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The International Gas Union's (IGU) recent report on world LNG markets found that the trade increased by only 1.4 mt to 356.1 mt compared to 2019 supported by increased exports from the US and Australia, together adding 13.4 mt of exports. Asia Pacific and Asia again imported the most volumes in 2020, together accounting for more than 70% of global LNG imports. Asia also accounted for the largest growth in imports in 2020--adding 9.5 mt of net LNG imports vs. 2019. While 20 mtpa in liquefaction capacity was brought on stream in 2020, all in the US, startup of several liquefaction trains in Russia, Indonesia, the US, and Malaysia were delayed as a result of the pandemic, according to the report. The only project that was sanctioned in 2020 was the 3.25-mtpa Energia Costa Azul facility in Mexico, and in early 2021 Qatar took final investment decision (FID) on four expansion trains totaling 32 mtpa.
In situations in which two different waters are being mixed, it is desirable to measure the amounts of each in the mixed stream. If the capability exists, it is desirable to look at each constituent to see if it undergoes any phenomenon other than simple mixing. This can be a powerful technique for detecting water/rock reactions that can lead to formation damage. The fundamental concept is that mixing two waters should result in the volume-weighted average of each constituent of the two original waters, unless some chemical or biological reaction occurred. This is essentially similar in appearance to a binary phase diagram, with the endpoints of the line defined by the concentrations of the constituent in each of the water streams being mixed.
Equinor and partners Total E&P Norge AS and Vår Energi AS have struck oil and gas in a new segment belonging to the Tyrihans field in the Norwegian Sea. Exploration well 6407/1-A-3 BH in production license 073 was drilled from subsea template A at Tyrihans North. The well was drilled to a measured depth of 5332 m by semisubmersible drilling rig Transocean Norge and struck a gas column of about 43 m and an oil column of about 15 m in the Ile formation, including about 76 m of moderate to good reservoir quality sandstone. In the Tilje formation, moderate to good quality water-bearing reservoir was struck. The Tyrihans field is in the middle of the Norwegian Sea, some 25 km southeast of the Åsgard field and 220 km northwest of Trondheim.
Ithaca Energy, operator of the Captain field, has sanctioned the Captain Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Stage 2 project in the UK Central North Sea after receiving Field Development Plan Addendum consent from the Oil and Gas Authority. EOR Stage 2 is designed to significantly increase hydrocarbon recovery by injecting polymerized water into the reservoir through additional subsea wells, subsea infrastructure, and new topsides facilities. Stage 1 of the project demonstrated that polymer EOR technology can work, with the production response in line with or better than expected across all injection patterns, helping maximize economic recovery. The Captain field was discovered in 1977, in Block 13/22a located on the edge of the outer Moray Firth. The billion-barrel field achieved first production in March 1997--over 24 years ago.
Abstract Maintaining the integrity of the drilling-fluid column is vital for safety and operational efficiency. Stable, controlled fluid density provides a primary pressure barrier during the drilling phase. Non-aqueous fluids (NAFs) provide huge benefits for nearly all aspects of difficult drilling situations, yet still can have challenges related to weight suspension. The geometry and annular restrictions of modern well designs often demand low fluid rheology parameters to avoid excessive circulating pressures, and this unsurprisingly increases the risks of sagging weight material. Given the importance of understanding the fluid behaviors in these situations, operators and service companies have made significant efforts to develop reliable sag testing methods. Older methods of testing neglected movement and instead centered on mimicking the downhole conditions such as temperature and hydrostatic pressure. Variations of this static aging method addressed the critical angle where Boycott settling accelerates the sag. More complex, dynamic methods were devised later in time to provide greater insight on sag behaviors. Although engineers and scientists have made numerous strides to create a definitive sag test, the current tests have limited capabilities. Very few are capable of working in an offshore environment. Sag events continue to be costly and problematic to operators’ main objectives of drilling and completing their wells safely and efficiently. The authors address results from the current state of the art in sag testing and compare these to a proprietary dynamic procedure created in 2019. While the method is still in development, its capabilities have been well defined. Fluid samples are kept in constant motion at low-ranging shear rates and elevated temperatures to simulate sag-prone conditions downhole. Results indicate a high degree of correlation to the expected sag with different sizes of barite in low-ECD fluids.
