Pioneer shut in 8,000 BOE/D production in its West Panhandle field in Texas on 6 March due to a compression station fire. Planning to use idle compressors, production is expected to restart later this month or in early April. As compressor stations are added to the natural gas gathering and transmission networks, the potential noise issues are coming under increasing public scrutiny at the same time as regulations are being rolled back.
AUVs have evolved from an emerging technology with niche uses to a viable solution and an established part of operations in various marine sectors. Douglas-Westwood’s AUV Market Forecast considers the prospective demand for AUVs in the commercial, military and research sectors over the next 5 years. How Much Would You Spend To Develop a New Technology? The value of new technology, and its ROI, is examined. Understanding the value proposition is not a trivial matter.
Anadarko aims to maximize immediate short-cycle value through tiebacks and platform relocations in the Gulf of Mexico. This review of papers illustrates some of the innovative solutions used in the region. In maturing oil wells, oil production is often restricted as reservoir pressure depletes. Two case studies highlight the application of two-screw multiphase pump systems in to extend well life. Mature fields still have value, and technology can help to capture that value through increased efficiency and reduced costs.
Ashtead Technology has acquired Louisiana-based subsea equipment rental and cutting services specialist, Aqua-Tech Solutions, as part of the company’s international growth plans in the US. Aker Solutions and FSubsea have agreed to a joint venture, named FASTSubsea, to help operators increase oil recovery. Called Eelume, the underwater drone will perform subsea inspection, maintenance, and repair work. From its record high in 2014, purchases of subsea equipment and SURF fell around 50% until reaching a low in 2018. New data suggest that the subsea market will be a top-performing oilfield service segment.
After years of development, qualification and engineering, subsea compression technology is now a proven solution to increase the recovery factor for offshore gas developments. The first subsea compression system was installed at the Aasgard field in the Norwegian Sea, which was started up successfully on the 17th. of September 2015. This project represents an important milestone for the oil and gas industry, as apart from representing the successful developments of new subsea processing technologies, subsea compression also proves itself a viable alternative field development option to oil and gas operators.
The experience from Aasgard enables tomorrow’s subsea compression solutions. The basis is increased field recovery by subsea compression. In addition it opens for wells stream and deep water applications, as well as CO2 EOR.
This paper aims to share Aker Solutions’ experience on Aasgard Subsea Compression project, from the design and the project execution phases up to the operational phase, highlighting the key learnings from more than 50 000 hours of successful subsea operation.
In addition, the paper will also describe the ongoing development activities to optimize the compression system delivered for Aasgard, with particular focus on increased field recovery and unit size and weight optimization without requiring qualification activities of new technologies. This new generation of subsea compression system will extend the applicability of this technology to a much wider range of fields and offshore regions.
Maintaining a stable borehole and optimizing drilling are still considered to be vital practice for the success of any hydrocarbon field development and planning. The present study deliberates a case study on the estimation of pore pressure and fracture gradient for the recently decommissioned Volve oil field at the North Sea. High resolution geophysical logs drilled through the reservoir formation of the studied field have been used to estimate the overburden, pore pressure, and fracture pressure. The well-known Eaton’s method and Matthews-Kelly’s tools were used for the estimation of pore pressure and fracture gradient, respectively. Estimated outputs were calibrated and validated with the available direct downhole measurements (formation pressure measurements, LOT/FIT). Further, shear failure gradient has been calculated using Mohr-Coulomb rock failure criterion to understand the wellbore stability issues in the studied field. Largely, the pore pressure in the reservoir formation is hydrostatic in nature, except the lower Cretaceous to upper Jurassic shales, which were found to be associated with mild overpressure regimes. This study is an attempt to assess the in-situ stress system of the Volve field if CO2 is injected for geological storage in near future.
The ‘Pseudo’ Dry Gas (PDG) subsea concept is being developed to dramatically improve the efficiency of subsea gas transportation by removing fluids at the earliest point of accumulation. The technology will increase the geographical reach from receiving gas terminals, allowing asset owners to prolong production life without the need for more expensive design solutions. This paper will provide an overview of the innovative technology, demonstrating that a 200 km plus tie back can be achieved, without compression.
Increasing the distance of subsea tie-backs increases the liquid inventory, with constraints on pipeline diameter for slug free flow. The PDG concept is based on a main gas line integrated with piggable gravity powered drain liquid removal unit and pumps (a smaller fluid line transports separated liquid). Multiple units are specified to drain liquids as they condense in the line, maintaining near dry service. Liquid free operation removes the constraint on pipeline diameter. Specification of a large diameter pipe (within installation limits) reduces backpressure on the wells, enhancing recovery. Minimum stable flow limits are removed, improving tail end recovery.
