimization being applied fieldwide presented can be practical model useful for the operators to maximize the opportunity in tight reservoir portions, on the steps toward the sustainable future.
Carbon intensity (CI) of oil and gas production varies widely across global oil plays. Life cycle extraction from certain unconventional plays (
We perform well-to-refinery calculations of CI for major unconventional oil plays in North America and conventional plays in Asia Pacific. This approach accounts for emissions from exploration, drilling, production, processing, and transportation. The analysis tool is an open-source engineering-based model called Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE). OPGEE makes estimates of emissions accounting using up to 50 parameters for each modeled field. This model was developed at Stanford University. Data sources include government sources, technical papers, satellite observations, and commercial databases.
Applied globally, OPGEE estimates show highest values in areas with extensive flaring of natural gas and very heavy crude oils - heavy oils require large energy inputs (
Unconventional production, especially from light tight oil is the most significant new source of fossil fuels in the last decade. Under a wide variety of carbon constraints, oil usage will continue for many decades and increase in the near term. Operators, governments, and regulators need to be able to avoid "locking in" development of suboptimal resources and instead provide incentives for shale operators to manage resources sustainably. This approach provides quantitative measures of such actions. Oil producers must prepare by eliminating development of marginal projects, elimination of flaring and venting, optimizing hydraulic fracture treatments, using improved recovery methods (
This advanced course is intended for artificial lift and production professionals currently working with or managing ESPs. The teardown (or dismantle) of the ESP is the final phase of an ESP’s operation, but one that can give the most information on how the ESP performed during its life. Additionally, and maybe more importantly, the teardown and subsequent analysis can tell you why it failed. This key step is not simply taking each component apart, the ESP must be disassembled in a particular order, carefully inspecting for specific failure modes at each step, and, that order may vary with conditions and circumstances. Executive Plenary Session 1: Intelligent Lift 4.0 In the last two decades, the world has witnessed how efficient data flow among devices connected to the internet and machines has transformed and enhanced human lives and fundamentally altered every industry in what is known as the 4th Industrial Revolution.
Since the last event held in Thailand in 2014, the industry has altered significantly. Evolving challenges such as oil price volatility, the "big crew change", and digital disruption, require new approaches in applying business models and technologies to achieve cost and operational efficiencies, whilst meeting stakeholders' expectations to preserve the core business and, at the same time, stimulate progress by exploring challenges, successes, and strategies to create a fit-for-purpose set of tools, systems, models, technologies and capabilities that will reshape the industry for a smart and sustainable future. Complete MPD Rigs: Is this the Future? As the petroleum industry recovers from market lows and business recovers, we ask ourselves, what is next? This panel session shall discuss these and other appropriate topics including: - Rig utilisation forecasts - Regions for future growth - Rig types for expansion: Land, shelf, deep or ultra-deep water - Rig retirements, cold vs warm stacking and reactivation - Shipyard activity: Upgrades vs new build construction - New technologies in rig components or service delivery - Data management and work processes -Partnerships between drilling contractors and drilling service providers The industry's needs to position for recovery and forecasting is an integral component in the planning for next phase.
Poopaiboon, Tanthai (PTT Exploration and Oil Production PLC) | Supalasate, Phruettiphan (PTT Exploration and Oil Production PLC) | Suebsook, Jiranoot (PTT Exploration and Oil Production PLC) | Sakulkaew, Sitanun (PTT Exploration and Oil Production PLC) | Surattanasunya, Pawin (PTT Exploration and Oil Production PLC) | Eksaengsri, Achapan (PTT Exploration and Oil Production PLC) | Charoensawadpong, Panunya (PTT Exploration and Oil Production PLC)
This paper propose a LEAN design and LEAN approach for project development of Mobile Production Facility (MPF). The Mobile Production Facility (MPF) is the well known facility developed in onshore oil and gas field for mature field which the field development plan has extended to remote areas which contain small marginal oil prospects. The LEAN design for Mobile Production Facility could improve the economics of onshore oil and gas projects development by reducing capital expenditure (CAPEX) and project development lead times and increasing flexibility for production planning through the mobilization design, and be a key factor in the economic exploitation of both marginal and mature fields. Insight gained through in-house design, international code & standard, and package design experts led to the development of the LEAN Mobile Production Facility proposed in this paper. Discussion include a characteristic of a reference oilfield, project background, application of Mobile Production Facility, the innovative design of package and equipment leading to lower CAPEX in detail, as well as the benefits and limitations of the LEAN Mobile Production Facility. Areas of future project development in support of LEAN Mobile Production Facility are identified, including the potential to unlock the further marginal reserves.
