Because of the higher cost of scale management for subsea (SS) operations compared with platform or onshore fields, and because of the more limited opportunities for interventions, it is becoming increasingly important to obtain and use real production data from wells rather than estimated zone flow contribution from simple permeability (k) and height (h) models for scale-squeeze-treatment design.
In this paper I discuss how scale-squeeze treatments were designed (coreflood evaluation of inhibitor retention/release) and deployed for three SS heterogeneous production wells. A permeability model and a layer-height model were initially developed for each well using detailed geological log data, estimated water/oil-production rates, and the predicted water-ingress location within the wells. Two wells were each treated three times using bullhead scale-squeeze treatments, with effective scale control being reported over the designed lifetime. A production log was acquired before the fourth squeeze campaign of these two wells. This information was incorporated into the squeeze simulation to allow review of the ongoing third squeeze and enhance design accuracy for the upcoming fourth squeezes. A third well was treated twice before production-logging data became available, and the performance of treatments to this well is also assessed.
The production-logging-tool (PLT) data proved very important in changing the understanding of fluid placement and the water-ingress location during production, resulting in changes to the isotherm values used to achieve effective history match to the inhibitor returns (with PLT data incorporated in all three wells), and most significantly affecting the squeeze lifetimes. It was possible to significantly extend the treatment lifetime of two of the wells (cumulative produced water to minimum inhibitor concentration), while the treatment life of one well was greatly reduced because of the PLT-data-modified model predictions.
In this paper I outline the process of reservoir/near-wellbore modeling that is used for most initial squeeze-treatment service companies deployed in the North Sea. I will highlight in detail the value that PLT data can provide to improve the effectiveness of squeeze treatments in terms of understanding of fluid placement during squeeze deployment and water-ingress location within heterogenous production wells. The intention of this paper is to highlight the value that these types of data can provide to improve scale management (squeeze treatment and water shutoff) such that the value created more than offsets the cost of acquiring such information for SS production wells.
Many investigations have been discussed and it is a well-recognized fact that sonic wave velocity is not only influenced by its rock matrix and the fluids occupying the pores but also by the pore architecture details of the rock bulk. This situation still brings a lack of understanding, and this study is purposed to clearly explain how acoustic velocity and quality factor correlate with porosity, permeability and details internal pore structure in porous rocks.
This study employs 67 sandstone and 120 carbonate core samples collected from several countries in Europe, Australia, Asia, and USA. The measured values are available for porosity
At least eight rock groups are established from rock typing with its Kozeny constant. This constant is a product of pore shape factor
As a novelty, the empirical equations are derived to estimate compressional velocity and quality factor based on petrophysical parameters. Furthermore, this study also establishes empirical equations for predicting porosity and permeability by using compressional wave velocity, critical porosity, and PGS rock typing.
Weijermans, Peter-Jan (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.) | Huibregtse, Paul (Tellures Consult) | Arts, Rob (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.) | Benedictus, Tjirk (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.) | De Jong, Mat (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.) | Hazebelt, Wouter (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.) | Vernain-Perriot, Veronique (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.) | Van der Most, Michiel (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.)
The E17a-A gas field, located offshore The Netherlands in the Southern North Sea, started production in 2009 from Upper Carboniferous sandstones, initially from three wells. Since early production history of the field, the p/z plot extrapolation has consistently shown an apparent Gas Initially In Place (GIIP) which was more than 50% higher than the volumetric GIIP mapped. The origin of the pressure support (e.g. aquifer support, much higher GIIP than mapped) and overall behavior of the field were poorly understood.
An integrated modeling study was carried out to better understand the dynamics of this complex field, evaluate infill potential and optimize recovery. An initial history matching attempt with a simulation model based on a legacy static model highlighted the limitations of existing interpretations in terms of in-place volumes and connectivity. The structural interpretation of the field was revisited and a novel facies modeling methodology was developed. 3D training images, constructed from reservoir analogue and outcrop data integrated with deterministic reservoir body mapping, allowed successful application of Multi Point Statistics techniques to generate plausible reservoir body geometry, dimensions and connectivity.