Current stranded gas development options (subsea compression, floating facilities, FLNG) generate a step change in costs which can make a project uneconomic. This is even more acute in mature and semi-mature basins where existing gas processing facilities / LNG terminals already exist offshore or onshore along with sunk costs from the exploration. A case study for a 185 km pseudo dry gas subsea tie-back to shore demonstrates the PDG concept feasibility. This result is used to argue that the PDG concept should be included in the suite of subsea processing options considered by Operators in early field development planning.
Condensate blockage presents a serious production problem due to loss of gas productivity. Several methods have been proposed to resolve condensate blockage to restore the well productivity, most commonly used technique is hydraulic fracturing. Although, it is most commonly used, it is not always feasible and favorable due to its inclusion of costly chemicals such as surfactants, which could also be as hazardous material. Our objective in the current study, is replacing such surfactants with natural green surfactants which are more economical and environmentally friendly.
Interfacial tension and contact angle experiments were carried out to examine the efficiency of two different natural green surfactants in comparison to two commonly used chemical surfactants in fracturing fluids. The results revealed that natural green surfactant is efficient in reducing the interfacial tension by 74.1% compared to 94.8% when using alcohol-based surfactants. Moreover, the natural green surfactant showed stronger effect in altering the surface wettability in sandstone formations towards strongly water-wet with a contact angle reduction of 61% compared to 32% in the case of alcohol-based surfactants.
Based on the concentration used here, the natural green surfactants are more cost-effective, a product cost reduction of more than 50% can be obtained. Being efficient in reducing the interfacial tension, altering the surface wettability towards stronger water-wet, abundant in nature, environmentally friendly, and, cheaper cost, this new proposed natural surfactant can replace the currently used chemical surfactants for condensate bloackage.
Al-Garadi, Karem (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals) | Aldughaither, Abdulaziz (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals) | Ba alawi, Mustafa (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals) | Al-Hashim, Hasan (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals) | Sibaweihi, Najmudeen (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals) | Said, Mohamed (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals)
Condensate banking has been identified to cause significant drop in gas relative permeability and consequently reduction of the productivity of gas condensate wells. To overcome this problem, hydraulic fracturing has been used as a mean to minimize or eliminate this phenomenon. Furthermore multistage hydraulic fracturing techniques have been used to enhance the productivity of horizontal gas condensate wells especially in low permeability formation. Even though multistage hydraulic fracturing has provided an effective solution for condensate blockage to some extent as it promotes linear flow modes which will minimize the pressure drops and consequently improves the inflow performance considerably. However, this technique is very costly, and has to be optimized to get the best long-term performance of the multistage fractured horizontal gas condensate wells.
In this paper, multiple sensitivity analyses were conducted in order to come up with an optimum multistage hydraulic fracturing scenario. In these analyses, our manipulations were focused mainly on the operational parameters such as fractures half length, fractures conductivity using compositional commercial simulator. CMG-GEM simulator was used to investigate the different cases proposed for applying multistage hydraulic fracturing of horizontal gas condensate wells. The investigation began with a base case scenario where the fractures half-length were fixed for all stages with equal spacing between them. Then, six more fractures half-length patterns were created by introducing new approach where the well performance was studied if they are in increasing trend away from the wellbore (coning-up), or in a decreasing trend (coning-down). Well performance is furtherly addressed when the fractures half-length arrangements formed parabolic shapes including both occasions of concaving upward and downward. Finally, the last two patterns illustrated the effect of having the fractures half-length arrangements both skewed to the left and right on well productivity.
The investigation of the effect of changing the multistage hydraulic fractures half-length distribution patterns on the performance of a gas condensate well was conducted and resulted in parabolic up distribution pattern to be the optimum pattern amongst the other tested ones. It results in the highest cumulative both gas and condensate production. It also maintains the gas flow rate and bottom hole pressure more efficiently. The parabolic up distribution pattern confirms that the majority of gas production was fed by the fractures at the heel and at the toe of the horizontal drainhole which is in agreement with the flux distribution along the horizontal well.
Egil Hustvedt, a platform manager, demonstrates the digital twin of the Aasta Hansteen field. Equinor reached another milestone in its digital transformation with today’s official opening of two new onshore support centers that will centralize much of its offshore exploration and production activities. Located in Bergen, the company says that the centers have already helped boost production and improve safety. The expectation is that the digitally enabled centers and their multidisciplinary staff will create more than $2 billion in new value from 2020-2025. The integrated operations center saw its first test in September as it was connected to the Grane, Gina Krog, and Åsgard fields.