Below is a list of basins and fields; however this is a short list since there are more than 65,000 oil and gas basins and fields of all sizes in the world. However, 94% of known oil fields is concentrated in fewer than 1500 giant and major fields. Most of the world's largest oilfields are located in the Middle East, but there are also supergiant ( 10 billion bbls) oilfields in India, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Kazakhstan, and Russia. Add any basins or fields that are missing from this list!
Jarrahian, Khosro (Heriot-Watt University) | Sorbie, Kenneth (Heriot-Watt University) | Singleton, Michael (Heriot-Watt University) | Boak, Lorraine (Heriot-Watt University) | Graham, Alexander (Heriot-Watt University)
Scale inhibitor (SI) squeeze treatments in carbonate reservoirs are often affected by the chemical reactivity between the SI and the carbonate mineral substrate. This chemical interaction may lead to a controlled precipitation of the SI through the formation of a sparingly soluble Ca/SI complex which can lead to an extended squeeze lifetime. However, the same interaction may in some cases lead to uncontrolled SI precipitation causing near-well formation damage in the treated zone. This paper presents a detailed study of the various retention mechanisms of SI in carbonate formations, considering system variables such as the (carbonate) formation mineralogy, the type of SI and the system conditions. Apparent adsorption (Γapp) experiments, described previously (
For all SIs, both adsorption (Γ) and precipitation (�?) retention mechanisms were observed, with the dominant mechanism depending on SI chemistry, temperature and mineralogy. Differences were observed between the "apparent adsorption" (Γapp) levels of polymeric, phosphonate and phosphate ester scale inhibitors, as follows: For the polymeric SIs (PPCA, PFC and VS-Co), the highest retention levels were observed at low pH for all carbonate substrates, due to the increase in divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) available from rock dissolution for SI-M2+ precipitation. For phosphonate (DETPMP) and phosphate ester (PAPE) SIs, the retention level was greatest at higher pH values, as the SI functional groups were more dissociated and hence available for complexation with M2+ ions. The polymeric VS-Co showed the lowest amount of precipitation (Γapp ~ 1.2 mg/g) in contact with dolomite substrate due to the presence of sulphonate groups (low pKa); indeed this showed low Γapp which was predominantly pure adsorption. However, a small amount of precipitate was observed by ESEM/EDX and PSA. For polymeric inhibitors, the retention level (Γapp) was highest on calcite (highest relative calcium content), followed by limestone and then dolomite. Phosphonate and phosphate ester SIs showed the highest retention levels on dolomite (higher final solution pH and more SI dissociated), followed by limestone and calcite. For all SI species, higher retention (more precipitation, �?) was observed at elevated temperature. At lower temperatures, a more extended region of pure adsorption was observed for all SIs.
For the polymeric SIs (PPCA, PFC and VS-Co), the highest retention levels were observed at low pH for all carbonate substrates, due to the increase in divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) available from rock dissolution for SI-M2+ precipitation. For phosphonate (DETPMP) and phosphate ester (PAPE) SIs, the retention level was greatest at higher pH values, as the SI functional groups were more dissociated and hence available for complexation with M2+ ions.
The polymeric VS-Co showed the lowest amount of precipitation (Γapp ~ 1.2 mg/g) in contact with dolomite substrate due to the presence of sulphonate groups (low pKa); indeed this showed low Γapp which was predominantly pure adsorption. However, a small amount of precipitate was observed by ESEM/EDX and PSA.
For polymeric inhibitors, the retention level (Γapp) was highest on calcite (highest relative calcium content), followed by limestone and then dolomite. Phosphonate and phosphate ester SIs showed the highest retention levels on dolomite (higher final solution pH and more SI dissociated), followed by limestone and calcite.
For all SI species, higher retention (more precipitation, �?) was observed at elevated temperature. At lower temperatures, a more extended region of pure adsorption was observed for all SIs.
