Africa (Sub-Sahara) Petroceltic International said that the first of up to 24 new development wells planned in Algeria's Ain Tsila gas and condensate field was successful. The AT-10 well, situated about 2 miles from the AT-1 field discovery well, reached a total depth of 6,578 ft. Wireline logs indicated that the expected initial offtake rate would be comparable to the AT-1 and AT-8 wells, both of which test-flowed at more than 30 MMcf/D. Petroceltic is the operator with a 38.25% interest in the production-sharing contract that covers the Ain Tsila output. The remaining interests are held by Sonatrach (43.375%) and Enel (18.375%). Sonangol reported that it has found reserves in the Kwanza Basin of Angola that could total 2.2 billion BOE, including reserves in a block jointly owned with BP. Block 24, operated by BP, holds an estimated 280 million bbl of condensate and 8 Tcf of gas, totaling 1.7 billion BOE, Sonangol said in a statement seen by Reuters.
This paper was prepared for presentation at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 23-25 July 2018. The URTeC Technical Program Committee accepted this presentation on the basis of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). The contents of this paper have not been reviewed by URTeC and URTeC does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, or timeliness of any information herein. All information is the responsibility of, and, is subject to corrections by the author(s). Any person or entity that relies on any information obtained from this paper does so at their own risk.
Hossain, M. Enamul (Nazarbayev University) | Gharbi, S. H. (King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals) | Abduljabbar, A. M. (King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals) | Al-Rubaii, M. (King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals)
The drilling industry is going to face challenges due to lack of manpower, and new operational hazard in near future. In addition, drilling wells are also moving toward new and challenging operations such as deep water, shale oil, and harsh environment. Another difficulty to make the situation more difficult is that huge number of drilling experts are retiring from the industry soon, and they are going to be replaced by new, young, unexperienced engineers. The industry need to develop unconventional solution to overcome this situation. Some operation centres such as real-time operation centers and the geosteering operation centers can help. However, due to the human capabilities, these centers can handle a small fraction of the total drilling operations. One of the solutions is to utilize the computational power to develop artificial intelligent (AI) models that assist the drilling engineers and operational crews.
This paper discussed the development of an AI model which identify the loss circulation incidents. The model identifies these incidents in its early symptoms, before it matures to well stability problem or well control situation. In addition, it compares the current loss circulation identification methodology, and highlight how this model was successfully able to identify same event in advance, providing the drilling engineers, operation crews and drilling fluid specialist with bigger window to mitigate the situation, and resolve it in its early stages. Moreover, the paper discussed how integrating such model with more advanced hydraulic analyses concepts can lead to more sophisticated well control detector environment, or event fast formation top identifier.
The paper pointed that the AI are widely used in different disciplines while in drilling industry it is still crawling. It is very important for the drilling industry to invest in developing more advanced AI which can assist in predicting troubles and optimize drilling operations. If these models are developed, they can open new avenues such as automation in drilling in the drilling industry where one day an AI can handle the drilling operations in the seabed of the deep ocean.
Non-technical risks (NTR) refer to all risks and opportunities that arise from the interactions of a business with its broad range of external stakeholders (
This paper discusses stakeholder misalignment as being the root cause of key NTRs that oil industry operations have to contend with. The stakeholder web around oil and gas business has become more complex and closely knit with conflicting/overlapping interests. Added to this is the increased sophistication of external stakeholders in terms of real time access to information and the ease with which they build coalition/alliances to challenge oil companies. This is further accentuated by increased public scrutiny. Dealing with NTRs to prevent value erosion in oil and gas operations will require a strategic retrofit of the way the industry currently views and manages stakeholder issues.
As the frontier of oil & gas exploration move to very challenging geographies including deepwater, the artic, other pristine environments and countries and regions with complex socio-political structures, management of non-technical risk is increasingly defining the ability of oil companies to extract and sustain value in their portfolio. A number of authors, including
Feely, M. (National University of Ireland Galway) | Costanzo, A. (National University of Ireland Galway) | Hunt, J. (National University of Ireland Galway) | Wilton, D. (Memorial University) | Carter, J. (Nalcor Energy)
Fluid inclusions are micron scale samples of aqueous and hydrocarbon fluids trapped in annealed microfractures developed during burial, or earlier in authigenic minerals
The Corrib Project is one of Shell's longer running construction projects. In the last 10 years Shell E&P Ireland Ltd (SEPIL) has worked with many contractors and has been exposed to varying levels of HSE performance. Working on HSE Culture during the project phase is always challenging, but when the project extends for over a decade the learnings can be countless. This paper shares our experiences of what worked well / not so well, and what we believe are the key enablers to creating a Goal Zero culture.
