A giant brownfield re-development project with long horizontal wells was initiated to arrest production decline mainly caused by a lack of pressure support and free gas influx from the large gas cap.
Key value drivers for the project are developing an understanding of the layers with regards to gas breakthrough, and achieving capital efficiency through low-cost well delivery, better planning and technology applications.
Firstly, the field has been segmented based on the analysis of multiple factors influencing the free gas production. It considers geological aspects such as the study of depositional environment and diagenesis, structural elements such as high permeability streaks and fractures, dynamic behaviors such as the water injection efficiency, gas cap expansion or coning.
Secondly, numerical simulations were then run in order to rank the sectors based on the expected model performance, compare them with real data categorization, and test the effect of the new proposed development schemes such as water injection at gas-oil contact and long horizontal wells equipped with downhole control valves.
It was found that each sector has a specific production mechanism and appropriate developments were recommended and then tested in the simulation. For instance, high permeability streaks play a significant role on the development of some sectors instigating a big difference of maturity between sub-layers, early water or gas breakthrough. Also, the inefficiency of water injection is one of the biggest issues of the field. Most of the water injectors are located too far from the oil producers, and have a low injectivity due to the often degraded facies in the aquifer because of diagenesis. This leads to a lack of pressure support that is counterbalanced by the gas injection, ending up with a lot of high GOR wells and a bad sweep from the top of the structure as the gas tends to by-pass the oil.
Simulation work showed that several remaining zones are safe for immediate development and should be prioritized for development in the near future. On the other hand, some of the mature layers prone to gas and water breakthrough need a boost for development, such as water injection at gas-oil-contact, artificial lift, low pressure system, GOR relaxation. Tight and undeveloped reservoirs are improved by implementing long horizontal drains.
Green fields today mostly can be regarded as marginal fields and successfully developed. It covers the complete assessment of the oil and gas recovery potential from reservoir structure and formation evaluation, oil and gas reserve mapping, their uncertainties and risks management, feasible reservoir fluid depletion approaches, and to the construction of integrated production systems for cost effective development of the green fields. Depth conversion of time interpretations is a basic skill set for interpreters. There is no single methodology that is optimal for all cases. Next, appropriate depth methods will be presented. Depth imaging should be considered an integral component of interpretation. If the results derived from depth imaging are intended to mitigate risk, the interpreter must actively guide the process.
As active oil reservoirs mature, marginal fields development and management is becoming increasingly important.
Early identification of high degree reservoir heterogeneity served as starting point for an in-depth analysis for both, geologist and reservoir engineer.
This paper describes complex approach applied during evaluation and development of marginal oil field "Is" located in Serbia (Pannonian Basin).
Effective transition from exploration to development took place in 3 stages.
I-stage: 1 exploration well drilled, detailed analysis (seismic, sedimentology, core, PVT) and interpretation (log, well-test). Identification of vertical heterogeneity led to detailed analysis, which resulted in local depositional environment theory. Integration of seismic attribute and sedimentological analysis results was done. Due to geological uncertainties several 3D models were done for STOIIP range estimation. Recovery factor range was estimated using statistical, analytical and simulation model approach.
II-stage: 1 exploration well and 1 development well drilling and detailed analysis update.
III-stage: drilling of 5 development wells and continuous update of geological and simulation models.
Major uncertainties identified during I-stage were regarding to: reservoir structure, vertical and lateral heterogeneity, major fault permeability and OWC depth. Additionally, existence of active aquifer affected recovery factor estimation range.
I-stage analysis showed that, depending on depositional environment 4 different rock types are presented by conglomerates, conglo-breccia, breccia and metamorphic rocks.
The target formation (conglomerates) were formed by proluvial fan. This deposits are characterized by an alternation of rhythms (fragment size and orientation, conglomerate size, terrigenous material sorting).
Proluvial fan boundaries were detected on the seismic attribute map.
Second exploration well location was a result of multidisciplinary analysis during I-stage. Well was successful and highly informative during II-stage as it proved oil saturation behind major fault, reduced previous STOIIP estimates and confirmed presence of active aquifer.
STOIIP and reservoir structure excluded possibilities for regular/typical well patterns, therefore each well location was carefully selected, while total well number was determined based on estimated recovery factor.
Complex multidisciplinary approach used during this project, can be an example for successful and effective marginal heterogeneous oil field development. Understanding the reasons for reservoir heterogeneity together with confident estimate of recovery factor, gave us success during each new well placement and total well number determination.