The information presented in this study will help us in SI product selection for application of squeeze treatments with longer squeeze lifetimes in carbonate reservoir based on mineralogy and reservoir conditions. In addition, this study provides valuable data for validating models of the SI/Carbonate/Ca/Mg system which can be incorporated in squeeze design simulations.
Produced water composition analysis provides evidence of what geochemical reactions are taking place in the reservoir. This information can be useful for predicting and managing oilfield mineral scale resulting from brine supersaturation.
This paper presents results of a study of the produced brine compositions from three wells in a field operated in the North Sea, with geochemical modelling complementing the analysis. The findings presented in this work provide evidence of magnesium depletion and sulphate retardation in a sandstone reservoir at 130° C.
This adjusted formation water composition was then used for calculations of the injection water fraction in each of the produced water samples. The Reacting Ions Toolkit was used to plot data in a variety of formats, including ion concentration vs. ion concentration, ion concentration vs. injection water fraction and ion concentration vs. time to identify trends and to examine the extent of involvement of the various ions in geochemical reactions.
The breakthrough of sulphate, a component primarily introduced during seawater flooding, was retarded during injection water breakthrough. Observed sulphate concentrations were lower than predicted for the case of brine/brine interactions only. The implication of this sulphate reduction was lower minimum inhibitor concentration required to control scale formation and longer squeeze treatment lifetimes for the operator.
A brine/rock interaction mechanism was proposed that involves magnesium depletion and is reproduced in the reactive transport model. 1D reactive transport modelling was performed to match possible
The practice of squeeze treatments to oil/gas production wells to prevent inorganic scale formation has been applied for over 30 years and during that period different mechanisms to retain the inhibitor chemical have been evaluated. The simple mechanism of inhibitor retention, adsorption/desorption has been complemented over the years by enhanced adsorption via mutual solvent and full precipitation of the active inhibitor onto the mineral surface of the reservoir.
Previously published studies have shown that the retention of phosphonate scale inhibitors in sandstone reservoirs can be enhanced through the addition of a ‘squeeze life enhancer’. This chemical, typically, a highly charged, low molecular weight polymer can be applied in either the preflush or overflush stage of the scale squeeze treatment. To date these studies have been conducted using low temperature (85°C) sandpack testing.
This paper details the laboratory work carried out under high temperature (146°C) field conditions to qualify the use of the squeeze life enhancer for field application.
The results of the formation damage/inhibitor return corefloods using an MEA phosphonate (EABMPA, Ethanolaminebis(Methylene Phosphonic Acid)) and polymeric squeeze life enhancer additive are presented. The coreflood results indicated that the addition of the additive within the overflush stage of the squeeze program resulted in a 19% extension of the inhibitor lifetime. The ability to extend the squeeze treatment was translated into reduced injected squeeze fluid treatment volume as injected fluid volumes was an issue for the wells being treated and therefore reduced associated oil deferment costs.
The paper will also present field data obtained from the initial two field trial treatments which were carried out in a North Sea field. The trial well had been treated more than ten times previously with the same MEA phosphonate as applied in the enhancer trial making direct comparison of the treatment performance possible. The treatment program applied to the wells resulted in no change to the clean-up rates of the treated well and no process upset during well reflow. The initial scale inhibitor returns from the field trial treatments showed the expected improvement suggested from the coreflood study.
The study brings value to the industry by providing the process to follow for qualifying and trialling a new technology in a challenging high temperature scaling environment with the results from the field supporting the carefully designed chemical selection and evaluation program.
Polymeric scale inhibitors used for scale squeeze treatments to control downhole inorganic scale don't perform well when pumped into the reservoir due to the poor adsorption properties on the rock surface. However polymeric inhibitors are more temperature stable than phosphonates and have higher tolerance to elevated cation compositions in the water. Therefore, a new chemistry composed of metal nanoparticles coupled with a polymeric scale inhibitor was developed to improve the squeeze life.