SEPIL implemented many processes, programs, initiatives, etc. to drive the Corrib HSE Culture. Highlights include Leadership engagement evolved over the project duration from game changing ‘Directors HSE Engagement Sessions’ led by the Project Director to Asset Leadership Workshops where leaders developed internally driven "I" statements on how they will change their personal behaviour, or show up as a Safety leader. Intervention Training is key, as the co-worker is normally the person best placed to prevent an incident. Training aimed to empower workers to intervene confidently with all parties on site. Training was initially conducted using external consultants but evolved over time to on-site personnel delivering the training themselves. A ‘Safety Starts with Me’ campaign (18 months) to reinforce that ownership for HSE is at the front line and to seek more support from the workforce. The campaign included "Mystery Visitors" to artificially break minor safety rules in order to provoke intervention from the workforce and assess the willingness of the workforce to intervene. Road Safety Programs led by a Road Safety Task Force. Programs adopted include free defensive driving training, road safety DVD's (for local roads), stand downs and in-vehicle monitoring systems. Activity Safety Review Panels for all non-routine construction operations. This Shell process, where the contractor presents their HSE Plan in detail, was used across the board from seismic to tunnelling and added significantly to the safety performance within the Company.
Leadership engagement evolved over the project duration from game changing ‘Directors HSE Engagement Sessions’ led by the Project Director to Asset Leadership Workshops where leaders developed internally driven "I" statements on how they will change their personal behaviour, or show up as a Safety leader.
Intervention Training is key, as the co-worker is normally the person best placed to prevent an incident. Training aimed to empower workers to intervene confidently with all parties on site. Training was initially conducted using external consultants but evolved over time to on-site personnel delivering the training themselves.
A ‘Safety Starts with Me’ campaign (18 months) to reinforce that ownership for HSE is at the front line and to seek more support from the workforce. The campaign included "Mystery Visitors" to artificially break minor safety rules in order to provoke intervention from the workforce and assess the willingness of the workforce to intervene.
Road Safety Programs led by a Road Safety Task Force. Programs adopted include free defensive driving training, road safety DVD's (for local roads), stand downs and in-vehicle monitoring systems.
Activity Safety Review Panels for all non-routine construction operations. This Shell process, where the contractor presents their HSE Plan in detail, was used across the board from seismic to tunnelling and added significantly to the safety performance within the Company.
Developing a behavioural safety culture or HSE Culture takes years. There are no short-cuts. Key challenges we recognize are: A "sheep dip approach" doesn't work. The task force approach works. On a project with over 20 million km driven we saw road traffic incidents fall from being a regular occurrence to zero incidents. Early intervention / involvement of contractor companies to get their buy-in is key. Company / Contractor leadership engagement is critical. Interventions are very personal; some individuals like them and can do them, some don't and can't. Location specific tailored HSE training programs delivered by the in-house HSE team and workforce are as good as any consultants. Useful Safety Observation programs rely on an agreed purpose for the programs, support from Senior Leaders and trust.
A "sheep dip approach" doesn't work.
The task force approach works. On a project with over 20 million km driven we saw road traffic incidents fall from being a regular occurrence to zero incidents.
Early intervention / involvement of contractor companies to get their buy-in is key. Company / Contractor leadership engagement is critical.
Interventions are very personal; some individuals like them and can do them, some don't and can't.
Location specific tailored HSE training programs delivered by the in-house HSE team and workforce are as good as any consultants.
Useful Safety Observation programs rely on an agreed purpose for the programs, support from Senior Leaders and trust.
Sufficient scientific data exist to conclude that seismic airguns used in geophysical exploration have a low probability of directly harming most marine life, except at close range where physical injury is a real danger. While the use of airguns in some conditions does not appear to disturb animals, in other conditions it can result in moderate to extreme behavioral responses and/or acoustic masking over large areas (see reviews by: Clark et al., 2009; D.P. Nowacek et al., 2007; Southall et al., 2007 and original research by Miller et al., 2009, Castellote et al., 2012 and Cerchio et al., 2014). Additionally, recent studies have reported the presence of sound energy from seismic surveys over vast ranges of nearly 4000 km (Nieukirk et al., 2012), and while the potential for effects have not even been investigated at such ranges, the presence of the signals must be taken into account when evaluating overall potential for impacts. Most documented responses to seismic exploration or other intermittent human activities involving loud sounds include apparently temporary changes in behavior, but a detailed scientific understanding of the prevalence and implications of these effects remains limited. Recent efforts to include acoustic disturbance into an understanding of population level consequences are, however, promising (e.g., Harwood et al., 2011).