Heavy and extra-heavy crude oil reservoirs hold physicochemical characteristics that can frequently turn their operation into a technical and economic challenge. Typically, heating techniques are used to decrease oil viscosity. Areas with steam injection are susceptible to developing formation damage mechanisms such as scale precipitation that gradually restricts the flow of fluid towards the wellbore and ultimately decreases overall well productivity and/or injectivity. Acidizing treatments to either remove obstructing scale or to further increase near wellbore permeability are handled with caution: heavy oil is very sensitive and interaction with such conventional acids include asphaltene precipitation, sludge and emulsions.
Suplacu de Barcau is a shallow, heavy oil reservoir (16°API average) located in the northwestern part of Romania. It has been successfully operated with aid of both in-situ combustion and steam injection since 1960. Scaling tendency of condensed water from steam and its incompatibility when mixed with formation water frequently ends in scale build-up in injector and producer wells respectively. Identifying a fluid able to clean-out the scale deposits while being fully compatible with sensitive heavy oil, involved extensive screening a compatibility testing protocols. A formulation based on the chelating agents N,N, Glutamic Acid Diacetic Acid (GLDA) and Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) were found not only to effectively dissolve the plugging materials, but remarkably it was also noticed that it reduced significantly the oil viscosity, which made this formulation the most appropriate treatment for field application.
A number of 10 producer wells treated with the GLDA and DTPA based fluids delivered promising results by increasing oil rates by 3- 6 times of increase, significant improving steam coverage and penetration, decreasing drawdown and skin and ultimately enhancing the mobility of asphaltic oil. This paper describes the stimulation approach followed from diagnosis, fluid screening and selection, treatment design, job execution and results. Furthermore, the outcome of this stimulation campaign has shattered the myth that this type of stimulation does not work in hard oil.
A numerical simulation study was conducted to explore feasibility of gas cap and oil column co-development plans. Unlike conventional development schemes that entail to optimally produce first from oil column while deferring gas cap development, the co-development strategy studied here involves simultaneous production from oil column and gas cap. The drive mechanism consists of down-dip peripheral water injection for oil column in conjunction with barrier water injection at or near gas-oil contact that is designed to separate the gas cap from the oil column and thereby facilitate gas production. The basic objective of the study is twofold: to assess the merits of the concept of barrier water injection and to identify key subsurface and operational parameters that have most significant impact on oil and gas recovery. Extensive numerical simulations were conducted to explore the conditions under which the concept of barrier water injection is favourable as a recovery process. Important issues related to the viability of the development concept are how fast a barrier water can be established, how long it can be sustained and how many wells are needed. Furthermore, effects of gas cap relative size, reservoir geometry (e.g., dip-angle and surface area of the gas-oil contact), trapped gas, rock heterogeneity and off-take rates have been investigated in detail. The work shows that the feasibility of the co-development scheme is mainly controlled by pressure maintenance and balance of injection, relative size of gas cap, reservoir geometry and rock heterogeneity.
Polymer flooding is a mature Enhanced Oil Recovery process which is used worldwide in many large- scale field expansions. Encouraged by these positive results, operators are still looking at applying the process in new fields even in the context of low oil prices and are evaluating its feasibility in more challenging reservoir conditions: high salinity, high hardness and high temperature. Several solutions have been proposed to overcome the limitations of the conventional hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in these types of challenging environments: biopolymers such as xanthan or scleroglucan, associative polymers, or co- or ter-polymers combining acrylamide with monomers such as ATBS or NVP. Each of these solutions has its advantages and disadvantages, which are not always clear for practicing engineers. Moreover, it is always interesting to study past field experience to confront theory with practice. This is what this paper proposes to do.
The paper will first review the limits of conventional HPAM and other polymers that have been proposed for more challenging reservoir conditions. But more than that, it will focus on the field experience with each of these products to establish some practical guidelines for the selection of polymers depending on the reservoir and fluid characteristics.
One first result of this review is that the limits of conventional HPAM may not be as low as usually expected. Biopolymers appear very sensitive to biodegradation and their success in the field has been limited. Associative polymers appear better suited to near-wellbore conformance control than to displacement processes and some of the new co and ter-polymers are currently being field tested with some measure of success. It appears that the main challenge lies with high temperature rather than high salinity; some field projects are currently ongoing in high salinity (200 g/L) and hardness.
The paper will help set the current limits for polymer flooding in terms of temperature, salinity and hardness based on laboratory work and field experience. This will prove a useful guide for practicing engineers looking to pilot polymer injection in challenging reservoir conditions.
