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Remote well monitoring is the ability to provide data obtained in or near the wellbore without requiring access and entry for intervention to the well. Downhole permanent monitoring has been a widely accepted technology since the early 1990s. There are advantages and disadvantages to all monitoring systems; however, improvements in reliability and the realization of the added value of information have made this technology commonplace in offshore and some land applications. Remote monitoring can be coupled with remote flow control applications in intelligent wells, or it can be run as a standalone system. Sensor systems may be electronic or optical based.
Intelligent wells are downhole flow control devices, sensors, power and communication systems, and associated completion equipment. This equipment is used to optimize production, improve recovery, and manage well integrity. Developing an intelligent-completion solution requires the clear definition of well and/or project objectives. Initially flow control devices were based on conventional wireline-operated sliding-sleeve. These valves were reconfigured to be operated by hydraulic, electrical, and/or electrohydraulic control systems to provide on/off and variable position choking.
Flow assurance in subsea oil and gas fields often presents significant challenges. Every field has its own combination of difficulties, and no universal process or system can be used to mitigate these. Detailed knowledge across a broad range of competencies, therefore, is required to find solutions that can minimize the risk of not getting the hydrocarbons safely to the process facilities. Many subsea fields that are being developed today are long tiebacks, taking advantage of existing offshore infrastructure or producing directly to shore. These developments must deal with the long-distance transport of hydrocarbons in deep cold water, commonly increasing the risk of hydrate formation and wax deposition, for example.
Var Energi has confirmed a discovery at its King and Prince exploration wells in the Balder area in the Southern North Sea. Success at the combined King and Prince exploration wells lifts preliminary estimates of recoverable oil equivalents between 60 and 135 million bbl. King/Prince was drilled in PL 027 by semisubmersible rig Scarabeo 8. The Prince well encountered an oil column of about 35 m in the Triassic Skagerrak formation within good to moderate reservoir sandstones, while the King well discovered a gas column of about 30 m and a light oil column of about 55 m with some thick Paleogene sandstone. An additional King appraisal sidetrack further confirmed a 40-m gas column and an oil column of about 55 m of which about 35 m are formed by thick and massive oil-bearing sandstone with excellent reservoir quality.
Equinor struck oil in Production License 554 with a pair of wells at its Garantiana West prospect. Exploration wells 34/6‑5 S and 34/6-5 ST2 were drilled some 10 km north-east of the Visund field, with the former encountering a total oil column of 86 m in the Cook formation. The latter well encountered sandstones in the Nansen formation, but did not encounter commercial hydrocarbons. Recoverable resources are estimated at between 8 and 23 million BOE. "This is the first Equinor-operated well in the production license, and the fifth discovery on the Norwegian continental shelf this year," said Rune Nedregaard, senior vice president, exploration and production south. "The discovery is in line with our roadmap of exploring near existing infrastructure in order to increase the commerciality."
The 2021 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (ATCE) will take place next month in Dubai from 21–23 September. Hosted by Dragon Oil, the conference offers a technical agenda that reflects the changing oil and gas industry and its effects on the full spectrum of disciplines. The industry's leadership role in adapting to the world's shifting markets and priorities will be highlighted throughout the event with top-level speakers and panelists. The technical sessions will focus on presentations of papers selected by the program committee to guide attendees in understanding and applying innovative and cost-effective technologies in all aspects of the industry throughout the life cycle of an asset. The power of data analytics has evolved throughout all disciplines and has led to a deeper understanding of drilling, completions, production and operations, and reservoirs.
Interwell tracer tests are widely used. This article reviews some of the studies reported in open literature. The selection introduces different problems that have been addressed, but the original papers should be studied to obtain a more detailed description of the programs. The Snorre field is a giant oil reservoir (sandstone) in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Injection water and gas were monitored with tracers, 18 and the resulting tracer measurements are discussed in this page.
The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines simulate as assuming the appearance of without the reality. Simulation of petroleum reservoir performance refers to the construction and operation of a model whose behavior assumes the appearance of actual reservoir behavior. The model itself is either physical (for example, a laboratory sandpack) or mathematical. A mathematical model is a set of equations that, subject to certain assumptions, describes the physical processes active in the reservoir. Although the model itself obviously lacks the reality of the reservoir, the behavior of a valid model simulates--assumes the appearance of--the actual reservoir. The purpose of simulation is estimation of field performance (e.g., oil recovery) under one or more producing schemes. Whereas the field can be produced only once, at considerable expense, a model can be produced or run many times at low expense over a short period of time. Observation of model results that represent different producing ...
Reservoir simulation is a widely used tool for making decisions on the development of new fields, the location of infill wells, and the implementation of enhanced recovery projects. It is the focal point of an integrated effort of geosciences, petrophysics, reservoir, production and facilities engineering, computer science, and economics. Geoscientists using seismic, well-log, outcrop analog data and mathematical models are able to develop geological models containing millions of cells. These models characterize complex geological features including faults, pinchouts, shales, and channels. Simulation of the reservoir at the fine geologic scale, however, is usually not undertaken except in limited cases.
In many operations worldwide, surface waters are injected into producing formations to enhance oil recovery. The types of surface waters used range from seawater (salt water) to lake water (brackish) to river water (fresh water). Surface water must be treated to remove undesirable components before injection. Treatment of surface water for injection requires a specially designed system made up of various components to remove or control any contaminants in the water. The system is engineered to perform the required treatment in the most cost-effective and environmentally sensitive manner. A typical system is shown in Figure 1. Commonly used methods for removal or control of these contaminants are discussed in this section. Surface waters normally contain suspended solids particles that, if injected into the producing formation, will plug the injection well. The type, concentration, and particle-size distribution of suspended solids in water will vary depending on the source of the surface water.