Because of the higher cost of scale management for subsea (SS) operations compared with platform or onshore fields, and because of the more limited opportunities for interventions, it is becoming increasingly important to obtain and use real production data from wells rather than estimated zone flow contribution from simple permeability (k) and height (h) models for scale-squeeze-treatment design.
In this paper I discuss how scale-squeeze treatments were designed (coreflood evaluation of inhibitor retention/release) and deployed for three SS heterogeneous production wells. A permeability model and a layer-height model were initially developed for each well using detailed geological log data, estimated water/oil-production rates, and the predicted water-ingress location within the wells. Two wells were each treated three times using bullhead scale-squeeze treatments, with effective scale control being reported over the designed lifetime. A production log was acquired before the fourth squeeze campaign of these two wells. This information was incorporated into the squeeze simulation to allow review of the ongoing third squeeze and enhance design accuracy for the upcoming fourth squeezes. A third well was treated twice before production-logging data became available, and the performance of treatments to this well is also assessed.
The production-logging-tool (PLT) data proved very important in changing the understanding of fluid placement and the water-ingress location during production, resulting in changes to the isotherm values used to achieve effective history match to the inhibitor returns (with PLT data incorporated in all three wells), and most significantly affecting the squeeze lifetimes. It was possible to significantly extend the treatment lifetime of two of the wells (cumulative produced water to minimum inhibitor concentration), while the treatment life of one well was greatly reduced because of the PLT-data-modified model predictions.
In this paper I outline the process of reservoir/near-wellbore modeling that is used for most initial squeeze-treatment service companies deployed in the North Sea. I will highlight in detail the value that PLT data can provide to improve the effectiveness of squeeze treatments in terms of understanding of fluid placement during squeeze deployment and water-ingress location within heterogenous production wells. The intention of this paper is to highlight the value that these types of data can provide to improve scale management (squeeze treatment and water shutoff) such that the value created more than offsets the cost of acquiring such information for SS production wells.
Fiber optic technology has been used in several wells at an oilfield to measure strain to monitor overburden deformation. The application of this technology involved a series of bench tests and field tests to gather some key learnings to enhance well design, well construction, and fiber optic operation. Prior to installation of the fiber optic, a series of bench tests were conducted to evaluate the coupling of fiber with the capillary lines to determine its impact on the measurement of strain. The testing demonstrated that anchoring the fiber at the top and bottom of the capillary line was sufficient to hold the fiber in place and enabled the effective measurement of strain along the length of the well, which was proven when applied to field conditions. To enhance well design for strain measurement, several wells had fiber optic capillary lines installed on the inside and outside of casing to investigate the potential dampening effect due to fiber being located inside a string of casing. This was used to determine the optimal casing string to install fiber optic to measure strain in the overburden. Additionally, a novel concept was utilized in the well design that involved using the fiber optic capillary clamps as borehole centralizers, which resulted in equipment and rig cost savings. The details of the bench tests, well design, operational experience, and their associated lessons learned are presented.
Drilling hazards can lead to significant cost overruns during the drilling phase and might cause unsafe situations or potentially harm the environment. Often the local geology, when poorly understood, is the trigger of a drilling incident. By sharing past drilling experience and in particular observations on Geo-Drilling Hazards, via a suitable platform, well planning and risk assessment can be carried out more effectively. After analysing historic drilling reports, observations on drilling incidents have been compiled using a structured approach. Classification schemes allow systematic capture of key information in a format suitable for a database. In this process the observations (
The Geo-Drilling Events (GDE) database currently covers some 1000 boreholes from the Netherlands. Around 1400 geo-drilling events have been analysed systematically allowing to identify drilling hazard hotspots in a statistically meaningful sense. Examples of geo-drilling events include
Planned well trajectories can now be screened efficiently for geo-drilling hazards. The GDE Tool based on advanced classification criteria allows to share relevant well information across all operators active in the Netherlands. This includes newcomers, like geothermal operators who carry out a lot of drilling nowadays. The GDE Tool allows everyone to learn from the experience on drilling hazards gathered over the years by oil companies.
Penny, Scott (Petrospec Engineering Inc.) | Karanikas, John M (Salamander Solutions Inc.) | Barnett, Jonathan (Salamander Solutions Inc.) | Harley, Guy (Salamander Solutions Inc.) | Hartwell, Chase (Petrospec Engineering Inc.) | Waddell, Trent (Petrospec Engineering Inc.)
