Gaol, Calvin (Clausthal University of Technology) | Wegner, Jonas (Clausthal University of Technology) | Ganzer, Leonhard (Clausthal University of Technology) | Dopffel, Nicole (BASF SE) | Koegler, Felix (Wintershall Holding GmbH) | Borovina, Ante (Wintershall Holding GmbH) | Alkan, Hakan (Wintershall Holding GmbH)
Utilisation of microorganisms as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method has attracted much attention in recent years because it is a low-cost and environmentally friendly technology. However, the pore-scale mechanisms involved in MEOR that contribute to an additional oil recovery are not fully understood so far. This work aims to investigate the MEOR mechanisms using microfluidic technology, among others bioplugging and changes in fluid mobilities. Further, the contribution of these mechanisms to additional oil recovery was quantified.
A novel experimental setup that enables investigation of MEOR in micromodels under elevated pressure, reservoir temperature and anaerobic and sterile conditions was developed. Initially, single-phase experiments were performed with fluids from a German high-salinity oil field selected for a potential MEOR application: Brine containing bacteria and nutrients was injected into the micromodel. During ten days of static incubation, bacterial cells and in-situ gas production were visualised and quantified by using an image processing algorithm. After that, injection of tracer particles and particle image velocimetry were performed to evaluate flow diversion in the micromodel due to bioplugging. Differential and absolute pressures were measured throughout the experiments. Further, two-phase flooding experiments were performed in oil wet and water wet micromodels to investigate the effect of in-situ microbial growth on oil recovery.
In-situ bacteria growth was observed in the micromodel for both single and two-phase flooding experiments. During the injection, cells were partly transported through the micromodel but also remained attached to the model surface. The increase in differential pressure confirmed these microscopic observations of bioplugging. Also, the resulting permeability reduction factor correlated with calculations based on the Kozeny-Carman approach using the total number of bacteria attached. The flow diversion of the tracer particles and the differences in velocity field also confirmed that bioplugging occurred in the micromodel may lead to an improved conformance control. Oil viscosity reduction due to gas dissolution as well as changes in the wettability were also identified to contribute on the incremental oil. Two-phase flow experiments in a newly designed heterogeneous micromodel showed a significant effect of bioplugging and improved the macroscopic conformance of oil displacement process.
This work gives new insights into the pore-scale mechanisms of MEOR processes in porous media. The new experimental microfluidic setup enables the investigation of these mechanisms under defined reservoir conditions, i.e., elevated pressure, reservoir temperature and anaerobic conditions.
The Slootdorp field has a complex structure with most reserves in Rotliegend sandstone, which is communicating with gas bearing Zechstein carbonates. The Rotliegend reservoir is bounded by a large fault, which might become seismogenic during depletion. A 3D geomechanical model was built, based on the faults and horizons in the geological model. Both the Rotliegend and Zechstein reservoirs were included in the model. The model was populated with geomechanical properties derived from logs, LOT's (leak off tests) and regional data on the stress field. Also, overburden properties from previous studies on nearby fields were used.
The pressure input was obtained from reservoir simulation. It is important to include the water leg pressure in the pressure input since the Rotliegend gas reservoir is in contact with an active aquifer. Pressure reduction drives the compaction of the reservoir, which induces stresses on the faults causing slippage. Since the water is quite incompressible, a large pressure reduction in the water leg may be caused temporarily by a rising gas water contact.
It turned out that slippage is not expected at the lowest gas pressure using a conservative estimate of the critical friction coefficient on the fault of 0.55. Sensitivity analysis on the most important input parameters was performed with a range that can be expected for such a field. The result was that the maximum critical stress ratio could range between 0.46 and 0.53 for the expected uncertainty of input parameters. The geomechanical modeling shows that an active aquifer has a dominant, mitigating effect on seismic risk, which can explain why many reservoirs show no seismicity in the Netherlands, although other effects could also play a role.
