Reservoirs in the Barents Sea are several times shallower than in other parts of the NCS, essentially due to recent uplift and erosion of younger sediments. A proper understanding of their geomechanics is considered paramount for their successful development. In turn, the lack of any available analogue makes the proper in situ measurement of key parameters compulsory.
The paper describes the planning and execution of an appraisal well solely dedicated to the purpose of geomechanics data acquisition in the shallowest oil reservoir on the NCS – i.e. coring, logging, XLOT and injection testing. It focuses on the operations conducted in the oil reservoir itself, which included an entirely novel multi-cycle injection test aimed at estimating the large-scale thermal stress coefficient of the formations around the well – i.e. the impact of the injection temperature on the fracture pressure of the formations.
Every operation in the well was challenging due to the sea depth being about twice that of the overburden thickness and to the formations being quite consolidated, which was met by careful iterative multidisciplinary-planning. The equipment was often taken to its limit and sometimes extended beyond its standard use – e.g. the metering systems.
The injection test itself could not be performed traditionally – i.e. use of surface data and downhole memory gauge. Instead, the downhole gauge data were sampled, pumped out and transferred to a remote site where real time advanced analytics was used to ensure that safety criteria were always met throughout the operation in terms of vertical fracture propagation and lack of reservoir compartmentalisation. In addition, this allowed adjusting the planned injection schedule to the exact formation's response, which could not be fully quantified ahead of time.
All the targets of the appraisal well were met. The injection test – i.e. the shallowest on the NCS and perhaps worldwide in an offshore environment – was performed successfully. Its main results are considered essential for a possible future field development – e.g. the injectivity is confirmed and, in addition, a significant thermal effect is proven.
The series of novel technologies deployed in the extreme environment presented in the paper can easily and beneficially be extended to more traditional reservoirs. This concerns performing multi-cycle injection tests on appraisal wells on a systematic basis to prepare and optimise the development plan, real-time monitoring through advanced analytics and adjustment of these tests, start-up of injection wells during field development, monitoring and optimisation of water injection schemes, etc.
The major challenge facing society in the 21st century is to improve the quality of life for all citizens in an egalitarian way, by providing sufficient food, shelter, energy and other resources for a healthy meaningful life, whilst at the same time decarbonizing anthropogenic activity to provide a safe global climate. This means limiting the temperature rise to below 2 C. Currently, spreading wealth and health across the globe is dependent on growing the GDP of all countries. This is driven by the use of energy, which until recently has mostly derived from fossil fuel, though a number of countries have shown a decoupling of GDP growth and greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector through rapid increases in low carbon energy generation. Nevertheless, as low carbon energy technologies are implemented over the coming decades, fossil fuels will continue to have a vital role in providing energy to drive the global economy. Considering the current level of energy consumption and projected implementation rates of low carbon energy production, a considerable quantity of fossil fuels will still be used, and to avoid emissions of GHG, carbon capture and storage (CCS) on an industrial scale will be required. In addition, the IPCC estimate that large scale GHG removal from the atmosphere is required using technologies such as Bioenergy CCS to achieve climate safety. In this paper we estimate the amount of carbon dioxide that will have to be captured and stored, the storage volume and infrastructure required if we are to achieve both the energy consumption and GHG emission goals. By reference to the UK we conclude that the oil and gas production industry alone has the geological and engineering expertise and global reach to find the geological storage structures and build the facilities, pipelines and wells required. Here we consider why and how oil and gas companies will need to morph into hydrocarbon production and carbon dioxide storage enterprises, and thus be economically sustainable businesses in the long term, by diversifying in and developing this new industry.
The technology will provide Equinor a continual feed of updated reservoir information from its Johan Castberg and Johan Sverdrup fields with the aim of improving well placement, production, injection, and—ultimately—recovery. Statoil has submitted a long-awaited development plan for what will become Norway’s northernmost development.
JPT Technology Minute Poll: To Which of the Top Five UN Sustainability Development Goals Do You Think the Oil and Gas Industry Will Contribute the Most? The papers identified in the article cover sustainable development of oil and gas resources in various aspects. Flaring and emissions challenges have recently made news headlines around the world. The goal of this article is to engage you with this important topic by presenting a selection of recent SPE papers which address these challenges through various approaches. Operators face a dilemma in balancing the need for mud weight (MW) to remain below the fracture gradient to avoid losses, while also providing sufficient density to block influxes into the well. JPT Technology Minute Poll: Which Technology Would You Choose for Offshore Compression?
The Italian operator reported positive appraisal and exploration results from wells drilled some 10,000 km apart. UK operator Trident Energy is entering Brazil while Australian firm Karoon Energy is expanding its position in the country. Both will try to boost output from already-producing assets. Findings from Kayrros suggest the average Permian well is both less productive and more expensive than reflected in public data. Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador is prioritizing investment in Pemex over foreign participation as a means to boost the country’s shrinking oil output.
In my view, we still do not possess a full understanding of oil production in unconventional fractured reservoirs. Our ability to forecast such assets remains elusive, even with copious amounts of analytics, mountains of data, and an arsenal of machine-learning tools. Indigo Natural Resources, Aethon Energy, and Rockcliff Energy are among the most active operators in the revived Haynesville Shale of North Louisiana and East Texas. And most people outside of the region likely have never heard of them. In this work, the authors developed a numerical model of in-situ upgrading (IU) on the basis of laboratory experiences and validated results, applying the model to an IU test published in the literature.
The firms are now partners on multiple blocks in the North Argentina Basin. Australia’s BHP Billiton and the recently acquired Anadarko Petroleum submitted the largest dollar totals of high bids in US Gulf of Mexico Lease Sale 253. Using maglev technology, a new artificial lift system seeks to boost production output by sucking down reservoir pressure from inside the wellbore and from inside the reservoir. The Norwegian operator will increase its ownership of the giant Johan Sverdrup field before the field commences oil production this November. The round marked a continuation of a recent trend on the UKCS in which lesser-known firms and newcomers have gained stature, replacing more-familiar, bigger operators that have pared down their North Sea positions.
The large independent put together a team of data scientists, software developers, and petrotechnical staff to create a forward-looking vision for how to use digital technology to solve problems. Baker Hughes is still a GE company, but it has partnered with a second company for artificial intelligence expertise, C3.ai. The deal is expected to speed the integration of AI into oilfield operations by the company which also markets GE’s device analytics platform, Predix. Marathon Oil says its shale fields are producing more oil and gas with less hands-on work from company personnel thanks to a growing arsenal of digital technologies and workflows. Malaysia’s Petronas, Shell Malaysia, and Thailand’s PTTEP are now in the midst of full-scale digital adoption.
The technology will provide Equinor a continual feed of updated reservoir information from its Johan Castberg and Johan Sverdrup fields with the aim of improving well placement, production, injection, and—ultimately—recovery. By creating a different sort of partnership for a drilling project with close cooperation and greater efficiency built into every detail, including the contracts, Statoil was able to halve the cost of drilling eight wells at its Johan Sverdrup field. Statoil is going to work to put its enormous Johan Sverdrup discovery into production, showing that even one of the most explored parts of the North Sea still has significant potential.