The use of nanoparticles in the oilfield has increased in recent years; this development shows how nanoparticles can be used to increased surface area and retention of scale inhibitor in the reservoir. Metal nanoparticles were selected because of their low environmental toxicity and low formation damage potential during injection and flowback.
A fast and efficient synthesis method was developed to create a novel chemistry that couples nanoparticles with polymeric inhibitors to produce a product that it was hoped would have excellent squeeze properties in multiple rock permeabilities and compositions.
Core flood experiments were conducted on intact core under onshore Permian conditions of temperature pressure and brine composition as well as conditions simulating an offshore conventional field (results will be reported separately). The experimental results will be presented to show the extended squeeze lifetime of the new product in comparison to a traditional polymeric scale inhibitor retained by adsorption and also will give insight into the mechanisms by which the nanoparticle/scale inhibitor enhances squeeze life, both by increased adsorption as well as prolonging release of scale inhibitor.
The product developed is able to significantly increase the squeeze life of polymeric scale inhibitors by up to 10x depending on the minimum inhibitor concentration required. The retention of the inhibitor into the rock is significantly increased, while the release is controlled at above minimum effective concentration for extended periods. The theoretic explanation for this is a metal-inhibitor bond, proprietary to the product that allows for continuous release of inhibitor into the solution, without release from the rock. Traditional squeeze returns have a Freundlich isotherm, this product also follows a similar return curve, however does not suffer from the high concentration release at the beginning of the treatment flowback.
These results show that nanoparticles can be used in the oilfield to enhance existing scale inhibitors as well as create new combination products that can improve performance. Use on nanoparticles in the oilfield is an evolving topic that has significant room to grow and expand into multiple areas of oilfield chemistry. This study showcases the application of nanoparticles to enhance performance of polymeric scale inhibitors for squeeze application while maintaining a cost effective product that is environmental responsible.
Development of High Pressure, High Temperature (HPHT) petroleum reservoirs demands the understanding of temperature effects on reservoir properties as well as models including temperature effects. Using an extension to Biot's effective stress equation, we derived estimates of the nonisothermal effective stress in the deep North Sea Basin. We found that compared to the conventional isothermal effective stress the non-isothermal effective stress is smaller and results indicate that at great depth a neutral effective stress exists so that the post-Triassic formations are floating on the highly overpressured older layers.
Exploring the major controlling factors on resistivity depth trends in sedimentary basins is an interesting subject from both scientific and commercial perspectives. Our study aims to develop rock-physics based resistivity modeling methods and workflows that can be applied in any given sedimentary basin, through xS-integration of quantitative geological knowledge linking lithology with in-situ subsurface conditions such as temperature and salinity. In this work, we present a workflow that utilizes the Waxman-Smits model and existing wells in the target basin to perform a prediction of the horizontal resistivity depth trends at any appointed location in the basin. The workflow will be demonstrated using well data from the Norwegian Barents Sea; the predictability of our method will be presented through comparison against a real horizontal resistivity log measurement.
The methodology and workflow are general, in principle they can be applied to sedimentary basins around the world. So far, we have tested the workflow and compared the predicted horizontal resistivity depth trends against log resistivity responses acquired in wellbores across the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) — the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. Our predictions capture the overall resistivity depth trends successfully in all selected wells within each individual basin across the shelf. The predicted resistivity depth profiles can be used as a priori models in controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data inversion schemes, or to provide ‘what if’ scenarios as part of the reservoir property analysis and risk assessment in an exploration phase.
Presentation Date: Tuesday, October 16, 2018
Start Time: 1:50:00 PM
Location: Poster Station 22
Presentation Type: Poster
This paper was prepared for presentation at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 23-25 July 2018. The URTeC Technical Program Committee accepted this presentation on the basis of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). The contents of this paper have not been reviewed by URTeC and URTeC does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, or timeliness of any information herein. All information is the responsibility of, and, is subject to corrections by the author(s). Any person or entity that relies on any information obtained from this paper does so at their own risk. The information herein does not necessarily reflect any position of URTeC.