Hjeij, Dawood (Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science and Engineering, Hamad Bin Khalifa University) | Abushaikha, Ahmad (Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science and Engineering, Hamad Bin Khalifa University)
This paper investigates the performance of the mimetic finite difference (MFD) discretization scheme for modelling fluid flow in anisotropic porous media. We apply numerical benchmark studies on the MFD scheme to measure its accuracy when the horizontal permeability is much larger than the vertical one in a diagonal permeability tensor. We also run full-field simulations to investigate the modelling capability of this method and compare it to other advanced discretization schemes.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) A drillstem test was performed on the Zafarani-2 well--located about 80 km offshore southern Tanzania. Two separate intervals were tested, and the well flowed at a maximum of 66 MMscf/D of gas. Statoil (65%) is the operator, on behalf of Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation, with partner ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Tanzania (35%). The FA-1 well--located in 600 m of water in the Foum Assaka license area offshore Morocco--was spudded. The well targets Eagle prospect Lower Cretaceous resources. Target depth is 4000 m. Kosmos Energy (29.9%) is the operator, with partners BP (26.4%),
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Kosmos Energy has made a significant deepwater gas discovery off Senegal. The Guembeul-1 well in the northern part of the St. Louis Offshore Profond license in 8,858 ft of water encountered 331 net ft of gas pay in two excellent-quality reservoirs, the company reported. The results demonstrate reservoir continuity and static pressure communication with the Tortue-1 well, which suggests a single gas accumulation. The mean gross resource estimate for the Greater Tortue complex has risen to 17 Tcf from 14 Tcf as a result of the Guembeul discovery, the company said. Kosmos, the operator, has a 60% interest in the well. Timis (30%) and Petrosen (10%) hold the remaining interest. In Salah Gas has started production from its Southern fields in Algeria.
The negative impacts of high water cut in mature fields are well known within the oil & gas industry. Water production preventive & mitigative measures are well established and documented: Wireline or coil tubing conveyed diagnostic and work-over operation(s) is one of such common preventive measures. This paper, through a series of integrated case studies will highlight the best practices for wireline conveyed logging and work-overs with one common goal, i.e. to achieve the water production to a minimum acceptable level in deviated high water cut wells.
The prolific XYZ field is located in the Northern North Sea and it produces oil from Jurassic Brent Group. Oil production from the XYZ reservoir started in early 1978, with 43 producing wells and 15 water injection wells targeting the Rannoch, Etive, Ness and Tarbert sands. Oil and gas production peaked in 1982 and since then production has steadily declined for this field. The increasing water cut in the wells of this field is presenting a challenge for the operating companies.
Production profiling using advanced Production Logging data, casing/tubing integrity check using Multi-Finger Caliper data and saturation monitoring using cased-hole Reservoir Saturation data was done in these wells to ascertain the water producing zones and do the subsequent well intervention, if required. A strategic diagnostic test was designed to precisely evaluate the flow profile using advance production logging tool consisting of 5 mini-spinners & 6 sets of each electrical and optical probes; Real-time data assessment and analysis was done for different flowing rate surveys to validate the findings. Additionally, casing condition was evaluated using Multi-Finger Caliper to decide Plug or Straddle setting depths. Also, new hydrocarbon bearing zones were identified based on cased-hole saturation tool results. The analysis results boosted the cumulative oil production.
This study demonstrates the importance of making real time interpretation decisions at the wellsite and the benefit of developing a good working relationship between wellsite engineers and onshore technical support. The results of this work led to the unequivocal determination of major oil and water producing zones in deviated high water cut (95%+) wellbores which further helped in taking workover decisions to carry out water shut off, utilizing either plug or straddle technology. The findings of caliper data determined the appropriate plug or straddle setting depths. The results were compared and confirmed with the nearby well dynamic pressures and production data.
The technical approach and processes applied to wells of XYZ field is a valuable example guide to decide water shut off zones and technique of similar plays. This study consists of three integrated case studies from a mature field where water shut-off zones and technologies were decided based on the findings of production logging and well integrity data. Also, re-perforation jobs were performed based on the cased-hole reservoir saturation data results. These strategic workover operations ultimately led to significant increase in hydrocarbon production.
On the Vega gas condensate and oil field in the Norwegian North Sea, two high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) gas condensate wells on one subsea template in 370 m water depth were acid and scale inhibitor treated in order to improve productivity by acid scale removal and prevent future scaling. Significant amount of work was undertaken on design and qualification of the treatment fluids. In order to reduce operation time and increase efficiency, a novel one-time connection concept was utilized. During the operations, wells were kicked off after energizing with gas bullheaded from the neighbouring well. The treatment fluids were designed to reduce consequences for the host facility due to H2S generated during the operation - this required optimization after understanding of the H2S source as witnessed in prior treatments.
The new concept with one-time connection was successfully employed and allowed for three subsequent well treatments in a row, thus saving at least two days vessel operations time. The gas injection from the neighbouring well - the one not treated at the moment - allowed for an efficient start-up of the treated well without need for larger nitrogen injection which would have led to contamination and potentially to flaring due to off-spec gas. The introduction of a batch with pH neutralizer and H2S scavenger batch into the treatment design to be placed into the production pipeline reduced H2S liberation and production to the host facilities, thus limiting the operational stress on the platform. Productivity of well A1 showed an immediately significant increase after the operations, whereas productivity of well A2 required a longer clean-up than originally anticipated.