Following a series of static-dynamic iterations, a satisfying history match was achieved which matches observed reservoir pressure data, flowing wellhead pressure data, water influx trends in the wells and RFT pressure profiles of two more recent production wells. The new facies modeling methodology, using outcrop analogue data as deterministic input, and a revised seismic interpretation were key improvements to the static model. Apart from resolving the magnitude of GIIP and aquifer pressure support, the reservoir characterization and simulation study provided valuable insights into the overall dynamics of the field – e.g. crossflows between compartments, water encroachment patterns and vertical communication. Based on the model a promising infill target was identified at an up-dip location in the west of the field which looked favorable in terms of increasing production and optimizing recovery. At the time of writing, the new well has just been drilled. Preliminary logging results of the well will be briefly discussed and compared to pre-drill predictions based on the results of the integrated reservoir characterization and simulation study.
The new facies modeling methodology presented is in principle applicable to a number of Carboniferous gas fields in the Southern North Sea. Application of this method can lead to improved understanding and optimized recovery. In addition, this case study demonstrates how truly integrated reservoir characterization and simulation can lead to a revision of an existing view of a field, improve understanding and unlock hidden potential.
We all identify the need to integrate climate change into corporate strategy, with a profitable Carbon Capture Utilisation & Storage (CCUS) business model the elusive goal. Today, CCUS forms 10% of the R&D program of Total, a founding contributor to the OGCI Climate Investments fund. Here in the North East of Scotland, UK and Scottish Governments, along with project developer Pale Blue Dot Energy and Total are providing match funding to the European Commission’s Connecting Europe Facilities fund to progress feasibility work on the Acorn CCS project. As society continues to drive an expectation beyond hydrocarbons, what proposal might the North East of Scotland offer in response?
To meet ambitious emissions reduction targets, the UK must envisage radical changes to the energy economy. Already affecting power generation, these changes must drive further into transport and domestic/industrial energy consumption. Two technologies which may play a part in the decarbonisation of the UK energy business are CCUS and the use of Hydrogen as an energy carrier and energy store, with several studies showing that clean hydrogen is potentially the lowest cost route to meeting UK emission targets in multiple sectors. This builds on the UK’s world class gas network infrastructure, which can be repurposed to avoid becoming stranded, avoiding the enormous expense of increasing the capacity of the electricity transmission network, much of which would lie idle during the summer. The UK gas network carries approximately three times more energy than the electricity network, at one third the unit cost to consumers, and meets winter peaks that are five times greater.
Different to previous CCUS projects, and having the Oil and Gas Authority (OGA)’s first carbon dioxide appraisal and storage licence award, ACORN is an opportunity to evaluate a brownfield CCUS solution to capture, transport and store post-combustion CO2, combined with an upside through emerging pre-combustion CO2 capture technology relating to the production and sale of bulk hydrogen produced from natural gas with a zero-emission target. Located at the St Fergus Gas Terminal – an active industrial site where around 35% of all the natural gas used in the UK comes onshore. ACORN is designed as a "low-cost", "low-risk" CCUS project, to be built quickly, taking advantage of existing oil and gas infrastructure and well understood offshore storage sites. The Acorn Hydrogen project undertakes to evaluate and develop an advanced reformation process which will deliver the most energy and cost-efficient industrial hydrogen production process whilst capturing and sequestering CO2 emissions. An initial phase offers a full-chain demonstration project, an essential step toward commissioning the concept and subsequent commercialisation of large-scale CCUS and Hydrogen deployment in the UK.
SPE Offshore Europe represents an ideal opportunity to update both the region and industry on results, observations, and conclusions with respect to the evolving development architecture, selected process technologies, Government and gas transportation regulatory engagement as this, the leading Scottish CCS project continues its journey toward a final investment decision.