Downhole electric heating has historically been unreliable or limited to short, often vertical, well sections. Technology improvements over the past several years now allow for reliable, long length, relatively high powered, downhole electric heating suitable for extended-reach horizontal wells. The application of this downhole electric heating technology in two different horizontal cold-producing heavy oil wells in Alberta is presented.
The first field case study discusses the application of electric heating in a mature, depleted field as a secondary recovery method while the second case study examines a virgin heavy oil reservoir, where cold production by artificial lift was economically challenged. The completion, installation, expected and actual results of both cases studies are compared and contrasted.
Both field deployments demonstrate the benefits and efficacy of applying downhole electric heating. In the case of the mature depleted field, electric heating resulted in a 4X-5X increase in oil rate, sustained over a period of close to two years. The energy ratio of the heating value of the incremental produced oil to the injected heat was slightly over 7.0. In the virgin heavy oil field, electric heating reduced the viscosity of the oil in the wellbore from time zero, which allows for higher rates of oil production along the complete length of the long horizontal lateral at higher, if desired, bottomhole pressures than in a cold-producing well. This degree of freedom may ultimately allow for an operating policy that suppresses excessive production of dissolved gas, thereby helping conserve reservoir energy. Early production data in this field show 4X-6X higher oil rates form the heated well than from the cold-producing benchmark well in the same reservoir.
Numerical simulation models, which include reactions that account for the foamy nature of the produced oil and the downhole injection of heat, have been developed and calibrated against field data. The models can be used to prescribe the range of optimal reservoir and fluid properties to select the most promising targets (fields, wells) for downhole electric heating as a production optimization method, which is crucially important in the current low oil price scenario. The same models can also be used during the execution of the project to explore optimal operating conditions and operating procedures.
Downhole electric heating in long horizontal wells is now a commercially available technology that can be reliably applied as a production optimization recovery scheme in heavy oil reservoirs. Understanding the optimum reservoir conditions where the application of downhole electric heating maximizes economic benefits will assist in identifying areas of opportunity to meaningfully increase reserves and production in heavy oil reservoirs in Alberta as well as around the world.
This course discusses the fundamental sand control considerations involved in completing a well and introduces the various sand control techniques commonly used across the industry, including standalone screens, gravel packs, high rate water packs and frac-packs. It requires only a basic understanding of oilfield operations and is intended for drilling, completion and production personnel with some sand control experience who are looking to gain a better understanding of each technique’s advantages, limitations and application window for use in their upcoming completions.
The Netherlands YEPP made a field trip to Total E&P Nederland's Zuidwal gas platform in the Waddenzee (a tidal area in the north of The Netherlands) in February 2004. Participants were given a tour of Total's gas treatment center in Harlingen, including a view of the control room that monitors all of Total's Netherlands operations. It was a pleasant and sunny winter day for most of the boat trip, and our hosts looked after us well. Lijs Groenendaal, SPE section board member and one of our Total hosts, gave a comprehensive talk about Zuidwal's history and development. In 1969, Elf Petroland B.V. was granted an exploration license for the Zuidwal area.
Young engineers and professionals from the Saudi Aramco E&P business line organized a visit in May for undergraduate students from King Fahd U. of Petroleum and Minerals to Saudi Aramco's Visualization Center. The students were first introduced to the Exploration and Petroleum Engineering Center (Expec) and its functions. The introduction was followed by a short video titled "Expec, Center of Innovation." The students were then guided to the Visualization Center, where engineers Khalid Zamil, Mubarak Dossary, and Bader Harbi welcomed the visitors and illustrated to them how visualization applications are developed and used in Saudi Aramco. The objective of the visit was to expose the students to advanced technologies used in the E&P business and motivate them to consider joining E&P businesses after graduation.
The backbone of the Young Professional (YP) network in SPE is the individual YP chapters around the world. Because of the relatively recent startup of the network, these chapters are at various stages of development. For convenience, we have listed them below, under a tier structure. The relative tiers represent milestones on the way to a fully active YP chapter. For example, Tier Four represents a fully active chapter, while Tier One includes sections in which a YP board member has been selected or a YP has expressed a wish to start a chapter.