Ngo, H. (PTTEP Geology) | Chommali, P. (PTTEP Geology) | Charucharana, T. (PTTEP Geology) | Rattanachan, S. (PTTEP Drilling) | Ung-Aram, K. (PTTEP Drilling) | Tangkaprasert, P. (PTTEP Drilling) | Thiangtham, C. (PTTEP Drilling) | Pinprayong, V. (Weatherford Wireline Services)
The Sirikit field is a mature reservoir located in the Phitsanulok Basin in north-central Thailand. The field produced first oil in late 1981. Typical logging programs include a complete set of openhole (OH) logging suites such as a triple combo, including gamma ray-neutron-density-resistivity, or quad combo including gamma ray-neutron-density-sonic-resistivity. The reservoir production and injection are carried out with commingled completion. Therefore, wireline formation testing, and sampling tools are usually included for acquisition.
Development wells with highly deviated trajectories pose challenges to conventional wireline logging (WL) operations, especially in deep wells exceeding 3,000m. In sections with high dogleg severity, the tools are prone to sticking, and the cable can become key-seated due to hole conditions, deviation, washouts or caving.
Log data is a vital component for studying geological complexity, completion and production planning. Therefore, there is a need for an alternative method to convey WL tools to reach the bottom of the hole. In 2015, an alternative conveyance method called "through drillpipe logging" (TDL) was proposed to mitigate the risk of WL tools sticking or hanging up in an openhole environment. This method uses a slim-chassis, 2.25 in. outer diameter (OD), WL logging suite that enables the tool to be run through the drillpipe. The first TDL job was trialed in Thailand in May, 2016 as the second run after the WL run hung up. This TDL run hosted a full triple-combo suite and WL formation testing tools, which reached total depth (TD) while overcoming hole-condition issues that had been experienced during the first run. Following this successful log run, the TDL has become the preferred contingency planning option to support WL operations in challenging wells. To date, a total of 64 jobs, including triple combo (TC), quad combo (QC), formation testing & sampling (FTS) and cross-dipole sonic (CDS) have been executed successfully with less operating time than conventional contingency processes involving wiper trips, tool pushing, or pipe conveyed logging. This track record confirms that TDL provides a fit-for-purpose solution for logging in challenging conditions.
Toempromraj, Wararit (PTTEP) | Sangvaree, Thakerngchai (PTTEP) | Rattanarujikorn, Yudthanan (PTTEP) | Pahonpate, Chartchai (PTTEP) | Karantharath, Radhakrishnan (TGT Oilfield Services) | Aslanyan, Irina (TGT Oilfield Services) | Minakhmetova, Roza (TGT Oilfield Services) | Sungatullin, Lenar (TGT Oilfield Services)
Success towards waterflood optimization requires the accessibility of downhole contribution and injection, challenging on the conventional cased-hole multi-zone completion where contribution and injection are gathering through sliding sleeve. This paper will describe the success in defining flow profile behind tubing by utilizing Temperature and Spectral Noise Logging.
With response in frequency and noise power when fluid flowing through completion accessories, perforation tunnels and porous media, fluid entry points for producer and water departure point can be located by noise logging. Additionally, conventional temperature logging can usually define degree of intake and outflow along with change in fluid phase as a result of change in temperature. In combination of these implications, downhole flow contribution and injection profile can certainly be determined even though fluid moving in and out through production tubing and casing.