The UK and the international community have an increasing interest in the benefits of a hydrogen-based economy. Existing and emerging technologies that are inherently carbon-neutral and potentially carbon-negative are increasingly attractive, given the challenge of meeting climate targets to prevent climate change and build a clean growth strategy. The integration of clean energy technologies across the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS) can increase the flexibility of the energy system, driving efficiency, cost reduction and enhancing the value of natural resources.
There are over 250 platforms and 45,000 kilometres of pipeline installed within the United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS). As these assets near the end of their economic life oil and gas operators are planning to decommission these facilities in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Current cost forecasts for this activity exceed £58bn with approximately 50% borne by the operators and 50% borne by UK taxpayers.
The Hydrogen Offshore Production (HOP) project identifies an alternative to decommissioning by providing re-use options for offshore infrastructure while addressing the national challenge of a low carbon energy supply. In doing so, the project will prove the feasibility of several decentralised hydrogen generation, storage and distribution options that collectively provide a scalable offshore hydrogen production solution, whilst offsetting a portion of decommissioning costs that are currently forecast for all offshore assets and infrastructure.
HOP will tackle the challenge of bulk hydrogen production by (1) proposing viable environmental and economic technology solutions to be deployed offshore, (2) developing a new Industrial Hydrogen Production test site to both prove the industrial benefits and to aid commercialisation of emerging technology and, (3) conducting market analysis and producing the business case for the transformation of existing offshore infrastructure, re-purposing assets and demonstrating the viability for decentralised generation of hydrogen.
As part of the project, an Industrial Hydrogen Production test site will be established with Flotta (Orkney Islands) being proposed as the location. This will provide a test bed for technology, fast-tracking its development and providing a route for accelerated commercial deployment. Within a region of considerable renewable energy generation, the island of Flotta is ideally placed to benefit from local expertise, existing supply chain and advanced technology solutions. For example, the Industrial Hydrogen Production test site would greatly benefit from lessons learnt at the nearby Orkney Water Testing Centre.
The newly formed independent producer will operate assets in UK, the Netherlands, Norway, and Denmark. Royal Dutch Shell CEO Ben van Beurden is to speak at the opening plenary session at SPE Offshore Europe 2017, which is being held in Aberdeen from 5–8 September. CEO Bob Dudley, who calls BP’s UK North Sea business one of its “crown jewels”, will address hundreds of delegates at the opening plenary session at Europe’s foremost exploration and production technical conference and exhibition. Following years of deliberation, the European Union (EU) released a recommendation on unconventional hydrocarbons and a related communication in 2014. This paper traces the origins and development of these documents, which provide vital clues for the road ahead in European shale-gas regulation.
Moving their directional drillers into their Houston real-time remote operations centers has improved drilling efficiency for two of the top shale producers. This paper presents an interdisciplinary approach to the description of tectonic dislocations made on the basis of interpretation of seismic data, petrophysical analysis of well-logging data in horizontal wells, and inversion of a multifrequency propagation tool. This work presents a systematic geosteering work flow that automatically integrates a priori information and real-time measurements to update geomodels with uncertainties and uses the latest model predictions in a decision-support system (DSS). The use of intelligent software is on the rise in the industry and it is changing how engineers approach problems. A series of articles explores the potential benefits and limitations of this emerging area of data science.
This paper introduces a new core-analysis work flow for determining resistivity index (RI), formation factor (FF), and other petrophysical properties directly from an as-received (AR) set of core samples. This paper discusses a study undertaken to gain better understanding of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characteristics of volcanic reservoirs with different lithologies. Is the Cloud Mature Enough for High-Performance Computing? Data volumes are growing at an exponential rate. How can high-performance computing solutions help operators manage these volumes?
With the purchase, the growing, privately-held Chrysaor Holdings will expand its UK North Sea production to 185,000 BOE/D. The state-run offshore company has found a gas and condensate field that holds an estimated 250 million BOE. The latest example of the offshore sector's march toward automated wellbore construction will take shape later this year in the North Sea. Just 2 months after issuing more than a hundred licenses, the Oil and Gas Authority begins the process again for a whole new set of blocks. The company announced it would “initiate the process” of marketing its UK Central North Sea fields as part of a portfolio review.