The European Union has recognized ocean noise as an indicator of environmental quality under its Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU 2008), and it is in the process of developing targets for achieving good environmental status for ocean noise and acute noise-producing activities; additionally, in 2014, the EU identified seismic survey noise as a factor in the preparation of environmental impact assessments (EIA). Similarly, the United States recognizes underwater noise in the preparation of environmental impact statements for oil and gas development in the regions under its jurisdiction, particularly the Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic Ocean, and Arctic Ocean (e.g., BOEM 2014). These efforts, which are still in development, are indicative of the stage and scale of efforts needed to address these critical issues.
While mitigation measures to reduce immediate potential impacts (primarily direct harm) have understandably been the historical focus of operational protocols, measuring and understanding reactions in a systematic way is in fact an important aspect of any responsible development program. However, a distinction must be made between (i) understanding the potential impacts of discrete activities of a single company or seismic survey over a relatively short time period and (ii) the general industrialization of biologically important area(s), which can result in more severe and sustained impacts on marine life (e.g., gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus, in response to noise in breeding lagoons; Gard, 1974). Another important distinction is between the terms ‘mitigation’ and ‘monitoring’. For the purposes of the current paper, mitigation will be interpreted as the efforts devoted to implementing safeguards (e.g., minimizing immediate impacts to marine wildlife) during a single seismic survey, while monitoring refers to the collection of information during a survey that can be used later to test for impacts potentially caused by the survey and to design future mitigation efforts.
We have recently learned a valuable lesson with respect to baseline data. The fact that insufficient data existed for many Gulf of Mexico species, cetacean and otherwise, because of limited sampling prior to the Deepwater Horizon disaster bespeaks a broad failure on the part of management. This failure is limiting our ability to assess the true impacts of the Gulf disaster in retrospect, and therefore it is also limiting our ability, and perhaps also our willingness, to anticipate and plan for future prevention and remediation. Unfortunately, the inadequacy of baseline biological data from the U.S. Gulf of Mexico is not unusual. In fact, many places around the world where significant seismic exploration is ongoing or is projected to occur suffer from similar, or worse, baseline data shortfalls. Given the international and transboundary nature of noise from marine seismic surveys, their ubiquity as well as growth, and the presence of numerous other sources of ocean noise, a responsible path forward should focus on the creation of legally binding international commitments for the management and minimization of noise and international standards for monitoring and mitigation.
Legault, Jean M. (Geotech Lt.) | Lymburner, Josh (Crone Geophysics & Exploration Ltd.) | Ralph, Kevin (Crone Geophysics & Exploration Ltd.) | Wood, Peter (Zenyatta Ventures Ltd.) | Orta, Marta (Geotech Ltd.) | Prikhodko, Alexander (Geotech Ltd.) | Bournas, Nasreddine (Geotech Ltd.)
On January 19TH, 2012, Zenyatta Ventures Ltd. (Zenyatta) announced the discovery of a very rare type of hydrothermal graphite deposit on its Albany Project. The discovery was based on drill testing of anomalies identified by airborne electromagnetic survey flown in 2010 by Geotech Ltd. using its prototype VTEMMAX time-domain EM system. Crone Geophysics & Exploration Ltd. (Crone) was contracted by Zenyatta to perform surface time-domain EM (TDEM) surveys on the Property during February and March 2013. Crone targeted the drill-confirmed East and West graphitic breccia pipes using an in-loop and out-of-loop configuration to couple with their top and steeply dipping edges, respectively, and successfully outlined their lateral extents.