We explore the possibility to use digital rocks to determine poroelastic parameters which are difficult to extract from well-log or laboratory measurements. The Biot coefficient and the drained pore modulus are important in the compaction problem. The pore modulus represents the ratio of pore volume change to confining pressure when the fluid pressure is constant. In laboratory experiments, bulk volume changes are accurately measured by sensors attached to the outer surface of the rock sample. In contrast, pore volume changes are notoriously difficult to measure because these changes need to quantify the pore boundary deformation. Hence, accurate measures of the drained pore modulus are challenging. We simulate static deformation experiments at the pore-scale utilizing digital rock images. We model an Ottawa F-42 sand pack obtained from X-ray micro-tomographic images. We calculate the change in pore volume using a new post-processing algorithm, which allows us to compute the local changes in pore volume due to the applied load. This process yields an accurate drained pore modulus. We then use an alternative estimate of the drained pore modulus. We exploit its relation to the drained bulk modulus and the solid phase bulk modulus (i.e., Biots coefficient) using the digital rock workflow. Finally, we compare the drained pore modulus values obtained from these two independent analyses and find reasonable agreement.
Presentation Date: Thursday, October 18, 2018
Start Time: 8:30:00 AM
Location: 202A (Anaheim Convention Center)
Presentation Type: Oral
ABSTRACT: Wellbore instability and formation sand production pose potential risks for wellbore drilling, completion and production operations. In many sandstone reservoirs worldwide, sand production has been observed to accompany oil and gas production. In this study, we aim to estimate, predict and quantify wellbore instability and sand production potentials in the Hajdúszoboszló field, Pannonian Basin, Hungary, using the Mechanical Earth Model (MEM). Our study relies on petrophysical log data obtained from an onshore gas well within the field as input data. Our 1-D MEM utilizes a workflow that develops wellbore and sand failure mechanisms, first creating the mechanical stratigraphy of the reservoir rock; followed by estimating the pore pressure, overburden stress, rock strength, rock elastic properties, and horizontal stresses of the reservoir rock with reference to the depth of stratigraphic column, from compressional slowness, shear slowness, density, porosity and shale volume. Lastly, we conduct a wellbore stability and sand management analysis. Our results show the mechanical stratigraphy of unconsolidated sandstone and shale distribution in the reservoir, wellbore shear and tensile failures, wellbore breakout and breakdown pressures, wellbore sensitivity analysis, sanding interval analysis, critical drawdown pressure (CDDP) profile and sand failure zones. Based on careful observation of our results, we predict the wellbore intervals with high sand production potentials and wellbore instability within the reservoir formations. Therefore, we suggest significant wellbore failure during drilling process and also a high possibility of sand production into the wellbore during well completion at a formation interval of 550-937 m. Although there is need for data from additional wells in the field to be incorporated into our model prediction, we suggest that our preliminary model can be useful for critical decision making during drilling and completion operations across the Hajdúszoboszló field, Pannonian Basin, Hungary. In addition, our study provides a platform for further investigation into wellbore stability and sanding analysis in other parts of the Pannonian Basin where available well data can also be incorporated in our model.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding is a mature technology in oil industry, which finds broad attention in oil production during tertiary oil recovery (EOR). After five decade’s developments, there are many successful reports for CO2 miscible flooding. However, operators recognized that achieving miscible phase is one of big challenge in fields with extremely high minimum miscible pressure (MMP) after considering the safety and economics. Compared with CO2 miscible flooding, immiscible CO2 flooding demonstrates the great potentials under varying reservoir/fluid conditions. A comprehensive and high-quality data set for CO2 immiscible flooding are built by collecting various data from books, DOE reports, AAPG database, oil and gas biennially EOR survey, field reports and SPE publications. Important reservoir/fluid information, operational parameters and project performance evaluations are included, which provides the basis for comprehensive data analysis. Combination plot of boxplot and histogram are generated, where boxplots are used to detect the special cases and to summarize the ranges of each parameter; histograms display the distribution of each parameter and to identify the best suitable ranges for propose guidelines.
Results show that CO2 immiscible flooding could recover additional 4.7 to 12.5% of oil with average injection efficiency of 10.07 Mscf/stb; CO2 immiscible technique can be implemented in light/medium/heavy oil reservoirs with a wide range of net thickness (5.2 - 300 ft); yet in heavy oil specifically reservoir (oil gravity <25 °API) with thin layer (net thickness< 50 ft) is better.
In 2017 MOL celebrated the 80th anniversary of the first HC discovery of Hungary within the current territory of the country. This long history is coupled with also a long history of different EOR experiments and projects. Laboratory tests already started in the fifties followed by field applications in the sixties. The objective of this paper is to introduce the currently ongoing EOR related projects based on MOL's EOR history by highlighting the key technologies and projects.