Elyas, Mohamed (Weatherford) | Freile, Daniel Agustin (Weatherford) | Pawlowski, Maciej (Weatherford) | Tagarieva, Larisa (Weatherford) | Elaila, Shamseldin Zakrya (Kuwait Oil Company) | Sergeev, Evgeny (Kuwait Oil Company)
Abstract While drilling an 8 /2-incli section of a north Kuwait producer well, severe mud losses were encountered. Hence, it was decided to design a light weight cement for the 7-inch liner section to avoid further losses while pumping the slurry. The main objective was to achieve a hydraulic isolation to avoid any heavy remedial intervention and potential dump flood behind the liner from the high-pressure Lower Burgan (LB) to Shuaiba. Full suite of well integrity logs were ran to properly assess whether enough hydraulic isolation was in place. To evaluate the bonding quality of the cement, two independent measurements were carried out across the 7-inch liner with the ultrasonic and sonic bond logs. A subsequent temperature survey was recorded to determine any geothermal anomaly, which could be indicative of fluid movement behind the casing. Finally, oxygen activation stations were conducted based on the cement log and temperature surveys to assure no water movement behind the casing. The ultrasonic and sonic bond log measurements showed an acceptable bond quality generally. However, the top part of Shuaiba formation up to LB exhibited relatively lower bond quality. The subsequent temperature and oxygen activation logs indicated that the zonal hydraulic isolation was achieved by showing no water movement behind the 7-inch liner. The two complementary surveys helped to take the proper forward decision for this well to go ahead with the planned perforation without cement remedial squeeze, since enough hydraulic isolation was proved to be in place behind the 7-inch liner. Additionally, this saved the rig utilization time and cost by avoiding unnecessary remedial operation. This is usually a heavy-duty operation, which takes time and induces holes in the casing that should be avoided, knowing this type of operation only provides a very marginal gain in terms of isolation. Furthermore, the well is currently producing at 0% water cut after completion. The proper cement design using light weight cement and optimized casing-landing plan were crucial to achieve good cement placement against formation. The use of the right well integrity approach helped to confirm that effective hydraulic isolation was achieved. Hence all these efforts resulted in the saved rig utilization time and cost by avoiding unnecessary squeeze intervention.
Abstract This paper reviews the recently concluded successful application of a Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) system on a High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) well with Narrow Mud Weight Window (NMWW) in the UK sector in the Central North Sea. Well-A was drilled with the Constant Bottom Hole Pressure (CBHP) version of MPD with a mud weight statically underbalanced and dynamically close to formation pore pressure. Whilst drilling the 12-1/2" section of the well with statically under-balanced mud weight, to minimize the overbalance across the open hole, an influx was detected by the MPD system as a result of drilling into a pressure ramp. The MPD system allowed surface back pressure to be applied and the primary barrier of the well re-established, resulting in a minimal influx volume of 0.06 m and the ability to circulate the influx out by keeping the Stand Pipe Pressure (SPP) constant while adjusting Surface Back Pressure (SBP) through the MPD chokes in less than 4 hours with a single circulation. After reaching the 12-1/2" section TD, only ~0.025sg (175 psi) Equivalent Mud Weight (EMW) window was available to displace the well and pull out of hole (POOH) the bottom hole assembly (BHA) therefore, 3 × LCM pills of different concentrations were pumped and squeezed into the formation with SBP to enhance the NMWW to 0.035sg EMW (245 psi) deemed necessary to kill the well and retrieve BHA. MPD allowed efficient cement squeeze operations to be performed in order to cement the fractured/weak zones which sufficiently strengthened the well bore to continue drilling. A series of Dynamic Pore Pressure and Formation Integrity Tests (DPPT and DFIT) were performed to evaluate the formation strength post remedial work and to define the updated MMW. Despite the challenges, the MPD system enabled the delivery of a conventionally un-drillable well to target depth (TD) without any unplanned increase/decrease in mud weight or any costly contingency architecture operations, whilst decreasing the amount of NPT (Non Productive Time) and ILT (Invisible Lost Time) incurred. This paper discusses the planning, design, and execution of MPD operations on the Infill Well-A, the results achieved, and lessons learned that recommend using the technology both as an enabler and performance enhancer.
Abstract A large operator of a brown field offshore in the middle east has decided to provide full lower Completion accessibility and ensure prevention of open hole collapse as it can lead to various gains throughout the life of the well. Among those benefits, it provides a consolidated well bore for various production logging & stimulation tools to be deployed effectively, as well as full accessibility, conformance control and enable to provide production allocations for each zones. However there are multiple challenges in deploying lower completion liner in drains involving multiple reservoirs and geo steered wells: Well Bore Geometry, dog legs/ tortuosity etc. & differential sticking possibilities and of course the open hole friction. Due to the size of the open hole, restricted casing design and utilization of limited OD pipes further add to the complications of deploying the Lower completion liner in such brown Field wells. This paper intend to review the multi-step methodology approach implemented in recent years by the company to effectively deploy 4-1/2" Liner in 6" Horizontal Open Hole section. Among the techniques used to assist successful deployment of lower completions are: Improving hole cleaning, ensure smooth well bore with the use of directional drilling BHA, reduction of the Open Hole friction by utilizing Lubricated brines, fit for purpose Centralizers, use of drill pipe swivel devices to increase weight available to push the liner & reduce buckling tendency. With the length of open hole laterals reaching up to 10,000 ft for 6" Lower drains, open hole drag, friction & cleanliness are major components that causes challenges in deploying the Liner till TD. The use of specially formulated brines with fixed percentage of lubricants proved to significant reduce friction compared to the drilling mud used for drilling the horizontal drain. The combination of low friction brine with proper centralization / standoff which resulted in reduced contact area with the formation has also shown good results in preventing differentials sticking while running the liner through multilayer reservoirs having significantly different reservoir pressures. Another major constrain to deploy the lower completion liner in this offshore field is the very nature of the wells being primarily workover. This involves generally Tie back liners run to shallow depths to restore the integrity of wells. This limits our ability in the selection of drill pipe that can be used as only smaller OD drill pipes and HWDP can be utilized in order to deploy the Liner to bottom. On many occasions this provides only limited weight to push the Liner down to TD and impact our ability to set the liner top packer. Drill pipe rotating swivel devices have been utilized to improve our weight availability & transferability to push the liner down and to set the liner top packers. In order to provide independent deactivation mechanism for the drill pipe swivel and to have complete success in our liner deployments, a dedicated ball activated sub was designed to deactivate the swivel acting as back up in case primary deactivation methods fails during liner setting. The combined use of all these techniques enabled the company to deploy 4.5" Liners in 6" Horizontal drains with high success in this offshore Brown Oil field of UAE. This resulted in better well construction and complete access to lower drains over the life of the wells.
