Africa (Sub-Sahara) Petroceltic International said that the first of up to 24 new development wells planned in Algeria's Ain Tsila gas and condensate field was successful. The AT-10 well, situated about 2 miles from the AT-1 field discovery well, reached a total depth of 6,578 ft. Wireline logs indicated that the expected initial offtake rate would be comparable to the AT-1 and AT-8 wells, both of which test-flowed at more than 30 MMcf/D. Petroceltic is the operator with a 38.25% interest in the production-sharing contract that covers the Ain Tsila output. The remaining interests are held by Sonatrach (43.375%) and Enel (18.375%). Sonangol reported that it has found reserves in the Kwanza Basin of Angola that could total 2.2 billion BOE, including reserves in a block jointly owned with BP. Block 24, operated by BP, holds an estimated 280 million bbl of condensate and 8 Tcf of gas, totaling 1.7 billion BOE, Sonangol said in a statement seen by Reuters.
This paper was prepared for presentation at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 23-25 July 2018. The URTeC Technical Program Committee accepted this presentation on the basis of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). The contents of this paper have not been reviewed by URTeC and URTeC does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, or timeliness of any information herein. All information is the responsibility of, and, is subject to corrections by the author(s). Any person or entity that relies on any information obtained from this paper does so at their own risk.
Hossain, M. Enamul (Nazarbayev University) | Gharbi, S. H. (King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals) | Abduljabbar, A. M. (King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals) | Al-Rubaii, M. (King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals)
The drilling industry is going to face challenges due to lack of manpower, and new operational hazard in near future. In addition, drilling wells are also moving toward new and challenging operations such as deep water, shale oil, and harsh environment. Another difficulty to make the situation more difficult is that huge number of drilling experts are retiring from the industry soon, and they are going to be replaced by new, young, unexperienced engineers. The industry need to develop unconventional solution to overcome this situation. Some operation centres such as real-time operation centers and the geosteering operation centers can help. However, due to the human capabilities, these centers can handle a small fraction of the total drilling operations. One of the solutions is to utilize the computational power to develop artificial intelligent (AI) models that assist the drilling engineers and operational crews.
This paper discussed the development of an AI model which identify the loss circulation incidents. The model identifies these incidents in its early symptoms, before it matures to well stability problem or well control situation. In addition, it compares the current loss circulation identification methodology, and highlight how this model was successfully able to identify same event in advance, providing the drilling engineers, operation crews and drilling fluid specialist with bigger window to mitigate the situation, and resolve it in its early stages. Moreover, the paper discussed how integrating such model with more advanced hydraulic analyses concepts can lead to more sophisticated well control detector environment, or event fast formation top identifier.
The paper pointed that the AI are widely used in different disciplines while in drilling industry it is still crawling. It is very important for the drilling industry to invest in developing more advanced AI which can assist in predicting troubles and optimize drilling operations. If these models are developed, they can open new avenues such as automation in drilling in the drilling industry where one day an AI can handle the drilling operations in the seabed of the deep ocean.
Threats to cybersecurity continue to increase in number and appear from unexpected new angles due to an increasing sophistication of cyber-attacks. A novel methodology is required not only for data protection but also to achieve safe and reliable operations at sea. The first step towards securing control systems is to make sure they are designed and operated per recognized international standards and recommendations, such as the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 27000 series, the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) 62443 family of standards, the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) framework, or the IADC (International Association of Drilling Contractors) cybersecurity guidelines. In addition, testing and probing these systems and their associated networks for possible vulnerabilities and robustness under high traffic loads are important to verify that the implementation of the design is safe, secure and carried out in accordance with the vendor's or the system integrator's documentation. This paper provides tangible examples of findings from cybersecurity and network health tests performed on various vessels and installations, such as shuttle tankers, drilling rigs and FPSOs (floating production, storage and offloading), by DNV GL Marine Cybernetics Advisory. Typical pitfalls of on-board cybersecurity are discussed, such as inadequate protection mechanisms, installation failures and mismatches between documentation and installation, vulnerabilities in controllers, and insufficient network capacities.
Studies of modern desert dune fields allow geologists to draw conclusions about the controls that govern the development of spatial patterns of arrangement of desert landforms. This knowledge can be applied to predict the likely arrangement of architectural elements in preserved ancient desert successions. This serves as the basis for the development of more sophisticated facies, architectural-element and sequence stratigraphic models that can be applied in reservoir geology.
This study presents a series of ten bespoke facies models that demonstrate different types of aeolian-fluvial interaction documented from dune-field margin settings. These ten semi-quantitative models have been developed based on analysis of modern and ancient systems, and via comparison of literature-derived case-study examples of ancient successions using a meta-analysis approach. The presented facies models account for the nature and origin of stratigraphic complexity present in aeolian dune-field margin successions that arose in response to the combined interplay of a series of autogenic and allogenic controls.
