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Moving their directional drillers into their Houston real-time remote operations centers has improved drilling efficiency for two of the top shale producers. This paper presents an interdisciplinary approach to the description of tectonic dislocations made on the basis of interpretation of seismic data, petrophysical analysis of well-logging data in horizontal wells, and inversion of a multifrequency propagation tool. This work presents a systematic geosteering work flow that automatically integrates a priori information and real-time measurements to update geomodels with uncertainties and uses the latest model predictions in a decision-support system (DSS). The use of intelligent software is on the rise in the industry and it is changing how engineers approach problems. A series of articles explores the potential benefits and limitations of this emerging area of data science.
In tectonically influenced regions, potential hydrocarbon traps are subject to complex states of stress. This paper presents a coupled 3D fluid-flow and geomechanics simulator developed to model induced seismicity resulting from wastewater injection. Knowing which horizon crude oil flows from and in what proportions has been a major challenge for shale producers. Increasingly, they are turning to new technology to find the answer. Seismic imaging provides vital tools for the exploration of potential hydrocarbon reserves and subsequent production-planning activities.
Despite the global downturn, the long-term transition to net zero presents a major opportunity to create new multibillion industries based around the North Sea. Cross-sector collaboration and major state/private sector intervention, together with strong leadership, will be key. Nearly everything’s on the table as companies aim to shore up portfolios by curtailing investments and dumping low-priority assets. An independent study pegged the cost of the project at about $2.6 billion, 80% of which Norway’s government planned to fund. The ministry said there is uncertainty about Northern Lights’ benefits and that it could prove to be unprofitable.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Mazarine Energy has started a two-well drilling campaign in the Zaafrane permit in central Tunisia. The first well, Cat-1, has been spudded and is targeting the Ordovician interval at a planned total depth of 3900 m. Mazarine (45%) is the operator with partners ETAP (50%) and MEDEX (5%). Asia Pacific China National Offshore Oil Company (CNOOC) has made a natural gas discovery at its deepwater Lingshui 25-1 well, northeast of Ledong sag in the South China Sea's Qiongdongnan basin, where the average water depth is 980 m. The well was drilled to a depth of 4000 m and encountered 73 m of oil and gas pay. During a test, the well produced approximately 35 MMcf/D of natural gas and 395 BOPD. CNOOC holds full operated interest in the license.
Hydrocarbon (re-)development projects need to be evaluated under uncertainty. Forecasting oil and gas production needs to capture the ranges of the multitude of uncertain parameters and their impact on the forecast to maximize the value of the project for the company. Several authors showed, however, that the oil and gas industry has challenges in adequately assessing the distributions of hydrocarbon production forecasts.
The methods for forecasting hydrocarbon production developed with digitalization from using analytical solutions to numerical models with an increasing number of gridblocks (“digital twins”) toward ensembles of models covering the uncertainty of the various parameters. Analytical solutions and single numerical models allow calculation of incremental production for a single case. However, neither the uncertainty of the forecasts nor the question in which the distribution of various outcomes the single model is located can be determined. Ensemble-based forecasts are able to address these questions, but they need to be able to cover a large number of uncertain parameters and the amount of data that is generated accordingly.
Theory-guided data science (TGDS) approaches have recently been used to overcome these challenges. Such approaches make use of the scientific knowledge captured in numerical models to generate a sufficiently large data set to apply data science approaches. These approaches can be combined with economics to determine the desirability of a project for a company (expected utility). Quantitative decision analysis, including a value of information (VoI) calculation, can be done addressing the uncertainty range but also the risk hurdles as required by the decision-maker (DM). The next step is the development of learning agent systems (agent: autonomous, goal-directed entity that observes and acts upon an environment) that are able to cope with the large amount of data generated by sensors and to use them for conditioning models to data and use the data in decision analysis.
Companies need to address the challenges of data democratization to integrate and use the available data, organizational agility, and the development of data science skills but making sure that the technical skills, which are required for the TGDS approach, are kept.
This paper presents a coupled 3D fluid-flow and geomechanics simulator developed to model induced seismicity resulting from wastewater injection. Knowing which horizon crude oil flows from and in what proportions has been a major challenge for shale producers. Increasingly, they are turning to new technology to find the answer. Seismic imaging provides vital tools for the exploration of potential hydrocarbon reserves and subsequent production-planning activities. The acquisition of high-resolution, regularly sampled seismic data may be hindered by physical or financial constraints.
A new licensing round will open up 136 blocks in the Arctic Barents Sea. Neptune must pay Energean a break-up fee of $5 million for cancelling what was to be a $250 million deal. For the offshore sector, the collapse in oil demand and prices came just as the market was beginning to look up. Now many companies are focused on survival. This article discusses how various market segments, regions, and companies are faring in “the new reality.”
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Mazarine Energy has started a two-well drilling campaign in the Zaafrane permit in central Tunisia. The first well, Cat-1, has been spudded and is targeting the Ordovician interval at a planned total depth of 3900 m. Mazarine (45%) is the operator with partners ETAP (50%) and MEDEX (5%). Asia Pacific Australia Pacific LNG has received its first gas from coal seam gas fields in the Surat basin. The gas is being carried to its liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility on Curtis Island, near Gladstone, Queensland, by a 530-km high-pressure gas pipeline, which was recently commissioned. With the arrival of gas, Australia Pacific can begin commissioning power generator facilities on the island. The company expects to deliver its first LNG in the middle of the year.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) scale formation in production wells and process systems is a well-known challenge in the oil and gas industry. Various strategies are selected to prevent scale formation (proactive, e.g. by scale inhibitors) or to remove scale when it has formed (reactive, e.g. by acid treatment), depending on the severity of the problem and the complexity of the production system. Lack of access for remedial actions may be a limiting factor in subsea and unmanned installations and scaling may represent a larger risk of production losses or system failures.
The scale management strategy and design of new wells during field development are based on thermodynamic calculations, kinetic studies and field observations. Experience has shown that wells with high temperature and high pressure drops are more prone to downhole calcium carbonate scaling.
Field experience has been collected and systemized based on operations of oil and gas-condensate fields in the North Sea and Norwegian Sea. The observations have been compared to thermodynamic calculations and aligned to kinetic modelling, defining the critical saturation ratio (
The Oseberg field in the North Sea is producing from oil and gas-condensate wells at various reservoir temperatures (98-128°C). The field comprises platform and subsea production systems and one unmanned wellhead platform. Seawater has been injected for pressure support in some areas, while gas injection or depletion are the driving forces in other segments. The CaCO3 scale potential and management strategy have been evaluated for new wells in a field life perspective. Risk of production losses and maximizing cost benefit are key selection criteria, and the variety of wells requires individual solutions. The paper discusses the need for downhole continuous injection of scale inhibitor, compared to batch scale inhibitor squeeze treatments and/or acid treatments. Guidelines for optimum operation of these wells to avoid scaling are presented.