The practice of scale squeeze treatments to oil/gas production wells to prevent inorganic scale formation has been applied for over 30 years and during that period different mechanisms to retain the inhibitor chemical have been evaluated. Many of these studies have focused on sandstone reservoir with less extensive studies carried out on carbonate substrates. This paper details work carried out using'squeeze life enhancer' chemicals within the Preflush and Overflush stages utilising a copolymer containing a quaternary amine group to evaluate this chemicals effect on phosphonate scale inhibitor retention process. Phosphonate scale inhibitors are known to provide excellent squeeze lifetimes in carbonate reservoirs due to their strong interaction with the negatively charged formation using hydrogen ion bonding at low pH or calcium ion bridging at higher pH however with the aid of an enhancer chemical it was hoped to help the retention/release process and so provide further improved squeeze lifetimes. The location of the enhancer chemical within the squeeze process was the focus of the study. Enhancing adsorption of the scale inhibitor is not objective of this application study rather ensuring that the retained chemical is released into the flowing brine during production which is a challenge in carbonate reservoirs. Laboratory work will be presented which evaluates the effect of using a polyaspartate enhancer within either the preflush or overflush stages to extend the lifetime of a commonly applied phosphonate scale inhibitor. These tests have been carried out using pack floods at 85 C with synthetic Middle East produced water and the details of the extension in treatment life observed are correlated to the inhibitor type tested and the sequence of application of the polymer enhancer utilised. The study shows how the different functional groups within the scale inhibitor interact with the carbonate mineral surface and polymer enhancer to extend treatment lifetimes and so potentially reducing the frequency of squeeze treatments and therefore total cost of operations and it is order of application of these chemicals to the rock surface that prove to be critical to the extension observed.
ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigate through lab measurements, the mechanical anisotropies of a sample of calcareous shale from Duvernay Formation, Alberta. The elastic properties of the materials are measured acoustically with ultrasonic pulses transmitted through the samples. Samples are cut into prisms allowing piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic wafer to be directly attached to measure P and S wave velocities at a set of strategic angles to the material's symmetry in order to obtain the full set of material constants concurrently. The beam ‘skew’ effect in the anisotropic material is a recurrent issue in the analysis of such data. Particular efforts are taken to account for this through beam modeling and the additional receiving transducers. The measurements are conducted on ‘dry’ jacketed samples to confining pressures of 180 MPa with no attempt at control pore pressure. For reference, the maximum in-situ stress in the Duvernay Formation is estimated to be less than 150 MPa at 3000 m depth. The five stiffness essential to describe the engineering behaviors of these materials are subsequently obtained and evaluated.
Shale is the most common rock present in the sediments of the crust of the earth. Shale rocks deposited over the carbon platforms of sedimentary basin often consist high organic content and are considered source rock for hydrocarbon reservoirs nearby. Additionally, due to its low permeability, hydrocarbon formed within shale is often ‘locked’ within shale’s rock matrix and cannot be exploited through conventional methods. In the recent decades, the rapid development of hydraulic fracturing techniques allows extraction of hydrocarbon from shale rocks known as ‘shale oil’ or ‘shale gas’ brings up needs to quantify the mechanical properties of shale, in addition to more traditional needs of reflection seismic image processing. A hydraulic fracturing operation requires injection of high-pressure fluid into the reservoir to fracture the reservoir rocks and allows extraction of hydrocarbons through these created pathways. Rocks’ response to subsurface fluid injection relies on many critical geomechanical parameters (i.e., rock strength, in-situ stress, etc.), which needs to be a constrained by the mechanical properties of the formation rocks. Additionally, constraining the in-situ stress, predicting wellbore stabilities and better location of micro-seismic events all require detailed knowledge of the formation rocks’ response to such external loadings.