From an applied perspective, mixed aeolian and fluvial successions are known to form several major reservoirs for hydrocarbons, including the Permian Unayzah Formation of Saudi Arabia. However, quantitative stratigraphic prediction of the three-dimensional form of heterogeneities arising from aeolian and fluvial interaction is notoriously difficult: (i) interactions observed in one-dimensional core and well-log data typically do not yield information regarding the likely lateral extent of sand-bodies; (ii) stratigraphic heterogeneities of these types typically occur on a scale below seismic resolution and cannot be imaged using such techniques.
Understanding the nature and surface expression of various types of aeolian and fluvial interaction, and considering their resultant sedimentological expression, is important for prediction and interpretation of preserved deposits of such interactions that might be recognized in the ancient stratigraphic record. Assessment can be made of the spatial scale over which such interactions are likely to occur and this has applied significance; the developed facies models facilitate the prediction of net reservoir sandbody dimensions from subsurface successions by constraining the geometry and lateral and vertical connectivity of sand bodies for specific desert system types. Assuming layer-cake correlations between neighbouring wells within stratigraphically complex reservoirs composed of mixed aeolian and fluvial facies is inappropriate; instead, a range of bespoke facies models should be utilized, each of which considers possible stratigraphic configurations and each of which has implications for likely reservoir performance.
Non-technical risks (NTR) refer to all risks and opportunities that arise from the interactions of a business with its broad range of external stakeholders (
This paper discusses stakeholder misalignment as being the root cause of key NTRs that oil industry operations have to contend with. The stakeholder web around oil and gas business has become more complex and closely knit with conflicting/overlapping interests. Added to this is the increased sophistication of external stakeholders in terms of real time access to information and the ease with which they build coalition/alliances to challenge oil companies. This is further accentuated by increased public scrutiny. Dealing with NTRs to prevent value erosion in oil and gas operations will require a strategic retrofit of the way the industry currently views and manages stakeholder issues.
As the frontier of oil & gas exploration move to very challenging geographies including deepwater, the artic, other pristine environments and countries and regions with complex socio-political structures, management of non-technical risk is increasingly defining the ability of oil companies to extract and sustain value in their portfolio. A number of authors, including
With the latest discovery of oil and gas fields in the Eastern Mediterranean region, the concern about safety accidents and oil spills in this fragile social and natural ecosystem is continuously increasing. This paper discusses the approach of the Lebanese Petroleum Administration (LPA), as the upstream oil and gas regulator in Lebanon, towards proper health, safety and environment (HSE) management of the upcoming oil and gas sector. The potential challenges to the sector are excacerbated with existing inconsistencies in regulations, conflicting mandates, weak enforceability, lack of resources and political conflicts. A review of the existing HSE legal and regulatory framework was undertaken to identify gaps and challenges in addition to the mapping of relevant stakeholders. In parallel, a benchmarking of international HSE goverance and management systems in the oil and gas sector was necessary to gauge latest approaches and best practices in the industry to guide the development of a HSE framework in Lebnaon. The analysis covered the characteristics and implications of each of the prescriptive, risk-based and hybrid approaches to HSE management. It highlighted the importance of a very clear distinction between the authority that issues the operating licenses and the authorities that regulate safety and environment in order to prevent conflict of interest and install a natural checks-and-balance system. The study proposes a risk based hybrid HSE governance framework for implementation in Lebanon, as well as, develop a roundmap for the development of this HSE regulatory framework. In parallel, and based on lessons learnt from the Jiyeh 2006 oil spill, the largest oil spill in the Eastern Mediterranenan, an update of the national oil spill contingency plan is undertaken in light of IMO and IPIECA guidelines. This study reconfirms how benchmarks, case studies and context analysis can effectively inform governance in emerging structures facilitating necessary mindset shifts and mainstreaming the needed HSE culture.
Feely, M. (National University of Ireland Galway) | Costanzo, A. (National University of Ireland Galway) | Hunt, J. (National University of Ireland Galway) | Wilton, D. (Memorial University) | Carter, J. (Nalcor Energy)
Fluid inclusions are micron scale samples of aqueous and hydrocarbon fluids trapped in annealed microfractures developed during burial, or earlier in authigenic minerals
Engineering problems in residential and other structures built during the early to mid-2000s in Dublin Ireland were discovered a few years after construction. The damage ranged from cracks in and displacement and tilting of floors to askew walls, jamming of doors and windows, exterior wall cracks, and pipe damage. The cause of the issues was initially incorrectly identified, but was ultimately attributed to the effects of heave caused by the rapid decomposition of the mineral pyrite in the crushed rock structural fill aggregate. The problem was traced to a single quarry that was mining a transitional geological formation; by the time the problems had been diagnosed, a few million cubic metres of rock had been produced at the quarry. Damages due to heave was observed in thousands of structures, primarily residences, in the Dublin area; thus the effects were significant. The problems spawned numerous litigation that occupied significant time, expenditures and resources. These cases illustrate the level of care and scientific diligence that must be applied for even mundane and low-cost construction materials such as structural fill aggregates.