While conducting an exploration program targeting nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and platinum group metals (PGMs) Zenyatta made the discovery of a very rare type of hydrothermal graphite deposit in 2011 on their Albany Graphite Project located 30km north of the Trans-Canada Highway near Hearst Ontario. The Albany Project area had been largely unexplored in the past as a result of swamp and the younger Phanerozoic (460-360 Ma) cover rocks, up to 200m thick, overlying the prospective Archean rocks. However, recent advances in airborne electromagnetic (EM) technology had allowed deeper penetration/resolution through the Fe-deficient shallow marine carbonate/clastic sediments to target favourable geological and structural settings within the underlying Archean rocks (see Zenyatta website www.zenyatta.ca).
This case study describes the airborne time-domain EM (TDEM) and magnetic geophysical survey results from 2010 that lead to the discovery and the subsequent ground follow up in 2013 using surface TDEM that better characterized the two graphite deposits (East Pipe and West Pipe) at Albany.
Geology and Exploration
The Albany graphite deposit is located in the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield, at the terrane boundary between the Quetico Subprovince to the north and the Marmion Subprovince to the south (Ross and Masun, 2014). The geology of the survey area consists of Precambrian paragnelsslC granitoids and migmatltlc metasediments to the south and metamorphosed tonalite to granodiorite to the north. These rocks have been intruded by a younger alkalic intrusive complex (Figure 1).
Since the devastating earthquake of 2010 in Haiti, significant efforts were devoted to estimating future seismic and tsunami hazard in Hispaniola. In 2013, the UNESCO commissioned initial modeling studies to assess tsunami hazard along the North shore of Hispaniola (NSOH), which is shared by the Republic of Haiti (RH) and the Dominican Republic (DR). This included detailed tsunami inundation for two selected sites, Cap Haitien in RH and Puerto Plata in DR. This work is reported here.
In similar work done for critical areas of the US east coast (under the auspice of the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program), the authors have modeled the most extreme far-field tsunami sources in the Atlantic Ocean basin. These included: (i) an hypothetical Mw 9 seismic event in the Puerto Rico Trench; (ii) a repeat of the historical 1755 Mw 9 earthquake in the Azores convergence zone; and (iii) a hypothetical 450 km3 flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (CVV) in the Canary Archipelago. Here, we perform tsunami hazard assessment along the NSOH for these 3 far-field sources, plus 2 additional near-field coseismic tsunami sources: (i) a Mw 8 earthquake in the western segments of the nearshore Septentrional fault, as a repeat of the 1842 event; and (ii) a Mw 8.7 earthquake occurring in selected segments of the North Hispaniola Thrust Fault (NHTF).
Based on each source parameters, the initial tsunami elevation is modeled and then propagated with FUNWAVE-TVD (a nonlinear and dispersive long wave Boussinesq model), in a series of increasingly fine resolution nested grids (from 1 arc-min to 200 m) based on a one-way coupling methodology. For the two selected sites, coastal inundation is computed with TELEMAC (a Nonlinear Shallow Water long wave model), in finer resolution (down to 30 m) unstructured nested grids. Although a number of earlier papers have dealt with each of the potential far-field tsunami sources, the modeling of their impact on the NSOH as well as that of the near-field sources, presented here as part of a comprehensive tsunami hazard assessment study, are novel.
The objective of this work was to develop a robust methodology for deriving hurricane wind, wave, and storm surge design criteria for offshore structures in the Gulf of Mexico. The hurricane simulation model takes advantage of detailed historical database of Gulf of Mexico hurricanes, which includes detailed information on the characteristics of the wind field model not found in the HURDAT database. Using this new database, new statistical models were developed to describe the temporal changes in the storm size, the pressure–wind relationship and the correlation between storm size and intensity. The model includes features that enable the modeling of storm weakening and expansion of the wind field as a storm approaches the Gulf of Mexico coastline. A 1–dimensional ocean mixing model is coupled with an eddy model to enable the modeling of the interation between the simulated hurricanes and the warm eddies that break off from the loop current. A 100,000 year hurricane simulation was performed, the results of which can be used to form the basis for the development of the wind–wave–surge design criteria.
The synthetic hurricane model reproduces the Gulf of Mexico hurricane climate to a good degree, in terms of the distributions of storm size, intensity, and translation speed observed over the previous 50–100 years. In addition, the model provides more plausible values of rare (1,000 – year to 10,000 – year return period) winds as compared to extrapolations from the limited database of hindcast historical storms. This effort presents a step–change in the way hurricane criteria have traditionally been developed by industry. In moving to an extended hurricane database, derived from a synthetic model founded on the best modern hurricane data available, industry will benefit from more stable design criteria, and better estimates of rare return period site conditons.