Lu, Cong (Southwest Petroleum University) | Li, Junfeng (Southwest Petroleum University) | Luo, Yang (SINOPEC Southwest Oil & Gas field Company) | Chen, Chi (Southwest Petroleum University) | Xiao, Yongjun (Sichuan Changning Gas Development Co. Ltd) | Liu, Wang (Sichuan Changning Gas Development Co. Ltd) | Lu, Hongguang (Huayou Group Company Oilfied Chemistry Company of Southwest) | Guo, Jianchun (Southwest Petroleum University)
Temporary plugging during fracturing operation has become an efficient method to create complex fracture network in tight reservoirs with natural fractures. Accurate prediction of network propagation process plays a critical role in the plugging and fracturing parameters optimization. In this paper, the interaction between one single hydraulic fracture within temporary plugging segment and multiple natural fractures was simulated using a complex fracture development model. A new opening criterion for NF penetrated by non-orthogonal HF already was implemented to identify the dominate propagation direction of HF under plugging condition. Fracture displacements and induced stress field were determined by the three dimensional displacement discontinuity method, and the Gauss-Jordan and Levenberg-Marquardt methods were combined to handle the coupling between rock mechanics and fluid flow numerically. Numerical results demonstrate that the opening and development of NF are mainly dominated by its approaching angle and relative location. For a certain NF crossed by HF within plugging segment, HF tends to propagate along the relative upper part when the approaching angle is less than 90°, otherwise the lower part will be easier to open. The farther interaction position is away from HF tip, the easier NF with approaching angle less than 30° or larger than 150° can be open, and the outcome will be opposite if the approaching angle is larger than 45° or less than 135°. Higher approaching angle and plugging strength is necessary for expanding the position scope of NF that can be opened around HF. Under the impact of plugging, fluid pressure in HF plummets at the beginning of NF opening and keeps decreasing until NF extending for a certain distance or encountering secondary NFs. Fluid pressure drop occurs mainly in the unturned NF, together with the width of unturned NF is significantly lower than that of turned NF and HF. Sensitivity analysis shows that the main factors, such as geometry, aperture profile, and fluid pressure distribution, affecting the network progress under temporary plugging condition are the horizontal differential stress, NF position, approaching angle, plugging time, and plugging segment length. The simulation results provide critical insight into complex fracture propagation progress under temporary plugging condition, which should serve as guidelines for welling choosing and plugging optimization in temporary plugging fracturing.
Jin, Yan (China University of Petroleum at Beijing) | Jin, Guodong (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Syed, Shujath Ali (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Jin, Miao (China University of Petroleum at Beijing) | Hussaini, Syed Rizwanullah (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals)
Subsurface unconventional shale samples are always scarce. Outcrop analogs are often used as an alternative to enhance the understanding of the corresponding reservoir formation. One assumption is usually made that rock composition and properties between the outcrop and subsurface samples remain the same or similar, despite differences in their burial and diagenetic histories. This paper presents a comparative case study to investigate the similarities and differences in rock properties between outcrop and subsurface samples from the same formation.
Two subsurface and two outcrop samples from the Lower Silurian Longmaxi formation in Sichuan Basin of China were characterized to determine their mineralogical, geochemical, petrophysical, elastic and mechanical properties. Micro-CT images showed that one subsurface sample was drilled normal to the bedding, while other three samples were parallel to the bedding. Two subsurface samples differ in their mineralogy – the horizontal sample is clay-dominant, while the other one is predominantly comprise of quartz, dolomite and calcite minerals, very similar to two outcrop samples. All four samples are thermally immature and their Tmax is less than 435 °C. Subsurface samples have the highest TOC of 3.75% but relatively lower HI and OI. Other pyrolysis parameters are very similar between subsurface and outcrop samples. All samples have very low porosity of less than 2.5% and permeability of less than 9 nD, although subsurface samples have a relatively higher value.
The discrepancy in mineralogical composition, especially the clay content, results in different elastic and mechanical behavior of outcrop and subsurface samples. The subsurface sample is highly anisotropic in both compressional and shear wave anisotropy due to the large amount of clay minerals, while one outcrop sample exhibits the strong shear wave anisotropy only and the other one is almost isotropic. Subsurface samples have lower values of Young's modulus, peak stress, Mohr-Coulomb failure parameters and unconfined compressive strength than outcrop samples.