Weijermans, Peter-Jan (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.) | Huibregtse, Paul (Tellures Consult) | Arts, Rob (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.) | Benedictus, Tjirk (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.) | De Jong, Mat (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.) | Hazebelt, Wouter (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.) | Vernain-Perriot, Veronique (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.) | Van der Most, Michiel (Neptune Energy Netherlands B.V.)
The E17a-A gas field, located offshore The Netherlands in the Southern North Sea, started production in 2009 from Upper Carboniferous sandstones, initially from three wells. Since early production history of the field, the p/z plot extrapolation has consistently shown an apparent Gas Initially In Place (GIIP) which was more than 50% higher than the volumetric GIIP mapped. The origin of the pressure support (e.g. aquifer support, much higher GIIP than mapped) and overall behavior of the field were poorly understood.
An integrated modeling study was carried out to better understand the dynamics of this complex field, evaluate infill potential and optimize recovery. An initial history matching attempt with a simulation model based on a legacy static model highlighted the limitations of existing interpretations in terms of in-place volumes and connectivity. The structural interpretation of the field was revisited and a novel facies modeling methodology was developed. 3D training images, constructed from reservoir analogue and outcrop data integrated with deterministic reservoir body mapping, allowed successful application of Multi Point Statistics techniques to generate plausible reservoir body geometry, dimensions and connectivity.
Following a series of static-dynamic iterations, a satisfying history match was achieved which matches observed reservoir pressure data, flowing wellhead pressure data, water influx trends in the wells and RFT pressure profiles of two more recent production wells. The new facies modeling methodology, using outcrop analogue data as deterministic input, and a revised seismic interpretation were key improvements to the static model. Apart from resolving the magnitude of GIIP and aquifer pressure support, the reservoir characterization and simulation study provided valuable insights into the overall dynamics of the field – e.g. crossflows between compartments, water encroachment patterns and vertical communication. Based on the model a promising infill target was identified at an up-dip location in the west of the field which looked favorable in terms of increasing production and optimizing recovery. At the time of writing, the new well has just been drilled. Preliminary logging results of the well will be briefly discussed and compared to pre-drill predictions based on the results of the integrated reservoir characterization and simulation study.
The new facies modeling methodology presented is in principle applicable to a number of Carboniferous gas fields in the Southern North Sea. Application of this method can lead to improved understanding and optimized recovery. In addition, this case study demonstrates how truly integrated reservoir characterization and simulation can lead to a revision of an existing view of a field, improve understanding and unlock hidden potential.
When key geological scenario uncertainties, captured in multiple conceptual models, are combined with continuous parameters, the evaluation of a representative sample set quickly becomes unmanageable, laborious and too time consuming to execute. A workflow is presented that enables users to easily model conceptual as well as parametric uncertainties of the reservoir without the necessity of any complex scripting. The chain of models for all concepts is presented in one view, to provide overview of the key differences between concepts used. An ensemble of geologically sound samples can be created taking into account parameter dependencies and probabilities of concepts. The chain of models per concept can easily be (re)executed.
A case study is presented that consists of multiple concepts based on different hierarchical stratigraphic models in combination with different fault models, each of which with its own fluid- (defined contacts per compartment), grid- (sub-layering and areal resolution) and rock property models. Volumetric calculations are run on an ensemble to get static model observables like GRV, Pore Volume, Oil-In-Place, etc., reported by multiple sub-regions of the model in combination with a lease boundary. (When coupled with dynamic simulation, observables like ultimate recovery, break-through timing, etc. could also be obtained). As thousands of realizations were run concurrently, run time was reduced from weeks to hours. Results reveal the distribution and dependency of observables like GRV on top-structure-depth uncertainty and contact-level uncertainty. For in-place volumes the full suite of concepts and other parametric uncertainties including the stochastic uncertainties (i.e. seed) is analyzed. This also enables the identification of the key uncertainties that impact equity the most, which can be of great commercial value during equity negotiations. This workflow demonstrates how, with the power of Cloud computing, rigorous evaluation of multiple concepts combined with many parametric uncertainties has been achieved within practical turn-around times. As such it overcomes the prohibitive hurdles of the past that often have led to simplifications necessary to save time and effort. The result is better decision quality in resource development decisions.