Kholaif, Yasser (NOSPCO) | Elmaghraby, Mahmoud (NOSPCO) | Nago, Annick (Baker Hughes) | Embry, Jean-Michel (Baker Hughes) | Basu, Pramit (Baker Hughes) | Perumalla, Satya (Baker Hughes) | El-Said, Mohamed M. (Baker Hughes) | ElMenshawy, Ali (Baker Hughes) | Baghdadi, Ahmed (Baker Hughes)
Abstract Drilling challenges in offshore Nile Delta have been largely documented in the literature. Operators are often confronted with drilling problems related to shale swelling, cavings, tight holes in combination with increased risks of lost circulation in some of the highly depleted formations. The Kafr El Sheikh shale in particular, has been linked to many instances of wellbore instability, due to its mineralogical composition (estimated to be mostly smectite, >70%). From offset well drilling experience, it could also be noticed that insufficient mud weight was often used to drill through the Kafr El Sheikh Shale, causing wellbore failure in shear due to lack of support of the wellbore wall. In the past, multiple mud weight designs have been implemented relying solely on pore pressure as lower bound of the mud window. With the increased use of geomechanics, it has been demonstrated that the lower bound should be taken as the maximum of the pore pressure and borehole collapse pressure, thus accounting for the effects of formation pressure, horizontal and vertical stresses, rock properties as well as wellbore trajectory. It has been proven that slight overpressure is often encountered halfway through the Kafr El Sheikh formation, which would typically result in slightly higher borehole collapse pressures. In the study fields, the operator expressed interest in drilling highly deviated wells (> 60-70 degrees). This raised concerns for increased drilling challenges, especially in the Kafr El Sheikh. A comprehensive and systematic risk assessment, design of a fit-for-purpose solution and its implementation during drilling took place in the fields of interest. Offset well data analytics from the subject fields supported a holistic evaluation of drilling risks associated with the Kafr El Sheikh, providing good understanding of stress sensitivity on deviation, azimuth and lithology. Upon building a robust geomechanical model, calibrated against offset well drilling experience, pre-drill mud weight and drilling practices recommendations were provided to optimize the drilling program. Near real-time geomechanical monitoring was implemented which helped to manage the model uncertainties. The implementation of a holistic risk assessment, including geomechanical recommendations and near real-time geomechanical monitoring, was effective to lead the drilling campaign successfully. As a result, three high angle wells (> 60-70 degrees) were drilled through the challenging Kafr El Sheikh formation without any hole instability. An integrated risk assessment of hole instability, managed in stages (pre-drill and during drilling), has helped to understand and simulate the behaviors of the formation. Proactive decisions have established a controlled drilling environment for successful operations.
Abstract There has been discrepancy between the pre-calculated and actual T&D values, because of the dependence of the model’s predictability on assumed inputs. Therefore, to have a reliable model, the users must adjust the model inputs; mainly friction coefficient in order to match the actual T&D. This, however, can mask downhole conditions such as cutting beds, tight holes and sticking tendencies. This paper aims to introduce a machine learning model to predict the continuous profile of the surface drilling torque to detect the operational issues in advance. Actual data of Well-1, starting from the time of drilling a 5-7/8-inch horizontal section until one day prior to the stuck pipe event, was used to train and test a random forest (RF) model with an 80/20 split ratio, to predict the surface drilling torque. The input variables for the model are the drilling surface parameters, namely: flow rate, hook load, rate of penetration, rotary speed, standpipe pressure, and weight-on-bit. The developed model was used to predict the surface drilling torque, which represents the normal trend for the last day leading up to the stuck pipe incident in Well-1. Then the model was integrated with a multivariate metric distance, Mahalanobis, to be used as a classifier to measure how close an actual observation is from the predictive normal trend. Based on a pre-determined threshold, each actual observation was labeled as "NORMAL" or "ANOMAL".