Starting in the 1990s through till about 2007, the Republic of Ireland was undergoing a significant economic boom, with rapid population growth (Figure 1) that drove a wave of construction across the country. In the Dublin area, with its population of approximately 1.25 million, this growth was more pronounced, and it fueled the demand for more housing, roads, commercial, infrastructure, and other types of construction.
Given this sustained and dramatic growth, the demand for aggregate products -- including structural fill, road base materials, asphalt aggregate and concrete aggregate -- to service these projects increased dramatically during this period. The increased consumption of these aggregates resulted in the depletion of some of the existing aggregate sources. The aggregate industry responded by opening new sources of aggregate or making plans to open new supplies within a few years.
The Corrib Project is one of Shell's longer running construction projects. In the last 10 years Shell E&P Ireland Ltd (SEPIL) has worked with many contractors and has been exposed to varying levels of HSE performance. Working on HSE Culture during the project phase is always challenging, but when the project extends for over a decade the learnings can be countless. This paper shares our experiences of what worked well / not so well, and what we believe are the key enablers to creating a Goal Zero culture.
SEPIL implemented many processes, programs, initiatives, etc. to drive the Corrib HSE Culture. Highlights include Leadership engagement evolved over the project duration from game changing ‘Directors HSE Engagement Sessions’ led by the Project Director to Asset Leadership Workshops where leaders developed internally driven "I" statements on how they will change their personal behaviour, or show up as a Safety leader. Intervention Training is key, as the co-worker is normally the person best placed to prevent an incident. Training aimed to empower workers to intervene confidently with all parties on site. Training was initially conducted using external consultants but evolved over time to on-site personnel delivering the training themselves. A ‘Safety Starts with Me’ campaign (18 months) to reinforce that ownership for HSE is at the front line and to seek more support from the workforce. The campaign included "Mystery Visitors" to artificially break minor safety rules in order to provoke intervention from the workforce and assess the willingness of the workforce to intervene. Road Safety Programs led by a Road Safety Task Force. Programs adopted include free defensive driving training, road safety DVD's (for local roads), stand downs and in-vehicle monitoring systems. Activity Safety Review Panels for all non-routine construction operations. This Shell process, where the contractor presents their HSE Plan in detail, was used across the board from seismic to tunnelling and added significantly to the safety performance within the Company.
Leadership engagement evolved over the project duration from game changing ‘Directors HSE Engagement Sessions’ led by the Project Director to Asset Leadership Workshops where leaders developed internally driven "I" statements on how they will change their personal behaviour, or show up as a Safety leader.
Intervention Training is key, as the co-worker is normally the person best placed to prevent an incident. Training aimed to empower workers to intervene confidently with all parties on site. Training was initially conducted using external consultants but evolved over time to on-site personnel delivering the training themselves.
A ‘Safety Starts with Me’ campaign (18 months) to reinforce that ownership for HSE is at the front line and to seek more support from the workforce. The campaign included "Mystery Visitors" to artificially break minor safety rules in order to provoke intervention from the workforce and assess the willingness of the workforce to intervene.
Road Safety Programs led by a Road Safety Task Force. Programs adopted include free defensive driving training, road safety DVD's (for local roads), stand downs and in-vehicle monitoring systems.
Activity Safety Review Panels for all non-routine construction operations. This Shell process, where the contractor presents their HSE Plan in detail, was used across the board from seismic to tunnelling and added significantly to the safety performance within the Company.
Developing a behavioural safety culture or HSE Culture takes years. There are no short-cuts. Key challenges we recognize are: A "sheep dip approach" doesn't work. The task force approach works. On a project with over 20 million km driven we saw road traffic incidents fall from being a regular occurrence to zero incidents. Early intervention / involvement of contractor companies to get their buy-in is key. Company / Contractor leadership engagement is critical. Interventions are very personal; some individuals like them and can do them, some don't and can't. Location specific tailored HSE training programs delivered by the in-house HSE team and workforce are as good as any consultants. Useful Safety Observation programs rely on an agreed purpose for the programs, support from Senior Leaders and trust.
A "sheep dip approach" doesn't work.
The task force approach works. On a project with over 20 million km driven we saw road traffic incidents fall from being a regular occurrence to zero incidents.
Early intervention / involvement of contractor companies to get their buy-in is key. Company / Contractor leadership engagement is critical.
Interventions are very personal; some individuals like them and can do them, some don't and can't.
Location specific tailored HSE training programs delivered by the in-house HSE team and workforce are as good as any consultants.
Useful Safety Observation programs rely on an agreed purpose for the programs, support from Senior Leaders and trust.