Some of the technologies, such as mechanical and control devices commonly used in subsea well and manifold systems, are well developed and can be considered off-the-shelf items. Many of the emerging products are well-proven surface components modified for subsea application. As in any integrated system, a shortcoming in any one of the links will impair the performance of the whole. A clear understanding of the process and all its parameters is the first step toward a successful design. As in surface facilities, knowledge of the produced fluid properties, rheology, and flow characteristics are critical. Luckily, whether the process is carried out on the surface or a thousand meters subsea, the process is the same. However, effects of the environmental conditions may be more dramatic and detrimental. Fluids with high foaming tendency will complicate the design and may require mechanical or chemical solutions. For subsea applications, a passive mechanical foam-breaking device (such as a low-shear inlet momentum breaker) is preferred over the more costly to install and operate chemical injection systems. For three-phase separation, the more complex oil/water emulsion/dispersion chemistry will come into play, along with the viscosities of the oil and water and changes in water cut with time. Whether an oil/water mixture will form a stable emulsion or a more manageable dispersion often depends on the small concentrations of surface-active impurities in the fluid.
Siliciclastic (commonly referred to as clastic) rocks are composed of terrigenous material formed by the weathering of pre-existing rocks, whereas carbonate rocks are composed principally of sediment formed from seawater by organic activity. This difference effects hydrocarbon recovery and therefore is important to understand. Clastic sediments are composed of grains and clay minerals, and siliciclastic sediments are first classified according to grain type. Second, siliciclastics are described in terms of grain size (Figure 1b). Mixtures are described with a modifying term for a less-abundant size, such as clayey sandstone, sandy siltstone, or muddy sandstone (Figure 1c).
Biological monitoring is the continued examination of biological specimens taken from a specific environment to identify any human-caused issues. In the oil and gas industry, biological monitoring programs provide important data for decision making and to ensure the protection of resources and ecosystems. To evaluate ecosystems, flora, fauna, arthropods, birds, small mammals, and other species are examined within specific sampling zones to determine the effect on their respective habitats and density within those habitats. Tissue samples are analyzed to determine the effect of chemicals on specific species. Air, water, and soil samples are tested for signs of environmental toxicity. Based on findings from data collected, a plan is then created to prevent potential or further damage to the zones affected by the drilling area.
Pioneer shut in 8,000 BOE/D production in its West Panhandle field in Texas on 6 March due to a compression station fire. Planning to use idle compressors, production is expected to restart later this month or in early April. As compressor stations are added to the natural gas gathering and transmission networks, the potential noise issues are coming under increasing public scrutiny at the same time as regulations are being rolled back.
The outlook in the UK is a case study of the squeeze facing E&P in other basins where operators are trying to pay to sustain production with discoveries, while plugging and abandoning old wells, all paid for by the lean cash flow due to low oil prices. Subsea inspection/repair/maintenance services have traditionally relied on vessel-based, ROV, or diver operations. In the longer term, identifying significant incremental savings in these operations is not sustainable and an innovative approach deploying digital technologies is being investigated. The deal gives Equinor an additional 7.5% ownership stake in the Njord redevelopment project and associated tiebacks in the Norwegian Sea, and potentially raises Faroe’s value in the midst of a hostile takeover attempt by DNO. Startup comes 8 months after the initial discovery in March, marking the second successful tieback since 2017 to the Beryl Alpha platform in the UK North Sea.
Can these be ameliorated today and even better in the future? What Is All This Talk About Emissions? Emissions are in the air and in the headlines every day. With growing regulations around all types of air emissions, are there ways that industry can deploy technologies cost-effectively in the current environment? Professionals in the oil and gas industry often receive questions about how industry operations affect public health, the environment, and the communities in which they operate.
AUVs have evolved from an emerging technology with niche uses to a viable solution and an established part of operations in various marine sectors. Douglas-Westwood’s AUV Market Forecast considers the prospective demand for AUVs in the commercial, military and research sectors over the next 5 years. How Much Would You Spend To Develop a New Technology? The value of new technology, and its ROI, is examined. Understanding the value proposition is not a trivial matter.
Subsea inspection/repair/maintenance services have traditionally relied on vessel-based, ROV, or diver operations. In the longer term, identifying significant incremental savings in these operations is not sustainable and an innovative approach deploying digital technologies is being investigated. GATE will provide facility commissioning and Subsea 7 will provide a pair of infield production flowlines and the umbilical system for Shell’s recently sanctioned deepwater GOM development. Executives from several service companies involved in the offshore space—including two sides of a recent hostile takeover bid—came together at OTC to discuss the virtues of collaboration and rationale behind M&A. McDermott’s board of directors rejected an acquisition offer from Subsea 7, which called for McDermott to abandon its planned $6-billion combination with CB&I.
Called Eelume, the underwater drone will perform subsea inspection, maintenance, and repair work. A project of “firsts,” Equinor’s Aasta Hansteen spar platform began producing gas on 16 December, opening a new region for gas export to Europe and the UK. Aqualis Offshore and Aker BP have signed a 5-year frame agreement. Aker was awarded 23 new production licenses by the Norway Ministry of Petroleum and Energy on 16 January.