Regarding pilot field implemtation in Sirikit field, two multi-zone-completed candidates have been selected, operations were carried-out for producer and injector according to the programs individually designed including logging across perforation intervals and station stops for multi-rate flow, transient and shut-in periods. Longer well stabilization is necessary for injector. In addition to production/injection logging interpretation by incorporating pressure, temperature, density and spinner data, the temperature simulation model is generated to determine downhole flowing/injecting contribution with parameters acquired during logging, for example, pressure and temperature. The other reservoir and fluid properties, e.g. permeability, thickness, hydrocarbon saturation, skin, heat conductivity and capacity have been analog based on available data from neighboring areas. Therefore, the historical data on production and injection including nearby well performance may be crucial to define necessary input to the model. In association with the interpretation of noise logging which is utilized in locating contributing/injecting zones, the interpretation strongly relies on acquired temperature data and outputs of temperature simulation model to match with measured temperature profile. However, limitations have been documented when dealing with multi-phase flow, especially in low flow rate condition – considered 5 BPD as a threshold. Sensitivity run with associated paramenters in the interpretation can significantly reduce the number of uncertainties to match with measured temperature profile.
Temperature and Spectral Noise Logging to provide input to temperature model can definitely help accessing downhole injection profile for the injector by taking benefit of one phase injecting and having contrast between injecting fluid and geothermal temperatures. This application can significantly improve the waterflood performance and optimization particularly in high vertical heterogeneous reservoirs – thief zones can be identified and shut-off consequently. However, defining downhole contribution for low-rate oil wells producing from multi-layered depleted reservoirs especially in undersaturated condition is still a challenge.
Tangkaprasert, Phakphum (PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited.) | Rattanachan, Sarit (PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited.) | Watchalapong, Pimaroon (Schlumberger Overseas S.A.)
Oil and gas industry continues to increasing demand of more cost-effective well design and operations. Thus, PTTEP Thai onshore drilling team response to the mission by enhancing well design of deep wells in Sirikit Field from three strings to two strings well. This optimization not only reduce cost per well but also unlock reserve in deeper section which used to be uneconomic.
To implement two strings design for deep wells with long open hole section (more than 2,000 mMD), there are key challenges which has to be overcome as per listed below;
Directional control issue Higher torque, drag and side force Difficulty for wireline logging and casing running operation Formation stability and lost circulation Revised Casing Design
Directional control issue
Higher torque, drag and side force
Difficulty for wireline logging and casing running operation
Formation stability and lost circulation
Revised Casing Design
To overcome these challenges, not only suite of tools and technologies have to be studied and field proven but drilling practice also has to be reviewed. Risk assessment and feasibility study has been conducted to ensure that this design optimization would results in positive outcome
Since the first implementation in 2015, more than 50 wells have been successfully drilled and completed. The longest open hole section of 2,899.3 mMD with TD of 4,202 mMD has been achieved and average cost saving of more than 25% per well has been realized. Below list the technology applied to overcome challenges;
All targets have been penetrates without directional control issue using Rotary Steerable System (RSS). High drilling torque have been mitigated using high torque drill pipe and torque reduction tools. Reamer and back-reaming out of hole have been used to smoothen wellbore which facilitate wireline logging and casing running operation. Eccentric casing shoe and low-friction centralizers have been used to further aid running casing in high angle wells. High drilling fluid weight has been used in advance to combat formations stability issue. Hence, lost circulation materials (LCMs) have been prepared to mitigate loss circulation due to high ECD. Polymer based spacer system have been used for the wells which have potential of lost circulations while cementing.
All targets have been penetrates without directional control issue using Rotary Steerable System (RSS).
High drilling torque have been mitigated using high torque drill pipe and torque reduction tools.
Reamer and back-reaming out of hole have been used to smoothen wellbore which facilitate wireline logging and casing running operation.
Eccentric casing shoe and low-friction centralizers have been used to further aid running casing in high angle wells.
High drilling fluid weight has been used in advance to combat formations stability issue. Hence, lost circulation materials (LCMs) have been prepared to mitigate loss circulation due to high ECD.
Polymer based spacer system have been used for the wells which have potential of lost circulations while cementing.
Toempromraj, Wararit (PTTEP) | Weeramethachai, Deephrom (PTTEP) | Kiatrabile, Thanita (PTTEP) | Sangvaree, Thakerngchai (PTTEP) | Nadoon, Apiwat (PTTEP) | Sompopsart, Suwin (PTTEP) | Duncan, Robert (TC Energy International LTD.) | Mai-Cao, Lan (TC Energy International LTD.) | Havalda, Richard (TC Energy International LTD.) | Havalda, Paul (TC Energy International LTD.)
