Thin oil columns overlain by free gas and underlain by water pose difficult problems in well spacing and completion method, production policy, and reserves estimation. Whether an oil column is considered thin depends on costs to drill and produce the accumulation. For example, in the Bream field (Australia Bass Strait, 230 ft water depth), 44 ft was considered thin, whereas in the Troll field (offshore Norway, 980 ft water depth), 79 ft was considered thin. Onshore U.S.A., 20 ft is considered thin. Irrgang takes a pragmatic approach, defining thin oil columns as those that "will cone both water and gas when produced at commercial rates." The overall reserve estimate of oil from such accumulations can be influenced by well spacing and completion method and by gas-cap management policy.
Topside payloads range from 5 to 50,000 tons, producing oil, gas, or both. A vast array of production systems is available today (see Figure 1). The concepts range from fixed platforms to subsea compliant and floating systems. In 1859, Col. Edwin Drake drilled and completed the first known oil well near a small town in Pennsylvania, U.S.A. This well, which was drilled with cable tools, started the modern petroleum industry.
Figure 1.6--The Baldpate Compliant Tower is one of the tallest free-standing structures in the world – Empire State Building (right) for comparison (Web Photograph, Amerada Hess Corp., New York City). Figure 1.9a--Worldwide fleet of installed and sanctioned semisubmersible FPS (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.9c--Worldwide fleet of installed and sanctioned spars (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.10--Semisubmersible FPS planned for the Thunder Horse field (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.11--Alternative proven technology field development options (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.12--Subsea production trees used in conjunction with a fixed jacket structure (Intec Engineering, Houston).
Many types of offshore structures are in service. Selecting a structure type is the first major structural design task after environmental and operational criteria have been defined and will sometimes require preliminary design of several concepts before a choice is made. The most common type of offshore structure in service today is the jacket (or template) structure, as illustrated in Figure 1. The template was derived from the function of the first offshore structures to serve as a guide for the piles. The piles, after being driven, are cut off above the templates, and the deck is placed on top of the piles.
Although conformance-improvement gel treatments have existed for a number of decades, their widespread use has only begun to emerge. Early oilfield gels tended to be stable and function well during testing and evaluation in the laboratory, but failed to be stable and to function downhole as intended because they lacked robust chemistries. Also, because of a lack of modern technology, many reservoir and flooding conformance problems were not understood, correctly depicted, or properly diagnosed. In addition, numerous individuals and organizations tended to make excessive claims about what early oilfield gel technologies could and would do. The success rate of these gel treatments was low and conducting such treatments was considered high risk. As a result, conformance-improvement gel technologies developed a somewhat bad reputation in the industry. Only recently has this reputation begun to improve. The information presented in this chapter can help petroleum engineers evaluate oilfield conformance gels and their field application on the basis of well-founded-scientific, sound-engineering, and field-performance merits.
A passive tracer that labels gas or water in a well-to-well tracer test must fulfill the following criteria. The tracers discussed in the following sections have properties that make them suitable for application in well-to-well test in which dilution volumes are large. For small fields in which the requirement with respect to dilution is less important, other tracers can be applied. Figure 1.1 – Production curve of S14CN compared with the production curve of HTO in a dynamic flooding laboratory test (carbonate rock) (after Bjørnstad and Maggio). There are no possibilities for thermal degradation, and it follows the water closely. The 36Cl- is a long-lived nuclide (3 105 years), and the detection method is atomic mass spectroscopy rather than radiation measurements.
To obtain high-quality tracer-response curves that are the basis for the further interpretation, a well-designed sampling program is needed. In general, more samples will give the potential for extraction of more information from field tests. Too often, interpretation is difficult because of limited tracer data. The final objective of a well-to-well study is the interpretation of the response curves. A good analysis of the information given by the tracers, in combination with other available data, gives a better understanding of the flow in the reservoir, not just verification of communication between injector and producer.
Intelligent wells are downhole flow control devices, sensors, power and communication systems, and associated completion equipment. This equipment is used to optimize production, improve recovery, and manage well integrity. Developing an intelligent-completion solution requires the clear definition of well and/or project objectives. Initially flow control devices were based on conventional wireline-operated sliding-sleeve. These valves were reconfigured to be operated by hydraulic, electrical, and/or electrohydraulic control systems to provide on/off and variable position choking.
Since the inception of the technology in the late 1990s, the use of intelligent well technology has focused on production acceleration, increased ultimate recovery, reduced operating expenditure (opex) and reduced project level capital expenditure (capex). The following examples illustrate applications in which this technology has been deployed. Using optimization, the strong lateral is restricted and more chance is giving for the weak one. This cannot be obtained without a downhole valve and surface control in addition to modeling. Objective Achieve production increase based on DTS analysis.
Included are applications of foam for mobility control and for blocking gas. In 1989, Hirasaki reviewed early steam-foam-drive projects. In 1996, Patzek reviewed the performance of seven steam-foam pilots conducted in California. Early and delayed production responses were discussed for these pilots. Gauglitz et al. review a steam-foam trial conducted at the Midway-Sunset field of California.