The Sirikit Field, a mature onshore field operated by PTTEP in northern Thailand, derives production from sandstone reservoirs. While production from many of the shallow pays have been well-developed and optimized, comparatively few of the deeper and tighter sands have been similarly produced. Various methodologies have been trialed to enhance production from these tight sands and an examination of results will be presented in the context of geology, engineering and economics. This field, like most in the world, was produced initially by primary recovery (natural flow and various artificial lift mechanisms). Later in the development phase, secondary recovery (waterflooding) was implemented in the Sirikit Main area with the aim of improving production from the shallower, higher permeability, reservoirs. The deeper, lower permeability, sands have not undergone secondary recovery. It is foreseen that the vast majority of STOIIP can be extracted from these tight sands and will ultimately be the future of Sirikit long term production.
Several secondary recovery methods were evaluated. Waterflooding was ruled out as an option due to poor reservoir properties which were not favorable for flooding displacement as well as a high injection pressure requirement. The focus then became well stimulation as the main strategy to enhance production from these tight reservoirs. Initial well stimulation technology was the use of larger size perforation guns for the low porosity sands in order to improve reservoir penetration and overcome damage zones. Analysis after field trials showed that the deep penetration perforations had insignificant production improvement. Consequently, solid-propellant technology, which is capable of creating near wellbore fractures, was field trialed. Two types of solid-propellant were tested: "regressive" burning propellant and "progressive" burning propellant. The "regressive" burning propellant results were inconclusive; however, the "progressive" burning propellant results showed clear improvements in production. Moreover, in order to create deeper fractures, "hydraulic fracturing", which requires higher investment, was tested in parallel to the smaller scale investment perforation guns and solid-propellant; however, the results were no better than the "progressive" burning propellant. Consequently, the "progressive" burning propellant provided the positive results at the best economics.
Different well stimulation technologies may be appropriate for varying geologic, engineering and economic conditions. For tight or damaged reservoirs, progressively burning propellant may prove to be the most efficient and cost effective technology for secondary recovery.
Kulananpakdee, K. (PTTEP) | Chommali, P. (PTTEP) | Ngo, Hien (PTTEP) | Pinprayong, V. (Weatherford) | Kloos, J. (Weatherford) | Ryder, I. (Weatherford) | Villamizar, C. (Weatherford) | Baca Espinoza, I. (Weatherford)
Drilling wells in complex geological structures from offshore platforms, or onshore in areas with land access restrictions often creates complex S-shaped wells. In many such wells, high-angle doglegs cause problems with wireline key-seating, thus restricting reservoir access. When Logging While Drilling (LWD) data acquisition is not an option and Pipe-Conveyed Logging (PCL) is discarded because of its risky and time-consuming nature, many wells could end up without critical Formation evaluation data.
To overcome reservoir access challenges in the Sirikit Field in Thailand, a Through-Drill pipe Logging (TDL) technique has recently been introduced to complete formation evaluation. This method safely and effectively overcomes the complex well trajectories and associated wireline conveyance problems, such as key-seating. Slim 2.25" OD logging tools including Triple Combo (TC), Quad Combo (QC) and formation pressure tester and fluid sampler are deployed on wireline through open-ended drill pipe into open-hole without difficulties and with full well control maintained at all times.
A standard TDL operating procedure has been developed between wireline and drilling crews, allowing for safe and fast operations. The driller is able to have well control, with pipe being reciprocated regularly. Typically the drill pipe is run with a reamer shoe to allow borehole cleanout operations in the same run. The TDL deployement method is now a key component in the standard decision tree for data acquisition strategy in Sirikit Field and it has been successfully introduced in the Sirikit Field in May 2016. Since then, a total of 59 runs have been performed in 31 wells where wireline reservoir access problems were encountered, saving an estimated 1,240 hours of combined rig time not counting any potential wireline fishing jobs that would likely have occurred. A near 100% success rate is maintained, measured by reaching well TD and acquiring all desired wireline data. Petro physicist and geologists are no longer left without the crucial formation evaluation data they require for successful reservoir management.
This paper present a case study that clearly demonstrates that the TDL deployment technique can be very effective in providing safe and efficient wireline access to reservoir sections in S-shaped wells with risky wellbore conditions, where high-angle doglegs and key-seating would otherwise have restricted the ability to obtain Formation evaluation log data and fluid samples.